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1.
Int J Psychol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745980

RESUMEN

Research on scientific integrity is growing in psychology, and questionable research practices (QRPs) have received more attention due to its harmful effect on science. By replicating the procedures of previous research, the present study aimed at describing the use of QRPs among Brazilian psychological researchers and to make an international comparison with previous studies in other countries-the US and Italy. Two hundred and thirty-two Brazilian researchers in the field of psychology answered questions related to 10 different QRPs. Brazilian researchers indicated a lower tendency to engage in two QRPs (failing to report all of a study's dependent measures; deciding whether to collect more data after looking to see whether the results were significant) when compared to their Italian and North American counterparts, but indicated a higher tendency to engage in two other QRPs (selectively reporting studies that "worked"; not reporting all of a study's conditions). Most of the sample did not admit integrity conflicts in their own research but indicated that others have integrity problems, as observed in previous studies. Those discrepancies could be attributed to contextual and systemic factors regarding different publication demands among the different nations. Further studies should focus on identifying the antecedents of QRPs.

2.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0134808, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26241042

RESUMEN

In different cultures, people use the concept of weight to refer to important matters. Recent studies in grounded cognition suggested that experiences of weight affect unrelated judgments of importance in metaphor-congruent ways. Theories in grounded cognition and prime-to-behavior effects state that sensations of weight activate concepts of importance, which may affect morality-related variables that are influenced by judgments of importance. The present research aimed to test the effect of carrying a heavy (or light) clipboard on the perceived importance of helping and on the judged severity of moral transgressions. After finding no significant effects in two experiments, a third study explored whether these results were due to a specific lack of effect of weight on morality-related variables or to the concept of importance not being grounded in sensations of weight in Brazilian samples. Specifically, in Study 3 we attempted to replicate two seminal studies but found no significant effects. Together with evidence of publication bias in a meta-analysis of published studies, the current results suggest that the concept of importance may not be as universally grounded in sensations of weight as previously assumed. We discuss the implications of these results for grounded cognition theories and methodological and statistical aspects of priming studies.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Ayuda , Juicio , Metáfora , Principios Morales , Sesgo de Publicación , Percepción del Peso , Adulto , Brasil , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Solicitud de Empleo , Lenguaje , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Percepción Social , Adulto Joven
3.
Psico USF ; 18(3): 455-468, set.-dez. 2013. graf, tab
Artículo en Portugués | Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: psi-60448

RESUMEN

O interesse da psicologia social e da personalidade pela disposição duradoura a agir prosocialmente resultou no desenvolvimento de instrumentos capazes de medir tal "bondade." O objetivo do presente estudo foi traduzir para o português, adaptar e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da Bateria de Personalidade Prosocial (Prosocial Personality Battery), um instrumento desenvolvido para medir diferenças individuais na disposição de agir prosocialmente. Dois estudos foram conduzidos para testar a estrutura teórica do instrumento e produzir evidências de validade. No Estudo 1, o instrumento original foi traduzido usando o método tradução-retradução. A estrutura original foi replicada e os indicadores psicométricos observados foram próximos dos relatados originalmente. No Estudo 2, a estrutura foi novamente replicada e a análise fatorial confirmatória demonstrou que, embora ainda possam haver aprimoramentos futuros, ele replica a estrutura original e pode ser usado no Brasil para estudar o comportamento prosocial.(AU)


The interest of personality and social psychology for the enduring disposition to act prosocially resulted in the development of instruments capable of measuring such "goodness". The aim of the present study was to translate into Portuguese, adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Prosocial Personality Battery, an instrument developed to measure individual differences in the disposition to act prosocially. Two studies were conducted to test the theoretical structure of the instrument and produce evidence of validity. In Study 1, the original instrument was translated using the back-translation method. The original structure was replicated and the psychometric properties observed were similar to the originally obtained. In Study 2, the structure was replicated again and the confirmatory factor analysis showed that, even though future improvements can be made, it replicates the original structure an can be used in Brazil to study prosocial behavior.(AU)


El interés de la psicología social y de la personalidad en la tendencia a actuar prosocialmente resultó en el desarrollo de instrumentos que permitan medir esa "bondad". El objetivo de este estudio fue traducir al portugués, adaptar y conocer las propiedades psicométricas de la Batería de Personalidad Prosocial (Prosocial Personality Battery), un instrumento desarrollado para medir las diferencias individuales en la voluntad para actuar prosocialmente. Se realizaron dos estudios para probar la estructura teórica del instrumento y producir pruebas de validez. En el Estudio 1, el instrumento original fue traducido por el método de traducción- retraducción. La estructura original fue replicada y los indicadores psicométricos observados fueron similares a los obtenidos originalmente. En el Estudio 2, la estructura se repitió y el análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró que, aunque el instrumento pueda ser mejorado en futuras investigaciones, reproduce la estructura original y puede ser utilizado en Brasil para estudiar el comportamiento prosocial.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Psicología Social , Personalidad , Conducta Social , Individualidad
4.
Psico USF ; 18(3): 455-468, set.-dez. 2013. graf, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-697899

RESUMEN

O interesse da psicologia social e da personalidade pela disposição duradoura a agir prosocialmente resultou no desenvolvimento de instrumentos capazes de medir tal "bondade." O objetivo do presente estudo foi traduzir para o português, adaptar e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da Bateria de Personalidade Prosocial (Prosocial Personality Battery), um instrumento desenvolvido para medir diferenças individuais na disposição de agir prosocialmente. Dois estudos foram conduzidos para testar a estrutura teórica do instrumento e produzir evidências de validade. No Estudo 1, o instrumento original foi traduzido usando o método tradução-retradução. A estrutura original foi replicada e os indicadores psicométricos observados foram próximos dos relatados originalmente. No Estudo 2, a estrutura foi novamente replicada e a análise fatorial confirmatória demonstrou que, embora ainda possam haver aprimoramentos futuros, ele replica a estrutura original e pode ser usado no Brasil para estudar o comportamento prosocial...


The interest of personality and social psychology for the enduring disposition to act prosocially resulted in the development of instruments capable of measuring such "goodness". The aim of the present study was to translate into Portuguese, adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Prosocial Personality Battery, an instrument developed to measure individual differences in the disposition to act prosocially. Two studies were conducted to test the theoretical structure of the instrument and produce evidence of validity. In Study 1, the original instrument was translated using the back-translation method. The original structure was replicated and the psychometric properties observed were similar to the originally obtained. In Study 2, the structure was replicated again and the confirmatory factor analysis showed that, even though future improvements can be made, it replicates the original structure an can be used in Brazil to study prosocial behavior...


El interés de la psicología social y de la personalidad en la tendencia a actuar prosocialmente resultó en el desarrollo de instrumentos que permitan medir esa "bondad". El objetivo de este estudio fue traducir al portugués, adaptar y conocer las propiedades psicométricas de la Batería de Personalidad Prosocial (Prosocial Personality Battery), un instrumento desarrollado para medir las diferencias individuales en la voluntad para actuar prosocialmente. Se realizaron dos estudios para probar la estructura teórica del instrumento y producir pruebas de validez. En el Estudio 1, el instrumento original fue traducido por el método de traducción- retraducción. La estructura original fue replicada y los indicadores psicométricos observados fueron similares a los obtenidos originalmente. En el Estudio 2, la estructura se repitió y el análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró que, aunque el instrumento pueda ser mejorado en futuras investigaciones, reproduce la estructura original y puede ser utilizado en Brasil para estudiar el comportamiento prosocial...


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Individualidad , Personalidad , Psicología Social , Conducta Social
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