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J Biotechnol ; 155(2): 209-16, 2011 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21723889


We have previously shown that the denaturation of TK with urea follows a non-aggregating though irreversible denaturation pathway in which the cofactor binding appears to become altered but without dissociating, then followed at higher urea by partial denaturation of the homodimer prior to any further unfolding or dissociation of the two monomers. Urea is not typically present during biocatalysis, whereas access to TK enzymes that retain activity at increased temperature and extreme pH would be useful for operation under conditions that increase substrate and product stability or solubility. To provide further insight into the underlying causes of its deactivation in process conditions, we have characterised the effects of temperature and pH on the structure, stability, aggregation and activity of Escherichia coli transketolase. The activity of TK was initially found to progressively improve after pre-incubation at increasing temperatures. Loss of activity at higher temperature and low pH resulted primarily from protein denaturation and subsequent irreversible aggregation. By contrast, high pH resulted in the formation of a native-like state that was only partially inactive. The apo-TK enzyme structure content also increased at pH 9 to converge on that of the holo-TK. While cofactor dissociation was previously proposed for high pH deactivation, the observed structural changes in apo-TK but not holo-TK indicate a more complex mechanism.

Estabilidad de Enzimas , Escherichia coli/enzimología , Modelos Moleculares , Desnaturalización Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transcetolasa/metabolismo , Dicroismo Circular , Fluorescencia , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Tamaño de la Partícula , Ingeniería de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/aislamiento & purificación , Temperatura , Transcetolasa/aislamiento & purificación
J Commun Dis ; 36(2): 121-6, 2004 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16295674


The present study of ocular infections was conducted amongst primary school children residing in an urban slum and rural area of Delhi. A total of four schools were selected, two from urban slum in Central Delhi Rouse Avenue and two from a peripheral village on the outskirts of Delhi. All the children studying in the above mentioned schools and residing in the same area were covered. All the study subjects were interviewed, clinically examined and given a proforma to be filled by their parents. Of the total 775 subjects only 91 (11.74%) had ocular infections. Conjunctivitis was the most prevalent infection followed by trachoma, stye, blepharitis and chalazion. The type and prevalence of infection was similar, in both sexes and both areas, rural and urban. There was a significant rising trend of ocular infection with increase in age. A significant association was found between ocular infections and religion but the association with per capita income was not significant.

Infecciones del Ojo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Blefaritis/epidemiología , Chalazión/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Conjuntivitis/epidemiología , Femenino , Orzuelo/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Instituciones Académicas , Tracoma/epidemiología , Población Urbana
Carcinogenesis ; 16(2): 405-11, 1995 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7532116


The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs mutagenic and carcinogenic O6-alkylguanine in DNA by accepting stoichiometrically the alkyl group from the base. Although the mouse MGMT is larger than the human protein because of an additional tetrapeptide sequence, these proteins are 70% homologous. Recombinant MGMTs of the human, the mouse and a mouse mutant with the tetrapeptide deleted were purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of these proteins are identical to those predicted from the nucleotide sequences, and their molecular masses determined by SDS-PAGE agreed with the predicted values. However, the observed isoelectric points of 9.3, 9.2 and 9.3, for the human, mouse and mutant mouse proteins respectively were significantly different from the values, 8.09, 7.47 and 7.49 calculated from the amino acid composition. The extinction coefficients E280 nm1% of human, mouse and mutant mouse protein were calculated from amino acid composition to be 18.2, 11.1 and 11.3 respectively. These values agree fairly well with calculated values. Human and wild-type mouse MGMTs react with the alkylated base in a synthetic DNA substrate poly(dC, dG, m6dG) with comparable second-order rate constants of 2.2 x 10(8) and 3.7 x 10(8) l/M/min at 37 degrees C respectively and were inactivated by O6-benzylguanine at similar rates. The initial reaction rate (Kin) and rate of inactivation (kinact) constants for reaction with the base were calculated to be 1.8 x 10(-4) M and 1.4 x 10(-3)/s for the human protein, 2.3 x 10(-4) M and 1.1 x 10(-3)/s for the wild-type mouse protein, and 2.1 x 10(-4) M and 1.4 x 10(-3)/s for the mutant mouse protein respectively. The MGMTs were inactivated to the extent of 55-65% after heating at 50 degrees C in 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM DTT and 10% glycerol. However, in the presence of DNA (200 micrograms/ml), only 25-35% of the protein was inactivated. Both DNA and RNA inhibited all three enzymes in a concentration-dependent fashion, although DNA was a better inhibitor than RNA. High salt (0.2 M NaCl) inhibited human MGMT by 80%, while the wild-type and the mutant mouse MGMTs were inhibited by 55%. The human protein had higher affinity for binding to duplex DNAs than the mouse proteins. Immunoprecipitation (69%) and affinity constant (19.4 nM) of human MGMT with a human-specific monoclonal antibody 4.A1 significantly discriminated the human protein from either of the mouse proteins.

Metiltransferasas/fisiología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Bovinos , Celulosa/análogos & derivados , Celulosa/metabolismo , ADN/metabolismo , Mapeo Epitopo , Humanos , Punto Isoeléctrico , Cinética , Metiltransferasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Metiltransferasas/química , Ratones , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Peso Molecular , Mutación , O(6)-Metilguanina-ADN Metiltransferasa , Pruebas de Precipitina , ARN/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo