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1.
Australas J Ageing ; 2024 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268230

RESUMEN

Traditional emergency departments (EDs) are overcrowded and sometimes not suitable for older adults with complex needs. Specialised geriatric urgent care pathways for selected patients can alleviate ED demand and improve patient experience. To address urgent care needs for older adults in Southern Adelaide, the Complex And RestorativE (CARE) service was established. CARE offers alternative, geriatrician-led treatment pathways consisting of a ward-based treatment centre and an in-home visiting team called Eyes on Scene (EoS). Both pathways offer medical, nursing and allied health treatment. Routinely collected clinical data were analysed to explore the reach of the service and the incidence and nature of adverse events. Between September 2021 and March 2023, the CARE service attended to 5324 older adults requiring urgent care. A significant proportion of patients were discharged to or remained in their regular place of residence, with few requiring inpatient admissions or referrals to other facilities. A total of 7% of patients required transfer to ED and adverse events were rare. The CARE service demonstrates a feasible and safe alternative model of urgent care for older Australians.

2.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 117: 105210, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37812974

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine utilisation of primary health care services (subsidised by the Australian Government, Medicare Benefits Schedule, MBS) before and after entry into long-term care (LTC) in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of older people (aged ≥65 years) who entered LTC in Australia between 2012 and 2016 using the Historical Cohort of the Registry of Senior Australians. MBS-subsidised general attendances (general practitioner (GP), medical and nurse practitioners), health assessment and management plans, allied health, mental health services and selected specialist attendances accessed in 91-day periods 12 months before and after LTC entry were examined. Adjusted relative changes in utilisation 0-3 months before and after LTC entry were estimated using risk ratios (RR) calculated using Generalised Estimating Equation Poisson models. RESULTS: 235,217 residents were included in the study with a median age of 84 years (interquartile range 79-89) and 61.1% female. In the first 3 months following LTC entry, GP / medical practitioner attendances increased from 86.6% to 95.6% (aRR 1.10 95%CI 1.10-1.11), GP / medical practitioner urgent after hours (from 12.3% to 21.1%; aRR 1.72, 95%CI 1.70-1.74) and after-hours attendances (from 18.5% to 33.8%; aRR 1.83, 95%CI 1.81-1.84) increased almost two-fold. Pain, palliative and geriatric specialist medicine attendances were low in the 3 months prior (<3%) and decreased further following LTC admission. CONCLUSION: There is an opportunity to improve the utilisation of primary health care services following LTC entry to ensure that residents' increasingly complex care needs are adequately met.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Australia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Atención Primaria de Salud
3.
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl ; 5(3): 100275, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37744205

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess sleep quality of patients on a rehabilitation ward and to identify staff practices and beliefs about management of sleep disturbance. Design: Mixed-methods design including patient surveys and staff interviews. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation ward in a tertiary teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. Participants: Of the 345 screened inpatients who had been in a mixed post-acute rehabilitation ward for at least 5 days, 120 (43% women) were included. The mean age was 67.7 years and the main admission reason was functional decline (40%). Patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury were excluded. Eleven (n = 11) staff (a mix of doctors, nurses, and allied health) were interviewed. Main Outcome Measures: The surveys comprised of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Flinders Fatigue Scale, and the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire. The survey results were compared with functional outcomes using the functional independence measure (FIM). Staff interviews delved into barriers to good sleep, ward practices, and knowledge about sleep hygiene. Results: 43% of the surveyed patients reported having healthy amount of sleep. Sleep quality was not significantly correlated with rehabilitation outcomes (assessed using FIM). Staff reported having a good awareness of sleep hygiene; however, acknowledged limitations about the environment and routine which were not conducive to healthy sleep. They identified several actions which could be taken to improve patients' sleep hygiene. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common for patients in rehabilitation. Rehabilitation wards should address this often-neglected critical component of rehabilitation to improve patient experience and potential participation in therapy. Introducing a systematic approach for assessing sleep during admission, establishing clear roles regarding sleep assessment and intervention among staff, and ensuring that patients and staff are aware of good sleep hygiene practices may promote better sleep during inpatient rehabilitation.

4.
Age Ageing ; 51(10)2022 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215172

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most evidence for reablement comes from community-based interventions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of reablement interventions provided in permanent residential aged care (PRAC) homes on residents' level of function in activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QoL). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: PRAC homes. SUBJECTS: Residents in PRAC. METHODS: Six databases and grey literature were searched until November 2021. Quantitative studies involving a control group or pre-post evaluation were included. Outcomes of interest were the effectiveness of the reablement intervention on overall ADL or QoL in the last available follow-up. RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 2,620 residents were included. The reablement interventions varied; the primary focus areas were organisational approaches (e.g. educating staff; n = 10) and improving physical function (e.g. increasing physical activity; n = 9). Not all studies could be pooled in the meta-analysis due to reported data and heterogeneity. There was no significant effect of reablement intervention versus usual care on ADL function (five studies, standardised mean difference (SMD): 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.25 to 0.59, very low quality evidence). Reablement appeared more beneficial than usual care in improving QoL; however, the overall effect was not statistically significant (four studies, SMD: 0.73, 95% CI: -0.07 to 1.52; very low quality evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Few studies focus on reablement in PRAC homes and their clinical heterogeneity is considerable. There is insufficient evidence for reablement in terms of improving ADL or QoL for residents in PRAC. Tools that are more sensitive to change may be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Humanos
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 88(4): 1511-1522, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies related to clinical quality indicators (CQIs) in dementia have focused on hospitalizations, medication management, and safety. Less attention has been paid to indicators related to primary and secondary care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of primary and secondary care CQIs for Australians with dementia using government-subsidized aged care. The examined CQIs were: comprehensive medication reviews, 75+ health assessments, comprehensive geriatric assessments, chronic disease management plans, general practitioner (GP) mental health treatment plans, and psychiatrist attendances. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study (2011-2016) of 255,458 individuals. National trend analyses estimated incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson or negative binomial regression. Associations were assessed using backward stepwise multivariate Poisson or negative binomial regression model, as appropriate. Funnel plots examined geographic and permanent residential aged care (PRAC) facility variation. RESULTS: CQI incidence increased in all CQIs but medication reviews. For the overall cohort, 75+ health assessments increased from 1.07/1000 person-days to 1.16/1000 person-days (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.03).Comprehensive geriatric assessments increased from 0.24 to 0.37/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14). GP mental health treatment plans increased from 0.04 to 0.07/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.12-1.15). Psychiatric attendances increased from 0.09 to 0.11/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07). Being female, older, having fewer comorbidities, and living outside a major city were associated with lower likelihood of using the services. Large geographical and PRAC facility variation was observed (0-92%). CONCLUSION: Better use of primary and secondary care services to address needs of individuals with dementia is urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Atención Secundaria de Salud , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Am J Occup Ther ; 76(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997838

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Research supports the clinical effectiveness of hospital-based occupational therapy to improve functional outcomes, but no synthesis of economic evaluations of occupational therapy services provided in these settings has been published. OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic value of occupational therapy services in acute and subacute care settings. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, EconLit, Embase, National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database, PsycINFO, ProQuest (Health and Medicine and Social Science subsets only), OTseeker, and gray literature. Study Selection and Data Collection: Eligible studies used trial-based or modeled economic analyses and included an adult population (ages ≥18 yr) and occupational therapy assessments or interventions provided in acute and subacute care. Two authors independently assessed abstracts and then full text. Articles were then appraised using the Evers Consensus on Health Economic Criteria. FINDINGS: The authors identified 13,176 unique abstracts and assessed 190 full-text articles for eligibility. Ten studies were included in the systematic review; they varied in their primary objectives, methodology, costs, and outcomes. Studies examined the cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, or cost minimization of a range of occupational therapy services. Five studies suggested that occupational therapy services offer value for money (lower cost, higher benefit); 4 suggested that they offer higher cost and benefits. One study that investigated upper limb rehabilitation did not indicate value for money. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings suggest that occupational therapy for adults poststroke and post-traumatic brain injury, acute discharge planning, and pre- and post-hip replacement is cost-effective, but further research is needed to substantiate these findings. What This Article Adds: The findings provide preliminary evidence of the economic effectiveness of occupational therapy in acute and subacute care.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Atención Subaguda
7.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 68(6): 563-592, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346077

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Goal setting is an integral part of the rehabilitation process and assists occupational therapists to target therapy towards achieving meaningful outcomes. People with mild cognitive impairment or dementia may experience barriers participating in goal setting due to preconceptions that the person cannot participate owing to changes in both cognitive and communicative abilities. The aim of this review was to identify goal setting approaches, common goals identified, and enablers and barriers to goal setting for people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia participating in specific rehabilitation programmes. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched in April 2020 for English language articles that described goal setting processes during a rehabilitation programme for people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Studies of all designs were included. Two authors screened citations and full text articles. Data were extracted, synthesised, and presented narratively. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies met the eligibility criteria. Both structured and nonstructured goal setting methods were used with common tools including the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, the Bangor Goal Setting Interview and Goal Attainment Scaling. The nature of goals tended to depend on the scope of the rehabilitation programme in which the person was involved. Goal setting was more difficult for people with more advanced symptoms of dementia and when staff lacked skills and experience working with people with dementia. Use of a structured approach to goal setting, establishment of therapeutic rapport, individualisation of goals, and family involvement were reported to be beneficial. CONCLUSION: Collaborative goal setting is a foundation of rehabilitation for people with dementia and should not be avoided due to preconceptions that the person cannot participate. Results suggests that occupational therapists can use a number of strategies to maximise participation and engagement and play a pivotal role in upskilling staff to enable effective goal setting for people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Demencia , Terapia Ocupacional , Canadá , Objetivos , Humanos
8.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 493-511, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654406

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a compelling rationale that effective communication between hospital allied health and primary care practitioners may improve the quality and continuity of patient care. It is not known which methods of communication to use, nor how effectively they facilitate the transition of care when a patient is discharged home from hospital. Our systematic review aims to investigate the methods and effectiveness of communication between hospital allied health and primary care practitioners. METHODS: Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies with narrative synthesis. Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo and Proquest Nursing and Allied Health Sources were searched from January 2003 until January 2020 for studies that examined hospital-based allied health professionals communicating with community-based primary care practitioners. Risk of bias in the different study designs was appraised using recognized tools and a content analysis conducted of the methodologies used. RESULTS: From the located 12,281 papers (duplicates removed), 24 studies met the inclusion criteria with hospital allied health communicating in some form with primary care practitioners. While none of the included studies specifically investigated the methods or effectiveness of communication between hospital allied health and primary care practitioners, 12 of the 24 studies described processes that addressed components of their discharge communication. Four enablers to effective communication between hospital allied health and primary care practitioners were identified: multidisciplinary care plans, patient and caregiver involvement, health information technology and a designated person for follow up/care management. CONCLUSION: There is currently no "gold standard" method or measure of communication between hospital allied health and primary care practitioners. There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate multidisciplinary communication with enhanced information technologies to improve collaboration across care settings and facilitate the continuity of integrated people-centered care.

9.
Value Health ; 24(2): 291-302, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518036

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Asthma is one of the most common major noncommunicable diseases in the world and affects individuals of all ages. Medication is used to achieve and maintain quality of life (QOL) for people with asthma. Telehealth interventions offer optimized and personalized symptom monitoring with timely treatment adjustment and the potential to increase medication adherence for individuals with asthma. This study examines and synthesizes the available data on the change in the QOL for patients with asthma who use interactive telehealth interventions, and identifies the most effective telehealth modalities used for intervention in this area. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in 5 databases in November 2018 for studies measuring a change in QOL for patients with asthma. Study QOL outcomes, where possible, were pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen publications (describing 16 studies) comprising 2015 patients were included. Based on a meta-analysis, interactive telehealth interventions can improve QOL outcomes for people living with asthma, although the improved effects may be small: web portals (0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.00 to 1.03), interactive smartphone apps (0.30, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.76) and remote monitoring (standardized mean difference 0.20, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.52). Intervention delivery modalities identified include interactive web portals, smartphone apps, and remote monitoring programs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide a comprehensive overview of the available literature on interactive telehealth interventions, including interactive web portals, smartphone apps, and remote monitoring programs. These findings demonstrated that a positive change in QOL can be attributed to these interventions and provide evidence for the implementation of telehealth interventions for individuals with asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma/psicología , Asma/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Antígeno HLA-A1 , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Monitoreo Ambulatorio/métodos
10.
Gerontologist ; 61(6): 965-976, 2021 08 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803248

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The translation of reablement programs into practice is lagging despite strong evidence for interventions that maintain function for the person living with dementia as well as improve carer well-being. The aim was to evaluate the implementation of an evidence-based program, Care of People with Dementia in Their Environments (COPE), into health services. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An implementation-effectiveness hybrid design was used to evaluate implementation outcomes while simultaneously involving a pragmatic pre-post evaluation of outcomes for people with dementia. We report uptake, fidelity to intervention, outcomes for people living with dementia and carers, and beliefs and behaviors of interventionists contributing to successful implementation. RESULTS: Seventeen organizations in Australia across 3 health contexts, 38 occupational therapists, and 17 nurses participated in training and implementation. While there were challenges and delays in implementation, most organizations were able to offer the program and utilized different models of funding. Overall, we found there was moderate fidelity to components of the program. Pre-post outcomes for carer well-being and coping (Perceived Change Index, p < .001) and activity engagement of the person living with dementia (p = .002) were significantly increased, replicating previous trial results. What contributed most to therapists implementing the program (Determinants of Implementation Behaviour Questionnaire) was a stronger intent to deliver (p < .001), higher confidence (p < .001), a sense of control in delivery (p = .004), and a belief the program was very useful to their clients (p = .002). DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This study demonstrated that implementation is possible in multiple health systems and beneficial to individuals and their families.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Adaptación Psicológica , Australia , Cuidadores , Demencia/terapia , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Australas J Ageing ; 40(2): e116-e124, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135260

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a 12-week Exercise Physiology (EP) program for people living in a residential aged care facility. METHODS: A within-study pre- and postintervention design to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per quality-adjusted life years gained. A health service provider perspective was used. RESULTS: Fifty-nine participants enrolled in a 12-week program. The program cost was A$514.30 per resident. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of A$64 000, the likelihood of being cost-effective of the program is approximately 60%, due to a small increase in participants' quality of life, as reported by care staff. The model showed great variance, depending on who rated the participants' quality of life outcomes. CONCLUSION: It is uncertain that a 12-week EP program is cost-effective based on the evidence of the current trial. However, it appears that a low-cost program can produce small improvements for residents in care facilities.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Terapia por Ejercicio , Humanos , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
12.
Health Soc Care Community ; 28(6): 2013-2024, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431010

RESUMEN

The World Health Organisation has called for the implementation of evidence-based interventions that enhance function and capability in people with dementia. In response, the Boosting Dementia Research Initiative in Australia has funded a number of projects aimed at improving such outcomes for people with dementia and their caregivers. What is not known is the economic and societal outcomes of these projects and of program implementation to the Australian healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to identify the costs and benefits of implementing an evidence-based reablement program within Australian health context. A well-used methodology familiar to governments and decision-makers was used to calculate the costs and benefits of implementing the program in Australia. Four different perspectives: market, private, efficiency (social) and referent group (key stakeholders) were considered in the cost-benefit evaluation. Almost A$6.2 million societal gain is presented through a social cost-benefit analysis. The referent (stakeholder) group analysis is used to demonstrate that people with dementia and their caregivers are the bearers of the costs and the Australian health and social care system gains the most from the program implementation. The results of this cost-benefit analysis suggest that there is a need to plan and provide subsidies or other financial incentives to assist people with dementia and their caregivers to engage in reablement programs in Australia; thus the whole society can be advantaged. Funding bodies and decision-makers are urged to recognise the potential societal benefits that can be achieved from participating in such reablement programs.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/organización & administración , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Demencia/terapia , Australia/epidemiología , Cuidadores/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Atención a la Salud/economía , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia/economía , Humanos , Motivación , Apoyo Social
13.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 66(4): 511-518, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972771

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Occupational therapy can delay functional decline and improve quality of life of older people. Yet people may not seek occupational therapy services as they may not be aware of their scope or benefits. The aim of this study was to ascertain what the general public in Australia knows about occupational therapy services for older people. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study completed via a consumer panel provider PureProfile (https://www.pureprofile.com/au/) a company specialising in online survey programming to registered participants of the general public ('panel'). For a fee, a client can include a question in a weekly survey, and receive approximately 1000 responses (including detail about the respondents' gender, age group and place of residence). We asked a free-text question about the participants' understanding of occupational therapy and its role in supporting older adults. We used descriptive statistics to summarise sociodemographic data. Thematic approach to analysis was used to explore themes from the free text responses. Chi-squared test for independence was used to explore association and/or differences between age group, gender, place of residence and understanding about occupational therapy for older people. Included were people aged ≥18 years living in Australia. RESULTS: We received 1004 responses; about half were female (50.9%) and one-fifth (20.1%) aged 65 or over. Of the 1004 respondents, approximately 10% could provide a good or advanced description of occupational therapy. Over half of the participants had some, but limited knowledge about the profession with references to general rehabilitation, physical therapies and return to work type interventions. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about the role of occupational therapy in supporting older people is limited. There is a need to address misconceptions that occupational therapy is only concerned with workplace or physical health-related matters to enable better service engagement in the consumer-driven care model in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos/estadística & datos numéricos , Terapia Ocupacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción Social , Adulto , Anciano , Australia , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida
14.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 65(6): 565-574, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187917

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Randomised trials have demonstrated that occupational therapy can delay functional decline, improve quality of life and increase leisure participation in people with dementia. However, surveys conducted with occupational therapists suggest that clinical practice does not reflect the type of intervention shown to be effective in research studies. Case note audits can be used to quantify practice and demonstrate how and where provision of care could improve without the potential bias associated with self-report. METHOD: A total of 87 occupational therapy case notes were audited from different service contexts in two states in Australia. The case notes were reviewed against criteria including duration of service, assessments conducted and interventions used. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data and examine associations between intervention, age of the person with dementia and whether or not the person lived alone. RESULTS: Services tended to be short-term with an average of 2.1 consultations per referral. The most common assessments related to home safety, falls risk and function. Intervention most commonly focussed on referrals to other services, environmental modification advice and assistive device prescription. CONCLUSION: This audit reveals that current occupational therapy practice for people with dementia focusses on assessment and management of risk and is usually limited to a couple of consultations. Future work should seek to evaluate if such approaches to care are effective for people with dementia.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/rehabilitación , Terapia Ocupacional/organización & administración , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Accidentes Domésticos/prevención & control , Actividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad del Paciente , Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 4: 2333721418793442, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128330

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify the Australian general population's awareness regarding the presence and effectiveness of treatments for dementia. Method: An online survey administered through a consumer panel provider (PureProfile). Included were people aged 18 years or above living in Australia. The survey asked participants about their knowledge of treatments for dementia and attitudes toward the effectiveness of evidence-based treatments. Results: Of the 1,001 participants, more than half (63.5%) could not spontaneously name any treatments that improved outcomes for people with dementia. When asked about the efficacy of specific treatments, "brain training" was considered to be "very likely" to be effective by approximately half (49.4%) of the participants followed by "education for caregivers" (46.2%) and "healthy diet" (43.4%). Discussion: Knowledge of treatments for dementia among the Australian public is poor. There is a need to better educate the public about treatments that have demonstrated effectiveness to improve their uptake and use.

16.
BMC Geriatr ; 18(1): 108, 2018 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are effective non-pharmacological treatment programs that reduce functional disability and changed behaviours in people with dementia. However, these programs (such as the Care of People with dementia in their Environments (COPE) program) are not widely available. The primary aim of this study is to determine the strategies and processes that enable the COPE program to be implemented into existing dementia care services in Australia. METHODS: This study uses a mixed methods approach to test an implementation strategy. The COPE intervention (up to ten consultations with an occupational therapist and up to two consultations with a nurse) will be implemented using a number of strategies including planning (such as developing and building relationships with dementia care community service providers), educating (training nurses and occupational therapists in how to apply the intervention), restructuring (organisations establishing referral systems; therapist commitment to provide COPE to five clients following training) and quality management (coaching, support, reminders and fidelity checks). Qualitative and quantitative data will contribute to understanding how COPE is adopted and implemented. Feasibility, fidelity, acceptability, uptake and service delivery contexts will be explored and a cost/benefit evaluation conducted. Client outcomes of activity engagement and caregiver wellbeing will be assessed in a pragmatic pre-post evaluation. DISCUSSION: While interventions that promote independence and wellbeing are effective and highly valued by people with dementia and their carers, access to such programs is limited. Barriers to translation that have been previously identified are addressed in this study, including limited training opportunities and a lack of confidence in clinicians working with complex symptoms of dementia. A strength of the study is that it involves implementation within different types of existing services, such as government and private providers, so the study will provide useful guidance for further future rollout. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 16 February 2017; ACTRN12617000238370 .


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/métodos , Atención a la Salud/métodos , Demencia/psicología , Demencia/terapia , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Australia/epidemiología , Cuidadores/economía , Comunicación , Atención a la Salud/economía , Demencia/economía , Demencia/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/economía , Humanos , Vida Independiente/psicología , Masculino
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532555

RESUMEN

With the ageing of the world's population comes significant implications for nearly all sectors of society, including health and aged care spending. Health and aged care systems need to respond to the increasing need for services for older people. Occupational therapy is concerned with maintaining a person's functional independence and well-being from preventative and treatment perspectives. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the costs and outcomes of occupational therapy for people with cognitive and/or functional decline. The searches for this review were conducted on 23 September 2016 and updated on 20 April 2017. Full economic evaluation studies, partial economic evaluations, randomised trials reporting estimates of resource use or costs associated with intervention(s) and comparator(s) and studies with pre- and post-intervention cost comparators were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The type and duration of occupational therapy intervention in the included studies varied, ranging from one-off assessments through to systematic multicomponent programmes. Results suggested that structured occupational therapy interventions which comprised of multiple consultations and engaged caregivers delivered better functional and economic outcomes.

19.
Aust Occup Ther J ; 63(3): 175-85, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26809708

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Men's Sheds are community spaces where socialisation occurs alongside participation in meaningful activities. Shed activities and socialisation make them useful for supporting transition to adulthood of 'at-risk' young people through meaningful occupations. Many sheds have implemented intergenerational mentoring programmes. However, many programmes are established on an ad-hoc basis without specific attention to factors that may support effective and sustainable outcomes. We aimed to inform future programmes by exploring different programmes to provide insight into the purpose, design and programme characteristics that are perceived as beneficial for young males. METHOD: Four Sydney-based sheds providing intergenerational mentoring programmes were selected. We interviewed shed coordinators, mentors and mentees to explore their perceptions of programme characteristics that supported mentees' transition to adulthood. Thematic analysis techniques were used to first analyse and understand the unique context of each programme and these were then merged and integrated to identify the most helpful aspects of these mentoring programmes. RESULTS: Mentor attitude towards the mentees, freedom to make independent choices and the nature and perceived usefulness of the project were considered the most significant characteristics of these programmes. CONCLUSION: This was the first known examination of the different characteristics of Men's Sheds intergenerational mentoring programmes. On the basis of our findings, we have made recommendations to help guide the planning and implementation of future programmes. While our findings largely support previous research on mentoring programmes, findings from this study suggest that 'expert skills' may not be as important as mentor attitude to working with the mentees.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Intergeneracionales , Tutoría/organización & administración , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Australia , Humanos , Masculino , Salud del Hombre , Factores de Riesgo
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