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1.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 107008, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775364

RESUMEN

Terson's Syndrome describes intraocular hemorrhage secondary to an acutely raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Although Terson's Syndrome is common amongst patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), it is underdiagnosed and often overlooked. This review discusses the current understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and management of Terson's Syndrome and highlights the visual and prognostic implications to stress the importance of timely diagnosis and management. The origin of intraocular hemorrhage in Terson's Syndrome has been debated. A recognized theory suggests that an acutely raised ICP induces effusion of cerebrospinal fluid into the optic nerve sheath which dilates the retrobulbar aspect of the sheath in the orbit. Dilatation mechanically compresses the central retinal vein and retinochoroidal veins resulting in venous hypertension and rupture of thin retinal vessels. A commonly reported clinical feature is decreased visual acuity and blurred vision. These may be accompanied by symptoms of increased ICP including loss of consciousness and headache. Diagnosis is established using evidence from the clinical presentation, ophthalmoscopy, and, when required, imaging including B-mode ultrasound, CT, MRI, and fluorescein angiography. Terson's Syndrome is managed conservatively by observation for mild cases and with vitrectomy for bilateral cases and for patients whose hemorrhage has not spontaneously resolved after an observational period. Terson's Syndrome can be used as a prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in underlying pathology like SAH. Fundoscopy of patients with SAH, acutely raised ICP or visual disturbance with unknown etiology can help establish a timely Terson's Syndrome diagnosis. This may avoid the risk of permanent visual impairment.

2.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598162

RESUMEN

Charles Jacques Bouchard was a distinguished French physician and scientist of the early 19th century. Despite his humble beginnings, Bouchard was able to achieve meteoric success within the scientific and medical fields, establishing himself as one of the most influential physician-scientists of his time. This was in part due to his superb commitment, as well as the prosperity engendered by the strong influence of his teachers, which can be seen as a testament to the importance of mentorship in medicine. Besides his myriad contributions, Bouchard is most well known for describing the Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm in 1866 alongside his mentor Jean-Martin Charcot, linking them for the first time to intracranial hemorrhage. Bouchard's thesis entitled "A Study of Some Points in the Pathology of Cerebral Hemorrhage" was regarded by some as the most original and important of all recent works on the subject of cerebral hemorrhage at the time of publication. Sadly, the great relationship Bouchard shared with his mentor Charcot would later deteriorate into perhaps one of the most well-known student-mentor quarrels in the history of medicine. Herein, the authors present a historical recollection of Bouchard's life, career, and contributions to medicine, as well as the famous controversy with Jean-Martin Charcot.

3.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199211039924, 2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Congenital aortic arch anomalies are commonly encountered during neurointerventional procedures. While some anomalies are identified at an early age, many are incidentally discovered later in adulthood during endovascular evaluations or interventions. Proper understanding of the normal arch anatomy and its variants is pivotal to safely navigate normal aortic arch branches and to negotiate the catheter through anomalies during neurointerventional procedures. This is particularly relevant in the increasingly "transradial first" culture of neurointerventional surgery. Moreover, some of these anomalies have a peculiar predilection for complications including aneurysm formation, dissection, and rupture during the procedure. Therefore, an understanding of these anomalies, their underlying embryological basis and associations, and pattern of circulation will help endovascular neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists navigate with confidence and consider relevant pathologic associations that may inform risk of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Here, we present a brief review of the basic embryology of the common anomalies of the aortic arch along with their neurological significances and discuss, through illustrative cases, the association of aortic arch anomalies with cerebral vascular pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the aortic arch anomalies and its embryological basis is essential to safely navigate the cerebral vascular system during neurointerventional surgeries.

4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 208: 106867, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455404

RESUMEN

William Alexander Hammond was an American military physician and a main driving force for the development of modern-day clinical Neurology in America. Hammond served as the 11th Surgeon General of the United States Army, acting during the Civil War. Throughout his time as Surgeon General, with influence from Florence Nightingale, Hammond enforced strict hygienic measures and called for the construction of pavilion style hospitals in order to decrease non-wound mortalities. He implemented further reformation of the American Medical Service that would improve efficiency and decrease general mortality for years to come. After his dismissal from the military service, Hammond continued to make meaningful achievements, spearheading the specialization of Neurology. He established the first private practice limited to diseases of the nervous system, published the first American Neurology textbook, coined the term "athetosis", and was the impetus for the formation of the American Neurological Association.

5.
World Neurosurg ; 155: 135-143, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363996

RESUMEN

For thousands of years, anatomical models have served as essential tools in medical instruction. While human dissections have been the regular source of information for medical students for the last few centuries, the scarcity of bodies and the religious and social taboos of previous times made the process of acquiring human cadavers a challenge. The dissection process was dependent on the availability of fresh cadavers and thus was met with a major time constraint; with poor preservation techniques, decomposition turned the process of employing bodies for instruction into a race against time. However, the advent of anatomical models has countered this issue by supplying accurate anatomical detail in a physical, three-dimensional form superior to that of the two-dimensional illustrations previously used as the primary adjunct to dissection. Artists worked with physicians and anatomists to prepare these models, creating an interdisciplinary interaction that advanced anatomical instruction at a tremendous rate. These models have taken the form of metal, wood, ivory, wax, papier-mâché, plaster, and plastic and have ultimately evolved into computerized and digital representations currently. We provide a brief historical overview of the evolution of anatomical models from a unique neuroanatomical perspective.

6.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-8, 2021 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214984

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) provides a minimally invasive alternative to open brain surgery, making it a powerful neurosurgical tool especially in pediatric patients. This systematic review aimed to highlight the indications and complications of LITT in the pediatric population. METHODS: In line with the PRISMA guidelines, the authors conducted a systematic review to summarize the current applications and safety profiles of LITT in pediatrics. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies that reported the outcomes of LITT in patients < 21 years of age. Retrospective studies, case series, and case reports were included. Two authors independently screened the articles by title and abstract followed by full text. Relevant variables were extracted from studies that met final eligibility, and results were pooled using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The selection process captured 303 pediatric LITT procedures across 35 studies. Males comprised approximately 60% of the aggregate sample, with a mean age of 10.5 years (range 0.5-21 years). The LITT technologies used included Visualase (89%), NeuroBlate (9%), and Multilase 2100 (2%). The most common indication was treatment of seizures (86%), followed by brain tumors (16%). The mean follow-up duration was 15.6 months (range 1.3-48 months). The overall complication rate was 15.8%, which comprised transient neurological deficits, cognitive and electrolyte disturbances, hemorrhage, edema, and hydrocephalus. No deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: As of now, LITT's most common applications in pediatrics are focused on treating medically refractory epilepsy and brain tumors that can be difficult to resect. The safety of LITT can provide an attractive alternative to open brain surgery in the pediatric population.

8.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 185, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084613

RESUMEN

Background: Septic emboli are commonly attributed to infective endocarditis and can present with a variety of symptoms including altered mental status and focal neurological deficits. Here, we reviewed images of septic emboli with hemorrhagic conversion in a patient with sepsis and a psoas abscess. We aim to show the classical image findings in septic embolism to brain, which is sparsely described in literature and the report differentiates the septic embolism from disseminated intravascular coagulation which can present with almost identical image findings. Case Description: A 53-year-old male patient who was operated on for a right inguinal hernia developed a postoperative wound infection 2 weeks after surgery and was started on IV antibiotics. Despite medical management, his infection did not improve, prompting a computed tomography (CT) scan which revealed a psoas abscess. The abscess was drained, and antibiotics continued. A few days later, he developed altered sensorium prompting a head CT which revealed septic emboli and hemorrhage at the gray-white junction. Cultures grew multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli; the patient was treated with IV tigecycline and improved over the following 4 weeks. Conclusion: In patients with a known ongoing infectious process with hemodynamic stability who develop altered mental status in the setting of a normal coagulation profile, D-dimer, positive blood cultures, and absent signs of multiorgan failure, a diagnosis of septic emboli should be entertained. Although CT can reveal macrobleeds, MRI is more sensitive in confirming cerebral microbleeds. Thus, patients in sepsis with unexplained altered sensorium should undergo an MRI of the brain to rule out septic emboli and microbleeds.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 155: 115-121, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098138

RESUMEN

Trephination, the practice of boring a hole in the skull, is one of the oldest surgical procedures performed by and on humans. Fossil records show evidence of trephined skulls on separate continents throughout ancient history. Even more remarkably, fossils show that ancient humans actually survived the procedure, some more than once. Ancient mythologies and texts provide context to the fossil record, indicating that trephination was performed some of the time for medical indications, including traumatic head injury and intractable neurologic conditions. In the modern day, traumatic brain injury accounts for a significant percentage of the overall global burden of disease and its incidence is disproportionately increasing in low- and middle-income countries. In critical situations, neurosurgical intervention may be indicated. The burr hole procedure, or trephination, was identified as an essential surgical procedure that all first-level hospitals should be able to perform; however, there exists a dramatic lack of access to neurosurgical specialists and care globally, especially among low- and middle-income countries. Task-shifting/sharing is one paradigm that may be used effectively to broaden access to this life-saving procedure but it is at the moment a contested practice.

11.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(6): 3151-3163, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723970

RESUMEN

Current evidence regarding the benefit of preoperative embolization (POE) of meningiomas is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the safety profile of the procedure and to compare outcomes in embolized versus non-embolized meningiomas. PubMed was queried for studies after January 1990 reporting outcomes of POE. Pertinent variables were extracted and synthesized from eligible articles. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2, and random-effects model was employed to calculate pooled 95% CI effect sizes. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Harbord's and Begg's tests. Meta-analyses were used to assess estimated blood loss and operative duration (mean difference; MD), gross-total resection (odds ratio; OR), and postsurgical complications and postsurgical mortality (risk difference; RD). Thirty-four studies encompassing 1782 preoperatively embolized meningiomas were captured. The pooled immediate complication rate following embolization was 4.3% (34 studies, n = 1782). Although heterogeneity was moderate to high (I2 = 35-86%), meta-analyses showed no statistically significant differences in estimated blood loss (8 studies, n = 1050, MD = 13.9 cc, 95% CI = -101.3 to 129.1), operative duration (11 studies, n = 1887, MD = 2.4 min, 95% CI = -35.5 to 30.8), gross-total resection (6 studies, n = 1608, OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.8-1.5), postsurgical complications (12 studies, n = 2060, RD = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.04 to 0.07), and postsurgical mortality (12 studies, n = 2060, RD = 0.01, 95% CI = 0-0.01). Although POE is relatively safe, no clear benefit was observed in operative and postoperative outcomes. However, results must be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity and selection bias between studies. Well-controlled future investigations are needed to define the patient population most likely to benefit from the procedure.


Asunto(s)
Embolización Terapéutica , Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Humanos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/terapia , Meningioma/cirugía
12.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 56(3): 274-278, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789317

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knobloch syndrome (KS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with multiple ocular and cranial abnormalities. Occult occipital skull defect or encephalocele should raise suspicion of this disease. It is never reported in neurosurgical literature, possibly due to a lack of clinician familiarity, leading to underdiagnosis and inadequate management. Our patient also had seizures, which is a sporadic presentation of this syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we report a clinico-radiologic finding of a 7-year-old boy who presented with seizures, cataracts, and an occipital bone defect along with bilateral subependymal heterotopias and polymicrogyria. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of consideration of this syndrome in children with a midline occipital bone defect with or without encephalocele and seizures. Early recognition of this presentation is critical for obtaining access to appropriate genetic counseling and subsequent monitoring and prevention of complications by surgical intervention.


Asunto(s)
Degeneración Retiniana , Desprendimiento de Retina , Niño , Encefalocele/complicaciones , Encefalocele/diagnóstico por imagen , Encefalocele/cirugía , Humanos , Masculino , Desprendimiento de Retina/congénito , Convulsiones/etiología
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 202: 106539, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601270

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The management of traumatic pseudoaneurysm (PA) with concomitant arteriovenous fistula (AVF) arising from the thyrocervical trunk is challenging and rarely reported. Here, the usefulness of a multi-modal endovascular strategy for management of traumatic PA and AVF arising from the thyrocervical trunk is presented. A literature review describing unique clinical features and management strategies of traumatic vascular lesions of the thyrocervical trunk is included. METHODS: A 58-year-old man presented with two PAs arising from the ascending cervical artery (AsCA) and a robust AVF between the AsCA and the left vertebral venous plexus which arose acutely after a stabbing incident. These lesions were managed with endovascular vessel sacrifice via coiling and controlled Onyx injection. Relevant literature was identified via a targeted search of the PubMed database. RESULTS: Post-management angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the two traumatic PAs and successful disconnection of the concomitant AVF. Our literature review demonstrates a shift in preferred management approach from invasive surgery to endovascular treatment due to the lower risk and cosmetic preferability. CONCLUSION: Timely treatment of enlarging PA is necessary for reducing associated morbidity and mortality. While surgical resection has been the mainstay therapy, endovascular management has gained popularity in recent years. The choice of endovascular technique is variable and should be individualized based on patient's clinical status, associated risk factors, and lesion morphology. We have shown that parent vessel sacrifice is safe and effective. Reconstruction with a combination of stents, coils, glue, or liquid embolics may be necessary when collateral flow is limited.

15.
World Neurosurg ; 148: 136-140, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444823

RESUMEN

Jacques Forestier (1890-1978) was a well-known rheumatologist and radiologist whose innovations have revolutionized spinal neurosurgery and rheumatology. He was well known as "Doctor Lipiodol" for his accidental discovery of spinal myelography, which he later extrapolated for use in many body cavities and their pathologies. He was the first to describe "senile ankylosing hyperostosis of the spine," which was later renamed "diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis." Furthermore, he is credited with the first use of gold salts as a disease-modifying therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. We have presented a historical vignette to chronicle the life of Jacques Forestier and his contributions to the field of spinal neurosurgery.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia/historia , Reumatología/historia , Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Francia , Compuestos de Oro/uso terapéutico , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Mielografía/historia , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen
16.
World Neurosurg ; 145: 426-431, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827737

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) account for a minority of all spinal cord tumors. Rarely, symptoms from ISCM may be the initial presentation of an unknown primary carcinoma. Intramedullary metastasis from a second malignancy or from an unknown neuroendocrine malignancy is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature. Because of the rarity of these tumors and the low volume of cases, well-defined treatment guidelines do not exist for the management of ISCM. Here we present a rare and one of the first reports of an intramedullary metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with worsening bilateral lower extremity numbness for 2 months. Imaging revealed an intramedullary spinal cord tumor at the T4 level. The patient underwent microsurgical resection of the intramedullary spinal cord tumor. At operation, the tumor had an exophytic component. Subtotal resection was achieved. Pathology revealed a neuroendocrine metastasis, likely pulmonary in origin. She achieved partial resolution of neurologic symptoms at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroendocrine ISCM are rare and lack well-defined treatment guidelines. Care should be individualized in these cases. Whenever feasible, surgical resection should be considered. Despite multidisciplinary care, the prognosis is dismal with limited life expectancy. Larger, multiinstitutional, or national database studies are needed that compare treatment modalities in the management of ISCM to identify the therapy with the best outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/secundario , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Neoplasias de la Médula Espinal/secundario , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias/patología
17.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276342

RESUMEN

The earliest evidence of man's attempts in communicating ideas and emotions can be seen on cave walls and ceilings from the prehistoric era. Ingenuity, as well as the development of tools, allowed clay tablets to become the preferred method of documentation, then papyrus and eventually the codex. As civilizations advanced to develop structured systems of writing, knowledge became a power available to only those who were literate. As the search to understand the intricacies of the human brain moved forward, so did the demand for teaching the next generation of physicians. The different methods of distributing information were forced to advance, lest the civilization falls behind. Here, the authors present a historical perspective on the evolution of the mediums of illustration and knowledge dissemination through the lens of neurosurgery. They highlight how the medium of choice transitioned from primitive clay pots to cutting-edge virtual reality technology, aiding in the propagation of medical literature from generation to generation across the centuries.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372649

RESUMEN

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is increasing with rapid urbanization in India. Treatment of DENV infection is mainly supportive with no specific antiviral therapy. Although most patients show mild illness, some have a severe disease course such as dengue hemorrhagic syndrome, dengue shock, multi-organ failure, and death. The cause for severity is not fully understood. Currently, there are no methods available to predict the course of the illness. Hence, it is crucial to develop an early biomarker to predict the course of dengue illness which can aid in vigorous monitoring and early intervention. Here, we tried to establish a correlation between serum ferritin and severity of dengue illness. We measured ferritin levels in 100 dengue-positive cases on day 1 (D1) (febrile phase) and day 4 (D4) (defervescence or convalescent) of admissions to compare the levels with the severity of the disease. On D1, the serum ferritin level was a "good" predictor of severe dengue, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.863 with standard error (SE) = 0.043 and a 95% CI from 0.778 to 0.947 (P < 0.05). On D4, serum ferritin was an "excellent" predictor of severe dengue, with an AUC of 0.947 with SE = 0.021 and a 95% CI from 0.907 to 0.988 (P < 0.05). Serum ferritin is an inexpensive and easily accessible biomarker that can assist in monitoring and prognosticating the dengue-positive patients. This biomarker also directs us to explore the underlying pathogenetic mechanism in severe dengue, which can lay a foundation for future targeted therapeutic options to combat severe illness.

19.
Neurosurg Focus ; 49(5): E10, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130628

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Despite the rising trend of medicolegal challenges in India, there is an absolute dearth of literature from India on this issue. The authors conducted a survey, to their knowledge a first of its kind, to assess the perceptions of Indian neurosurgeons about the medicolegal challenges faced in everyday practice. METHODS: An anonymous online survey performed using Google Forms was widely circulated among neurosurgeons practicing in India via email and social media platforms. The questionnaire consisted of 38 questions covering the various aspects of medicolegal issues involved in neurosurgery practice. RESULTS: A total of 221 survey responses were received, out of which 214 responses were included in the final analysis, barring 7 responders who had no work experience in India. The respondents were categorized according to their working arrangements and work experience. Out of all of the respondents, 20 (9.3%) had ≥ 1 malpractice suits filed against them. More than 90% of the respondents believed that malpractice suits are on the rise in India. Almost half of the respondents believed the advent of teleconsultation is further compounding the risk of malpractice suits, and 66.4% of respondents felt that they were inadequately trained during residency to deal with medicolegal issues. Most respondents (88.8%) felt that neurosurgeons working in the government sector had lesser chances of facing litigations in comparison to those working in the private sector. The practice of obtaining video proof of consent was more commonly reported by respondents working in freelancing and private settings (45.1%) and those with multiple affiliations (61.3%) compared to respondents practicing in government settings (22.8%) (p < 0.001). Neurosurgeons working in the private sector were more likely to alter management and refer sick patients to higher-volume treatment centers to avoid malpractice suits than their government counterparts (p = 0.043 and 0.006, respectively). The practices pertaining to legal preparedness were also found to be significantly higher among the respondents from the private sector (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This survey highlights the apprehensions of neurosurgeons in India with regard to rising malpractice suits and the subsequent increase of defensive neurosurgical practices, especially in the private sector. A stronger legal framework for providing for quick redress of patient complaints, while deterring frivolous malpractice suits, can go a long way to allay these fears. There is a dire need for systematic training of neurosurgeons regarding legal preparedness, which should begin during residency.


Asunto(s)
Mala Praxis , Neurocirugia , Humanos , Neurocirujanos , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Percepción
20.
Surg Neurol Int ; 11: 331, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194265

RESUMEN

Background: Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EH) is common in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis like thalassemia major (TM). EH commonly involves intra-abdominal organs (e.g., spleen and liver), but rarely involves vertebral bodies. Here, we reviewed images of EH contributing to spinal canal stenosis. Case Description: A 19-year-old male with beta-thalassemia major (TM) presented with pain and bilateral lower extremity neurogenic claudication. Bilaterally, on examination, he had positive straight leg raising to 30°, a loss of the Achilles responses, and decreased pain appreciation in the L5S1 distributions. The lumbar MR showed anterior epidural lobulated mass lesions at L5 and S1, contributing to marked canal stenosis. Following an L5/S1 laminectomy for decompression, the biopsy revealed extramedullary hematopoietic tissue. Conclusion: Patients presenting with the lower extremity symptoms/signs, ranging from low back pain to neurogenic claudication and even paraplegia, may have EH secondary to TM. Treatment options include hypertransfusion, local radiation therapy, and/or surgical decompression.

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