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1.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53287

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. • Cerca de ¼ dos adultos têm hipertensão arterial, que é o fator de risco isolado mais importante para morte (incluídas as mortes por cardiopatia e acidente vascular cerebral). • Existem políticas eficazes que poderiam facilitar escolhas pessoais saudáveis para evitar a elevação da pressão arterial e, se plenamente implementadas, podem prevenir a ocorrência da hipertensão arterial. • É fácil rastrear e tratar a hipertensão, MAS somente cerca de 50% dos adultos hipertensos estão cientes de sua condição, e apenas cerca de 1 em cada 7 é tratado adequadamente. • A prevenção e controle da hipertensão é o principal mecanismo de prevenção e controle das doenças não transmissíveis e um modelo para outros riscos de doenças não transmissíveis. • Tratamentos eficazes com mudanças de estilo de vida e medicamentos poderiam prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial na maioria das pessoas se aplicados sistematicamente à população; as intervenções simples são viáveis em todos os ambientes e podem melhorar a atenção primária. • É necessária a ação continuada e urgente a fim de obter mudanças efetivas nas políticas públicas e no sistema de saúde para prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial.


[ABSTRACT]. • About 1/4th of adults have high blood pressure which is the single most important risk for death (including heart disease and stroke). • There are effective policies that could facilitate people making healthy choices to prevent raised blood pressure, and if fully implemented, could largely prevent hypertension from occurring. • Hypertension is easy to screen and treat for BUT only about 50% of adults with hypertension are aware of their condition and only about 1 in 7 is adequately treated. • Preventing and controlling high blood pressure is the major mechanism for NCD prevention and control and a model for other NCD risks. • Effective lifestyle and drug treatments could prevent and control hypertension in most individuals if systematically applied to the population, simple interventions are feasible in all settings, and can be used to enhance primary care. • Urgent sustained action is needed is needed for effective public policies and health system changes to prevent and control hypertension.


[RESUMEN]. • Cerca de una cuarta parte de los adultos tienen hipertensión, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte (inclusive la causada por cardiopatía y accidente cerebrovascular). • Existen políticas eficaces que podrían ayudar a las personas a elegir opciones saludables para prevenir el aumento de la presión arterial; si se las aplicara plenamente, se podría evitar en gran medida el desarrollo de hipertensión. • La hipertensión es fácil de detectar y tratar, PERO solo alrededor de 50% de los adultos que presentan dicha afección son conscientes de su situación y solamente 1 de cada 7 de ellos recibe el tratamiento adecuado. • La prevención y el control de la hipertensión es el mecanismo principal para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles y un modelo para evitar otros riesgos de presentar dichas enfermedades. • La adopción de un modo de vida saludable y el tratamiento farmacológico efectivo podrían prevenir y controlar la hipertensión en la mayoría de las personas si se implementaran de manera sistemática en la población; en todos los entornos es posible aplicar intervenciones sencillas, que pueden usarse para mejorar la atención primaria. • Es urgente adoptar medidas sostenidas para introducir cambios eficaces en las políticas públicas y los sistemas de salud pública con miras a prevenir y controlar la hipertensión.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Salud Global , Dieta Hiposódica , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Salud Global , Dieta Hiposódica , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Salud Global , Dieta Hiposódica , Accidente Cerebrovascular
2.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53286

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. • Cerca de una cuarta parte de los adultos tienen hipertensión, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte (inclusive la causada por cardiopatía y accidente cerebrovascular). • Existen políticas eficaces que podrían ayudar a las personas a elegir opciones saludables para prevenir el aumento de la presión arterial; si se las aplicara plenamente, se podría evitar en gran medida el desarrollo de hipertensión. • La hipertensión es fácil de detectar y tratar, PERO solo alrededor de 50% de los adultos que presentan dicha afección son conscientes de su situación y solamente 1 de cada 7 de ellos recibe el tratamiento adecuado. • La prevención y el control de la hipertensión es el mecanismo principal para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles y un modelo para evitar otros riesgos de presentar dichas enfermedades. • La adopción de un modo de vida saludable y el tratamiento farmacológico efectivo podrían prevenir y controlar la hipertensión en la mayoría de las personas si se implementaran de manera sistemática en la población; en todos los entornos es posible aplicar intervenciones sencillas, que pueden usarse para mejorar la atención primaria. • Es urgente adoptar medidas sostenidas para introducir cambios eficaces en las políticas públicas y los sistemas de salud pública con miras a prevenir y controlar la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. • About 1/4th of adults have high blood pressure which is the single most important risk for death (including heart disease and stroke). • There are effective policies that could facilitate people making healthy choices to prevent raised blood pressure, and if fully implemented, could largely prevent hypertension from occurring. • Hypertension is easy to screen and treat for BUT only about 50% of adults with hypertension are aware of their condition and only about 1 in 7 is adequately treated. • Preventing and controlling high blood pressure is the major mechanism for NCD prevention and control and a model for other NCD risks. • Effective lifestyle and drug treatments could prevent and control hypertension in most individuals if systematically applied to the population, simple interventions are feasible in all settings, and can be used to enhance primary care. • Urgent sustained action is needed is needed for effective public policies and health system changes to prevent and control hypertension.


[RESUMO]. • Cerca de ¼ dos adultos têm hipertensão arterial, que é o fator de risco isolado mais importante para morte (incluídas as mortes por cardiopatia e acidente vascular cerebral). • Existem políticas eficazes que poderiam facilitar escolhas pessoais saudáveis para evitar a elevação da pressão arterial e, se plenamente implementadas, podem prevenir a ocorrência da hipertensão arterial. • É fácil rastrear e tratar a hipertensão, MAS somente cerca de 50% dos adultos hipertensos estão cientes de sua condição, e apenas cerca de 1 em cada 7 é tratado adequadamente. • A prevenção e controle da hipertensão é o principal mecanismo de prevenção e controle das doenças não transmissíveis e um modelo para outros riscos de doenças não transmissíveis. • Tratamentos eficazes com mudanças de estilo de vida e medicamentos poderiam prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial na maioria das pessoas se aplicados sistematicamente à população; as intervenções simples são viáveis em todos os ambientes e podem melhorar a atenção primária. • É necessária a ação continuada e urgente a fim de obter mudanças efetivas nas políticas públicas e no sistema de saúde para prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Salud Global , Dieta Hiposódica , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Salud Global , Dieta Hiposódica , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Salud Global , Dieta Hiposódica , Accidente Cerebrovascular
3.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305706

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Silent coronary heart disease is frequently undetected in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and pre diabetes determined by glucose intolerance (GI). Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) have been considered markers of cardiovascular mortality, coronary heart disease and chronic renal failure. AIMS: To evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the relationship between urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and PWV in type 2 DM with silent CAD. METHODS: We analyzed 92 individuals (44 male), 49 (60±7y) type 2 DM non-insulin dependents and 43 prediabetics (43±4y), with Grade I-II hypertension and no symptoms of CAD. All type 2 DM patients were under antidiabetic treatment with an A1C hemoglobin between 5.5 and 6.5%. Every patient underwent a myocardial perfusion SPECT scan. In those subjects with ischemic patterns, a coronary angiography was performed. In addition, a PWV, glomerular filtration rate, and ACR were evaluated. STATISTICS: mean±SEM, and ANOVA among groups. RESULTS: 48.59% of DM2 and 25.58% of GI patients had silent coronary artery disease. DM2 and GI patients with CAD had higher ACR and PWV and reduced GFR. DM2 and GI showed a negative relationship between GFR and ACR. Moreover, this relation was also observed in different levels of GFR (>60 ml/min and <60ml.min (p<0.05) in patients with CAD, suggesting a cardio-renal interaction in DM2. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PWV, lower GFR and ACR predict the incidence of CAD in DM2. Dysglycemic individuals also represent a group of higher risk for coronary artery disease with similar predictors showed in DM2. Diabetic and prediabetics, still develop renal microalbuminuria. Thus, PWV seems to represent a reliable marker of renal impairment and coronary artery disease.

4.
Hypertension ; 76(2): 333-341, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419505

RESUMEN

Elevated blood pressure remains the single biggest risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease and mortality. May Measurement Month is an annual global screening campaign aiming to improve awareness of blood pressure at the individual and population level. Adults (≥18 years) recruited through opportunistic sampling were screened at sites in 92 countries during May 2019. Ideally, 3 blood pressure readings were measured for each participant, and data on lifestyle factors and comorbidities were collected. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg (mean of the second and third readings) or taking antihypertensive medication. When necessary, multiple imputation was used to estimate participants' mean blood pressure. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between blood pressure and participant characteristics. Of 1 508 130 screenees 482 273 (32.0%) had never had a blood pressure measurement before and 513 337 (34.0%) had hypertension, of whom 58.7% were aware, and 54.7% were on antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 57.8% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg, and 28.9% to <130/80 mm Hg. Of all those with hypertension, 31.7% were controlled to <140/90 mm Hg, and 350 825 (23.3%) participants had untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. Of those taking antihypertensive medication, half were taking only a single drug, and 25% reported using aspirin inappropriately. This survey is the largest ever synchronized and standardized contemporary compilation of global blood pressure data. This campaign is needed as a temporary substitute for systematic blood pressure screening in many countries worldwide.

6.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 982-1004, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371787

RESUMEN

DOCUMENT REVIEWERS: Hind Beheiry (Sudan), Irina Chazova (Russia), Albertino Damasceno (Mozambique), Anna Dominiczak (UK), Anastase Dzudie (Cameroon), Stephen Harrap (Australia), Hiroshi Itoh (Japan), Tazeen Jafar (Singapore), Marc Jaffe (USA), Patricio Jaramillo-Lopez (Colombia), Kazuomi Kario (Japan), Giuseppe Mancia (Italy), Ana Mocumbi (Mozambique), Sanjeevi N.Narasingan (India), Elijah Ogola (Kenya), Srinath Reddy (India), Ernesto Schiffrin (Canada), Ann Soenarta (Indonesia), Rhian Touyz (UK), Yudah Turana (Indonesia), Michael Weber (USA), Paul Whelton (USA), Xin Hua Zhang, (Australia), Yuqing Zhang (China).

7.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 1183-1188, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371809

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. METHODS: An opportunistic cross-sectional survey of volunteers aged at least 18 years was carried out in May 2017. Blood pressure measurement, the definition of hypertension and statistical analysis followed the standard May measurement month protocol. Eighteen countries in Latin America and the Caribbean participated in the campaign, providing us with a wide sample for characterization. RESULTS: During May measurement month 2017 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 105 246 individuals were screened. Participants who had cardiovascular disease, 2245 (2.3%) had a prior myocardial infarction, and 1711 (1.6%) a previous stroke, additionally 6760 (6.4%) individuals were diabetic, 7014 (6.7%) current smokers and 9262 (8.8%) reported alcohol intake once or more per week. Mean SBP was 122.7 mmHg and DBP was 75.6 mmHg. After imputation, 42 328 participants (40,4%) were found to be hypertensive. CONCLUSION: The high numbers of participants detected with hypertension and the relatively large proportion of participants on antihypertensive treatment but with uncontrolled hypertension reinforces the importance of this annual event in our continent, to raise awareness of the prevention of cardiovascular events.

8.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(2): 165-174, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215879

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Measurement of central (aortic) systolic blood pressure has been shown to provide reliable information to evaluate target organ damage. However, non-invasive central blood pressure measurement procedures are still under analysis. AIM: To compare human pressure waveforms invasively obtained in the aorta, with the corresponding waveforms non-invasively recorded using an oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph). METHODS: In this research were included 20 subjects in which invasive percutaneous coronary interventions were performed. They were 10 males (68 ± 12 y. o. , BMI: 27.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2) and 10 females (77 ± 8 y. o. , BMI: 28.5 ± 5.3 kg/m2). During the invasive aortic pressure recording, a synchronized non-invasive Mobil-O-Graph acquisition beat by beat and reconstructed central pressure wave was performed. Both, invasive and non-invasive pressure waves were digitized and stored for subsequent analysis and calculations. A computerized interpolation procedure was developed in our laboratory to compare these pressure waves. RESULTS: A significant correlation between Mobil-O-Graph central blood pressure measurements and the corresponding invasive values was found in males (r < 0.81; p < 0.01) and females (r < 0.93; p < 0.01). However, in both genders, the slope of the regression lines was lesser than 1 (males: y = 0.7354x + 18.998; females: y = 0.9835x + 2.8432). In the whole population (n = 20), a significant correlation between Mobil-O-Graph central blood pressure measurements and the corresponding invasive values was found (r < 0.89; p < 0.01) and the regression line was lesser than 1 (y = 0.9774x + 1.7603). CONCLUSIONS: In this research, a high correlation between invasive central blood pressure values and those measured with the Mobil-O-Graph device was found in males, females and the whole population. However, a sub estimation of Mobil-O-Graph central blood pressure values was observed.


Asunto(s)
Aorta/fisiopatología , Presión Arterial , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/fisiopatología , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/terapia , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oscilometría , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo
9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(4): 544-554, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049425

RESUMEN

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) monitoring appears to be a very useful approach to hypertension management insofar it allows to obtain multiple measurements in the usual environment of each individual, allows the detection of hypertension phenotypes, such as white-coat and masked hypertension, and appears to have superior prognostic value than the conventional office BP measurements. Out-of-office BP can be obtained through either home or ambulatory monitoring, which provide complementary and not identical information. Home BP monitoring yields BP values self-measured in subjects' usual living environment; it is an essential method for the evaluation of almost all untreated and treated subjects with suspected or diagnosed hypertension, best if combined with telemonitoring facilities, also allowing long-term monitoring. There is also increasing evidence that home BP monitoring improves long-term hypertension control rates by improving patients' adherence to prescribed treatment. In Latin American Countries, it is widely available, being relatively inexpensive, and well accepted by patients. Current US, Canadian, Japanese, and European guidelines recommend out-of-office BP monitoring to confirm and refine the diagnosis of hypertension.

10.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(4): 527-543, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049441

RESUMEN

Accurate office blood pressure measurement remains crucial in the diagnosis and management of hypertension worldwide, including Latin America (LA). Office blood pressure (OBP) measurement is still the leading technique in LA for screening and diagnosis of hypertension, monitoring of treatment, and long-term follow-up. Despite this, due to the increasing awareness of the limitations affecting OBP and to the accumulating evidence on the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as a complement of OBP in the clinical approach to the hypertensive patient, a progressively greater attention has been paid worldwide to the information on daytime and nighttime BP patterns offered by 24-h ABPM in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic management of hypertension. In LA countries, most of the Scientific Societies of Hypertension and/or Cardiology have issued guidelines for hypertension care, and most of them include a special section on ABPM. Also, full guidelines on ABPM are available. However, despite the available evidence on the advantages of ABPM for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in LA, availability of ABPM is often restricted to cities with large population, and access to this technology by lower-income patients is sometimes limited by its excessive cost. The authors hope that this document might stimulate health authorities in each LA Country, as well as in other countries in the world, to regulate ABPM access and to widen the range of patients able to access the benefits of this technique.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 40(25): 2006-2017, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041440

RESUMEN

AIMS: Raised blood pressure (BP) is the biggest contributor to mortality and disease burden worldwide and fewer than half of those with hypertension are aware of it. May Measurement Month (MMM) is a global campaign set up in 2017, to raise awareness of high BP and as a pragmatic solution to a lack of formal screening worldwide. The 2018 campaign was expanded, aiming to include more participants and countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-nine countries participated in MMM 2018. Volunteers (≥18 years) were recruited through opportunistic sampling at a variety of screening sites. Each participant had three BP measurements and completed a questionnaire on demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication. In total, 74.9% of screenees provided three BP readings. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to impute missing readings. 1 504 963 individuals (mean age 45.3 years; 52.4% female) were screened. After multiple imputation, 502 079 (33.4%) individuals had hypertension, of whom 59.5% were aware of their diagnosis and 55.3% were taking antihypertensive medication. Of those on medication, 60.0% were controlled and of all hypertensives, 33.2% were controlled. We detected 224 285 individuals with untreated hypertension and 111 214 individuals with inadequately treated (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg) hypertension. CONCLUSION: May Measurement Month expanded significantly compared with 2017, including more participants in more countries. The campaign identified over 335 000 adults with untreated or inadequately treated hypertension. In the absence of systematic screening programmes, MMM was effective at raising awareness at least among these individuals at risk.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Adulto , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Concienciación , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 21(Suppl D): D1-D4, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043862

RESUMEN

Raised blood pressure is the biggest single risk factor responsible for mortality worldwide. Despite this, the majority of people with hypertension are unaware of having it, are untreated, or are on treatment but uncontrolled. May Measurement Month is a global campaign initiated by the International Society of Hypertension with the aim of raising awareness of high blood pressure. In the first year of the campaign in 2017, over 1.2 million people were screened in 80 countries across the world, finding over 100 000 people with hypertension who were not on treatment and over 150 000 people on anti-hypertensive treatment who were not controlled. The individual national results from 39 countries are presented in this supplement. In this article, we discuss the background to the campaign, along with some of the logistical and methodological challenges that were faced in setting up the campaign, and in collecting and analysing the data from such a large cross-sectional study. With the lessons learned from the 2017 campaign, the campaign was repeated in 2018 and is to be repeated again in 2019.

13.
J Hypertens ; 37(3): 636-642, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113526

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension control reduces cardiovascular and renal risks in type 2 diabetes. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors prevent renal glucose reabsorption and decrease glucose plasma levels, blood pressure (BP) and weight reduction. Treatment of hypertension and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 are able to improve arterial stiffness. AIMS: To evaluate, in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, the effects of 6 months treatment with canagliflozin, or perindopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, on central BP and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). METHODS: Thirty type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension taking amlodipine, 10 mg daily, and metformin, 750-2000 mg daily, were randomized and a third medication was added: canagliflozin, 300 mg daily (n = 15, nine women, mean age: 63 ±â€Š8 years), or perindopril, 10 mg daily (n = 15, five women, mean age 59 ±â€Š4 years), for 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring was assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment, whereas cfPWV was measured before and after 6 months of treatment. Plasma fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, creatinine, plasma and urinary sodium and potassium were also measured. RESULTS: Both treatments significantly reduced BP and cfPWV. Only canagliflozin maintained the PWV action after adjusting for BP values and reduced glycemia, glycated hemoglobin and 24 h urinary sodium. Other security laboratory parameters, including gluthamic oxaloacetic transaminase, gluthamic piruvic transaminase; and bilirubin failed to show any change. CONCLUSION: Canagliflozin reduced BP and improve arterial stiffness, independently of the BP effect. These two conditions could explain the cardiovascular protection observed with canagliflozin compared with perindopril.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Canagliflozina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Hipertensión Esencial/tratamiento farmacológico , Perindopril , Rigidez Vascular/efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Amlodipino/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Canagliflozina/farmacología , Canagliflozina/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión Esencial/complicaciones , Hipertensión Esencial/epidemiología , Hipertensión Esencial/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perindopril/farmacología , Perindopril/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/farmacología , Inhibidores del Cotransportador de Sodio-Glucosa 2/uso terapéutico
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(7): e736-e743, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased blood pressure is the biggest contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. Data suggest that less than half of the population with hypertension is aware of it. May Measurement Month was initiated to raise awareness of the importance of blood pressure and as a pragmatic interim solution to the shortfall in screening programmes. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey included volunteer adults (≥18 years) who ideally had not had their blood pressures measured in the past year. Each participant had their blood pressure measured three times and received a a questionnaire about demographic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The primary objective was to raise awareness of blood pressure, measured by number of countries involved, number of people screened, and number of people who have untreated or inadequately treated hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or both, or on the basis of receiving antihypertensive medication). Multiple imputation was used to estimate the mean of the second and third blood pressure readings if these were not recorded. Measures of association were analysed using linear mixed models. FINDINGS: Data were collected from 1 201 570 individuals in 80 countries. After imputation, of the 1 128 635 individuals for whom a mean of the second and third readings was available, 393 924 (34·9%) individuals had hypertension. 153 905 (17·3%) of 888 616 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive treatment were hypertensive, and 105 456 (46·3%) of the 227 721 individuals receiving treatment did not have controlled blood pressure. Significant differences in adjusted blood pressures and hypertension prevalence were apparent between regions. Adjusted blood pressure was higher in association with antihypertensive medication, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Blood pressure was higher when measured on the right arm than on the left arm, and blood pressure was highest on Saturdays. INTERPRETATION: Inexpensive global screening of blood pressure is achievable using volunteers and convenience sampling. Pending the set-up of systematic surveillance systems worldwide, MMM will be repeated annually to raise awareness of blood pressure. FUNDING: International Society of Hypertension, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Servier Pharmaceutical Co.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Tamizaje Masivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
15.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 14(2): 154-160, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651957

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Chronic serum uric acid elevation (SUA) is known to be induced by dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Therefore, it has been associated with higher risk for coronary artery disease and cardiovascular mortality. Also, increased levels of SUA have been associated with regional arterial stiffness, assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). AIMS: To evaluate the relationships of PWV, SUA and different metabolic parameters in essential hypertensive patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated 445 essential hypertensive patients, by measuring office blood pressure (BP), weight, height, and waist circumference. In each patient, blood samples were drawn for biochemical evaluations and 24h urine collection. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) were calculated. Carotid-Femoral PWV and Left Ventricular Mass Index (LVMI) were measured in all patients. RESULTS: All subjects (n=402), 242 males (55±0.9 yrs.; BMI: 28.9±0.3 Kg/m2) and 160 females (58±1 yrs.; BMI: 28.1±0.4 Kg/m2) had normal renal function. PWV values showed a significant association with SUA (p<0.001), Systolic BP (p<0.025) and LVMI (p<0.05). SUA showed a significant association, p<0.025: with BMI, Waist Circumference, and HDL-C; p<0.05: with Glycaemia at 120 min, Insulin at 120 min, TG, and LVMI; and p<0.001: with serum Creatinine. Backward Stepwise Regression showed that PWV could be predicted from SUA (p<0.001) and Systolic BP (p<0.05). BMI, Waist Circumference, DBP and HR did not significantly add to the ability of the equation to predict PWV. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of essential hypertensive patients, SUA was associated to increased arterial stiffness and to components of the Metabolic Syndrome. These results raise the possibility that a new approach to the role of SUA, linked to cardiovascular stratification, and a most appropriate treatment might be considered.


Asunto(s)
Presión Arterial , Hipertensión Esencial/fisiopatología , Hiperuricemia/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Ácido Úrico/sangre , Rigidez Vascular , Biomarcadores/sangre , Glucemia/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Hipertensión Esencial/sangre , Hipertensión Esencial/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/diagnóstico , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatología , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Factores de Riesgo , Regulación hacia Arriba
16.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(2): 258-265, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267992

RESUMEN

Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk, able to predict morbidity and mortality, and closely associated with ageing and blood pressure. The aims of this study were: (1) To determine the age-dependent reference pulse wave velocity (PWV), and compare it with values from hypertensive patients, and (2) to evaluate the impact of isolated and untreated hypertension on arterial stiffness. A total of 1079 patients were enrolled and divided into a control group (NT) of asymptomatic normotensive patients and a group of asymptomatic hypertensive patients (HT). Blood pressure, carotid-femoral PWV, and body mass index were measured in each subject, whose blood was drawn for laboratory tests. Aortic mean PWV in the NT group was 6.85 ± 1.66 m/s, which increased linearly (R2  = 0.62; P < .05) with age. In patients over 50 years of age, PWV was significantly higher than in younger patients (8.35 vs 5.92 m/s, respectively, P < .001). This significant difference persisted when observing male and female patients separately. In the hypertensive group, mean PWV value was 8.04 ± 1.8 m/s (range 4.5-15.8 m/s) and increased (R2  = 0.243; P < .05) with age. The PWV increase in HT was significantly higher (0.93 m/s per decade, P < .001) than in NT (0.44 m/s per decade). Our study provides normal values of PVW per decade, and shows that these values increase with age, especially after 50 years of age, particularly in HT patients. This stiffness growth rate may be responsible for increased cardiovascular risk in both groups.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Aorta/fisiopatología , Arterias Carótidas/fisiopatología , Hipertensión , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/métodos , Rigidez Vascular , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Argentina/epidemiología , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Factores Sexuales
17.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34513

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La hipertensión arterial es el principal factor de riesgo de la carga global de las enfermedades. Una pregunta en debate es si la hipertensión arterial grado 1 (140–159/90–99 mm Hg) con riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) total bajo (mortalidad cardiovascular < 1% a los 10 años) a moderado (mortalidad cardiovascular > 1% y < 5% a los 10 años) debe ser tratada con agentes antihipertensivos. Un proceso de consulta virtual internacional fue realizado para resumir las opiniones de los expertos seleccionados. Después del análisis holístico de todos los elementos epidemiológicos, clínicos, psicosociales y de salud pública, este proceso de consulta llegó al siguiente consenso para adultos hipertensos < 80 años de edad: 1) La interrogante, de si el tratamiento medicamentoso en la hipertensión grado 1 debe ser precedido por un periodo de algunas semanas o meses, durante el cual solo se recomienden medidas sobre el estilo de vida no está basada en evidencia, pero el consenso de opinión es reservar un periodo para solo cambios en el estilo de vida únicamente en los pacientes con hipertensión grado 1 “aislada” (hipertensión grado 1 no complicada con RCV total absoluto bajo, y sin otros factores de RCV mayores ni modificadores del riesgo). 2) El inicio del tratamiento antihipertensivo medicamentoso en pacientes con hipertensión grado 1 y RCV absoluto moderado no debe demorarse. 3) Los hombres ≥ 55 años y las mujeres ≥ 60 años con hipertensión grado 1 no complicada deben ser automáticamente clasificados dentro de la categoría de RCV total absoluto moderado, incluso en ausencia de otros factores de riesgo mayores y modificadores del riesgo. 4) Las estatinas deben tenerse en cuenta junto con la terapia antihipertensiva, independientemente de los valores de colesterol, en pacientes con hipertensión grado 1 y RCV moderado.


[ABSTRACT]. Hypertension is a leading risk factor for disease burden globally. An unresolved question is whether grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mmHg) with low (cardiovascular mortality < 1% at 10 years) to moderate (cardiovascular mortality > 1% and < 5% at 10 years) absolute total cardiovascular risk (CVR) should be treated with antihypertensive agents. A virtual international consultation process was undertaken to summarize the opinions of select experts. After holistic analysis of all epidemiological, clinical, psychosocial, and public health elements, this consultation process reached the following consensus in hypertensive adults aged < 80 years: (1) The question of whether drug treatment in grade 1 should be preceded by a period of some weeks or months during which only life style measures are recommended cannot be evidence based, but the consensus opinion is to have a period of lifestyle alone reserved only to patients with grade 1 “isolated” hypertension (grade 1 uncomplicated hypertension with low absolute total CVR, and without other major CVR factors and risk modifiers). (2)The initiation of antihypertensive drug therapy in grade 1 hypertension with moderate absolute total CVR should not be delayed. (3) Men ≥ 55 years and women ≥ 60 years with uncomplicated grade1 hypertension should automatically be classified within the moderate absolute total CVR category, even in the absence of other major CVR factors and risk modifiers. (4) Statins should be considered along with blood-pressure lowering therapy, irrespective of cholesterol levels, in patients with grade 1 hypertensive with moderate CVR.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Factores de Riesgo , Hipertensión , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 42(7): 198-225, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552207

RESUMEN

Hypertension is a leading risk factor for disease burden globally. An unresolved question is whether grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99mmHg) with low (cardiovascular mortality <1% at 10 years) to moderate (cardiovascular mortality ≥1% and <5% at 10 years) absolute total cardiovascular risk (CVR) should be treated with antihypertensive agents. A virtual international consultation process was undertaken to summarize the opinions of select experts. After holistic analysis of all epidemiological, clinical, psychosocial, and public health elements, this consultation process reached the following consensus in hypertensive adults aged <80 years: (1) The question of whether drug treatment in grade 1 should be preceded by a period of some weeks or months during which only lifestyle measures are recommended cannot be evidence based, but the consensus opinion is to have a period of lifestyle alone reserved only to patients with grade 1 "isolated" hypertension (grade 1 uncomplicated hypertension with low absolute total CVR, and without other major CVR factors and risk modifiers). (2) The initiation of antihypertensive drug therapy in grade 1 hypertension with moderate absolute total CVR should not be delayed. (3) Men ≥55 years and women ≥60 years with uncomplicated grade 1 hypertension should automatically be classified within the moderate absolute total CVR category, even in the absence of other major CVR factors and risk modifiers. (4) Statins should be considered along with blood-pressure lowering therapy, irrespective of cholesterol levels, in patients with grade 1 hypertensive with moderate CVR.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Femenino , Cardiopatías/etiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Masculino , Riesgo
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