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J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 12(Suppl 1): S114-S123, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149441


Background: Zirconia being a bio-inert material needs to be surface treated to render it more bioactive and enhance its osseointegration potential. However, bioactivity studies focusing on the ability of sandblasting and ultraviolet photofunctionalization (UVP) surface treatments in inducing apatite precipitation using simulated body fluid (SBF) are lacking. Aim: The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of two different surface treatments-sandblasting with 50 µm alumina and UVP with ultraviolet C (UVC) light on the bioactivity of zirconia. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 discs with dimensions 10 mm × 2 mm were obtained from zirconia blanks (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria) and randomly divided into three groups (n = 11), namely Group I (untreated), Group II (sandblasted), and Group III (UVP). Surface characteristics of representative test samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle goniometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), to assess type of crystal phase of zirconia, surface roughness, wettability, surface topography, and elemental composition, respectively. SBF was prepared and calcium content in SBF (Ca-SBF) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD), and Student's t test for statistical significance (P < 0.05, significant; P < 0.01, highly significant). Surface characteristics analyses revealed that XRD showed predominant tetragonal (t) zirconia crystal phase for all test groups. Mean surface roughness (Sa) of Group I was 41.83 nm, and it was significantly lesser than that of Group II (115.65 nm) and Group III (102.43 nm). Mean contact angles were 98.26°, 86.77°, and 68.03° for Groups I, II, and III, respectively, and these differences were highly significant. Mean pre-immersion Ca content in SBF was found to be 159 mg/L. Mean post-immersion Ca content was 70.10, 60.80, and 56.20 mg/L for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Significant differences were found between Group I as compared to both Groups II and III. Bioactivity of Group III was marginally, but insignificantly higher with respect to Group II. Groups II and III were insignificant with respect to each other. Post-immersion XRD revealed predominant "t" phase, and SEM-EDX revealed well-formed, abundant calcium apatite layer on the treated samples as compared to that on untreated sample and an increasing Ca/P ratio from 1.15, 1.79 to 2.08, respectively from Group I to Group III. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, both sandblasting and UVP significantly and similarly improved bioactivity of zirconia as compared to the untreated samples, which was corroborated by the SEM-EDX results.

Indian J Dent Res ; 31(4): 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107453


Purpose of the Study: To comparatively evaluate the wear resistance of two different posterior indirect restorative materials against human enamel. Materials and Methods: Two different posterior indirect restorative materials of ten in each Group-I (Monolithic zirconia) (n = 10) and Group-II (Cast cobalt chromium) (n = 10) were formed into disc and used as a substrate for the wear test. Freshly extracted mandibular first premolars were used as a pin (antagonist) (n = 20). Pin-on-disc wear testing machine was used to simulate the masticatory parameters and evaluation of the wear parameters was done after 1,20,000 cycles, with load of 40N for specific duration. Data related to wear testing procedure were tabulated and evaluated. Results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Mean surface roughness value (Ra value) obtained for Group-I disc test samples showed no statistical significance (P value < 0.05). Mean wear rate value of test disc samples was statistically significant between Group-I and Group-II (P value < 0.05). Mean surface roughness value was statistically significant between Groups-I and II before and after wear test (P value < 0.05). Conclusion: From the results obtained, it was found that the Group-I (Monolithic zirconia) exhibited higher wear resistance than Group-II (cast cobalt chromium) and causes less wear to the opposing enamel antagonist.

Aleaciones de Cromo , Porcelana Dental , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Esmalte Dental , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie , Circonio
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 19(1): 33-41, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745752


Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of chemical disinfectants on the surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and surface texture of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions. Materials and Methods: The impressions were then divided into five groups (fifteen samples per group) and subjected to a ten minutes immersion with 2% glutaraldehyde (Group I), 1% sodium hypochlorite (Group II), freshly prepared electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) with different pH values - acidic (Group III), alkali (Group IV) and neutral (Group V). The samples were examined pre and post-immersion under visual observation for surface detail reproduction, travelling microscope for measurement of dimensional stability and surface profilometer (3D) for evaluation of surface texture. A standardized master die was fabricated and seventy-five PVS test samples were made. The samples were subjected to immersion disinfection and studied for surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and surface texture. Post-hoc test, paired t test and ANOVA were used to analyze dimensional stability statistically both within and between the test groups. Results: The surface detail reproduction was satisfactory with both pre and post-immersion test samples. A statistically significant dimensional change was observed post-immersion in Groups II, III and V test samples and a statistically insignificant dimensional change was observed in Groups I and IV test samples. There was a negligible change in surface texture post-immersion in Groups I, III, IV and V test samples with a slight increase in surface roughness post-immersion in Group II samples. Conclusion: In this study, all the test disinfectants produced satisfactory surface detail reproduction on Polyvinyl siloxane impressions. 2% glutaraldehyde and electrolyzed oxidizing water (alkali) have resulted in statistically insignificant dimensional change, while 1% sodium hypochlorite, electrolyzed oxidizing water (acidic) and electrolyzed oxidizing water (neutral) have resulted in statistically significant dimensional changes. All the test disinfectants except 1% sodium hypochlorite showed a reduction in surface roughness (Ra) values.

Contemp Clin Dent ; 10(1): 56-63, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015643


Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the masking ability of lithium disilicate ceramic with different core thickness on the shade match of indirect restorations over metallic substrate. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 heat pressed lithium disilicate ceramic discs of low translucency were fabricated with diameter 10mm and thickness of 1 mm, 1.3 mm and 1.6mm with each thickness consisting of 10 samples to be used in the study. Thirty Ni-Cr metal discs of diameter 10mm were used to simulate metallic substrates .The colour difference of the lithium disilicate ceramic disc before and after cementation were measured using CIE LAB system. Results: The mean colour difference (ΔE) of Group I,Group II, Group III before cementation with the Ni-Cr metal discs was 17.32,13.01 and 11.73 respectively. The mean colour difference (ΔE) of Group I,Group II, Group III after cementation with the Ni-Cr metal discs was 16.32,12.10, 11.05 respectively. Conclusion: The mean colour difference of the three groups were found to be more than the clinically acceptable perceptibility threshold (ΔE < 3.3) indicative of reduced masking ability of all the three groups of ceramic discs over metallic substrate used in this study.

Indian J Dent Res ; 21(4): 506-11, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21187614


BACKGROUND: The U-shaped maxillary major connector is considered to be the least-desirable design by many prosthodontists as it lacks rigidity, which is a primary requisite for a major connector. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Design modifications in the U-shaped palatal major connector are desired because it lacks rigidity. The study also aimed to determine the best design when a U-shaped palatal major connector is indicated for clinical use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The normal design and the design-modified models (modification 1, 2, 3, 4) were loaded at the functional cusps of the premolars and the molars with a magnitude of 200 N, 250 N and 300 N at angulations of 60 o and 90 o on both sides of the maxillary arch. Results for each loading were obtained as stress distribution colored images and numerical values were recorded. A three-dimensional finite element analysis study of the design-modified models was performed using two finite element softwares, namely PRO-E and IDEAS. RESULTS: The least stress value of 7.86 Megapascals (MPa) at 200 N, 60 o was recorded for the double-thickness design, followed by design 1, which was 8.03 MPa. The least stress value for the palatal mucosa and ligament was provided by design modification 1 (0.5 mm-thick U-shaped connector, 9 mm anteroposteiorly, 14.6 mm laterally), which was 9.78 MPa and 2.98 MPa, respectively. CONCLUSION: The double-thickness group exhibited the least internal stress for the U-shaped major connector. However, it delivered the greatest stress to the palatal mucosa and the periodontal ligaments.

Diseño de Dentadura , Dentadura Parcial Removible , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Paladar (Hueso)/fisiología , Proceso Alveolar/fisiología , Diente Premolar/fisiología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Aleaciones de Cromo/química , Arco Dental/fisiología , Módulo de Elasticidad , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Maxilar/fisiología , Diente Molar/fisiología , Mucosa Bucal/fisiología , Paladar Duro/fisiología , Ligamento Periodontal/fisiología , Docilidad , Estrés Mecánico