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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 454, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469024

RESUMEN

The ordinary Fano effect occurs in many-electron atoms and requires an autoionizing state. With such a state, photo-ionization may proceed via pathways that interfere, and the characteristic asymmetric resonance structures appear in the continuum. Here we demonstrate that Fano structure may also be induced without need of auto-ionization, by dressing the continuum with an ordinary bound state in any atom by a coupling laser. Using multi-photon processes gives complete, ultra-fast control over the interference. We show that a line-shape index q near unity (maximum asymmetry) may be produced in hydrogenic silicon donors with a relatively weak beam. Since the Fano lineshape has both constructive and destructive interference, the laser control opens the possibility of state-selective detection with enhancement on one side of resonance and invisibility on the other. We discuss a variety of atomic and molecular spectroscopies, and in the case of silicon donors we provide a calculation for a qubit readout application.

2.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(43): 435401, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300631

RESUMEN

We investigate the spin relaxation under conditions of optical excitation between the Rydberg orbital states of phosphorus donor impurities in silicon. Here we show that the spin relaxation is less than a few percent, even after multiple excitation/relaxation cycles. The observed high level of spin preservation may be useful for readout cycling or in quantum information schemes where coupling of neighbor qubits is via orbital excitation.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(14): 146603, 2017 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053326

RESUMEN

The ac magnetoconductance of bulk InSb at THz frequencies in high magnetic fields, as measured by the transmission of THz radiation, shows a field-induced transmission, which at high temperatures (≈100 K) is well explained with classical magnetoplasma effects (helicon waves). However, at low temperatures (4 K), the transmitted radiation intensity shows magnetoquantum oscillations that represent the Shubnikov-de Haas effect at THz frequencies. At frequencies above 0.9 THz, when the radiation period is shorter than the Drude scattering time, an anomalously high transmission is observed in the magnetic quantum limit that can be interpreted as carrier localization at high frequencies.

4.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16038, 2017 07 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737173

RESUMEN

Superposition of orbital eigenstates is crucial to quantum technology utilizing atoms, such as atomic clocks and quantum computers, and control over the interaction between atoms and their neighbours is an essential ingredient for both gating and readout. The simplest coherent wavefunction control uses a two-eigenstate admixture, but more control over the spatial distribution of the wavefunction can be obtained by increasing the number of states in the wavepacket. Here we demonstrate THz laser pulse control of Si:P orbitals using multiple orbital state admixtures, observing beat patterns produced by Zeeman splitting. The beats are an observable signature of the ability to control the path of the electron, which implies we can now control the strength and duration of the interaction of the atom with different neighbours. This could simplify surface code networks which require spatially controlled interaction between atoms, and we propose an architecture that might take advantage of this.

6.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6549, 2015 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790967

RESUMEN

The ability to control dynamics of quantum states by optical interference, and subsequent electrical read-out, is crucial for solid state quantum technologies. Ramsey interference has been successfully observed for spins in silicon and nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond, and for orbital motion in InAs quantum dots. Here we demonstrate terahertz optical excitation, manipulation and destruction via Ramsey interference of orbital wavepackets in Si:P with electrical read-out. We show milliradian control over the wavefunction phase for the two-level system formed by the 1s and 2p states. The results have been verified by all-optical echo detection methods, sensitive only to coherent excitations in the sample. The experiments open a route to exploitation of donors in silicon for atom trap physics, with concomitant potential for quantum computing schemes, which rely on orbital superpositions to, for example, gate the magnetic exchange interactions between impurities.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(19): 193401, 2013 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23705704

RESUMEN

We present measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons emitted from mass-selected neutral fullerenes, performed at the intracavity free electron laser FELICE. We make use of mass-specific vibrational resonances in the infrared domain to selectively heat up one out of a distribution of several fullerene species. Efficient energy redistribution leads to decay via thermionic emission. Time-resolved electron kinetic energy distributions measured give information on the decay rate of the selected fullerene. This method is generally applicable to all neutral species that exhibit thermionic emission and provides a unique tool to study the stability of mass-selected neutral clusters and molecules that are only available as part of a size distribution.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 117(20): 4115-26, 2013 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23586839

RESUMEN

The activation of methane by gas-phase transition metal cations (M(+)) has been studied extensively, both experimentally and using density functional theory (DFT). Methane is exothermically dehydrogenated by several 5d metal ions to form [M,C,2H](+) and H2. However, the structure of the dehydrogenation product has not been established unambiguously. Two types of structures have been considered: a carbene structure where an intact CH2 fragment is bound to the metal (M(+)-CH2) and a carbyne (hydrido-methylidyne) structure with both a CH and a hydrogen bound to the metal separately (H-M(+)-CH). For metal ions with empty d-orbitals, an agostic interaction can occur that could influence the competition between carbene and carbyne structures. In this work, the gas phase [M,C,2H](+) (M = Ta, W, Ir, Pt) products are investigated by infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IR-MPD) spectroscopy using the Free-Electron Laser for IntraCavity Experiments (FELICE). Metal cations are formed in a laser ablation source and react with methane pulsed into a reaction channel downstream. IR-MPD spectra of the [M,C,2H](+) species are measured in the 300-3500 cm(-1) spectral range by monitoring the loss of H (2H in the case of [Ir,C,2H](+)). For each system, the experimental spectrum closely resembles the calculated spectrum of the lowest energy structure calculated using DFT: for Pt, a classic C(2v) carbene structure; for Ta and W, carbene structures that are distorted by agostic interactions; and a carbyne structure for the Ir complex. The Ir carbyne structure was not considered previously. To obtain this agreement, the calculated harmonic frequencies are scaled with a scaling factor of 0.939, which is fairly low and can be attributed to the strong redshift induced by the IR multiple-photon excitation process of these small molecules. These four-atomic species are among the smallest systems studied by IR-FEL based IR-MPD spectroscopy, and their spectra demonstrate the power of IR spectroscopy in resolving long-standing chemical questions.


Asunto(s)
Metano/química , Elementos de Transición/química , Cationes/química , Hidrogenación , Estructura Molecular , Teoría Cuántica
9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(1): 013002, 2012 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23031101

RESUMEN

Midinfrared strong-field laser ionization offers the promise of measuring holograms of atoms and molecules, which contain both spatial and temporal information of the ion and the photoelectron with subfemtosecond temporal and angstrom spatial resolution. We report on the scaling of photoelectron holographic interference patterns with the laser pulse duration, wavelength, and intensity. High-resolution holograms for the ionization of metastable xenon atoms by 7-16 µm light from the FELICE free electron laser are presented and compared to semiclassical calculations that provide analytical insight.

10.
Science ; 331(6013): 61-4, 2011 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21163963

RESUMEN

Ionization is the dominant response of atoms and molecules to intense laser fields and is at the basis of several important techniques, such as the generation of attosecond pulses that allow the measurement of electron motion in real time. We present experiments in which metastable xenon atoms were ionized with intense 7-micrometer laser pulses from a free-electron laser. Holographic structures were observed that record underlying electron dynamics on a sublaser-cycle time scale, enabling photoelectron spectroscopy with a time resolution of almost two orders of magnitude higher than the duration of the ionizing pulse.

11.
Nature ; 465(7301): 1057-61, 2010 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20577211

RESUMEN

Laser cooling and electromagnetic traps have led to a revolution in atomic physics, yielding dramatic discoveries ranging from Bose-Einstein condensation to the quantum control of single atoms. Of particular interest, because they can be used in the quantum control of one atom by another, are excited Rydberg states, where wavefunctions are expanded from their ground-state extents of less than 0.1 nm to several nanometres and even beyond; this allows atoms far enough apart to be non-interacting in their ground states to strongly interact in their excited states. For eventual application of such states, a solid-state implementation is very desirable. Here we demonstrate the coherent control of impurity wavefunctions in the most ubiquitous donor in a semiconductor, namely phosphorus-doped silicon. In our experiments, we use a free-electron laser to stimulate and observe photon echoes, the orbital analogue of the Hahn spin echo, and Rabi oscillations familiar from magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As well as extending atomic physicists' explorations of quantum phenomena to the solid state, our work adds coherent terahertz radiation, as a particularly precise regulator of orbitals in solids, to the list of controls, such as pressure and chemical composition, already familiar to materials scientists.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(9): 096603, 2006 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16606292

RESUMEN

We have used two-color time-resolved spectroscopy to measure the relaxation of electron spin polarizations in a bulk semiconductor. The circularly polarized pump beam induces a polarization either by direct excitation from the valence band, or by free-carrier (Drude) absorption when tuned to an energy below the band gap. We find that the spin relaxation time, measured with picosecond time resolution by resonant induced Faraday rotation in both cases, increases in the presence of photogenerated holes. In the case of the material chosen, n-InSb, the increase was from 14 to 38 ps.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(3): 037404, 2006 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16486768

RESUMEN

Stimulated Stokes emission has been observed from silicon crystals doped by antimony donors when optically excited by radiation from a tunable infrared free electron laser. The photon energy of the emission is equal to the pump photon energy reduced by the energy of the intervalley transverse acoustic (TA) g phonon in silicon (approximately 2.92 THz). The emission frequency covers the range of 4.6-5.8 THz. The laser process occurs due to a resonant coupling of the 1s(E) and 1s(A1) donor states (separation approximately 2.97 THz) via the g-TA phonon, which conserves momentum and energy within a single impurity center.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 94(7): 073001, 2005 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15783811

RESUMEN

The spectrum of the nu(5) cis-bending vibration of ground state (X(2)Pi(u)) C(2)H(2)(+) has been recorded applying the method of laser induced reactions in a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap. It is obtained by counting the number of products of the reaction C(2)H(2)(+) (v(5) = 1) + H(2)--> C(2)H(3)(+) + H as a function of the laser wavelength. The vibronic transitions Delta-Pi and Sigma-Pi with their corresponding spin-orbit and Renner-Teller substructure have been observed. Using a perturbative analysis, the vibrational frequency has been determined to omega(5) = (710 +/- 4) cm(-1) and the Renner-Teller parameter epsilon(5) is on the order of 3 x 10(-2).

15.
Photochem Photobiol ; 81(4): 711-35, 2005.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15755193

RESUMEN

Free-Electron Lasers (FELs) collectively operate from the terahertz through the ultraviolet range and via intracavity Compton backscattering into the X-ray and gamma-ray regimes. FELs are continuously tunable and can provide optical powers, pulse structures and polarizations that are not matched by conventional lasers. Representative research in the biological and biomedical sciences and condensed matter and material research are described to illustrate the breadth and impact of FEL applications. These include terahertz dynamics in materials far from equilibrium, infrared nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy to investigate dynamical processes in condensed-phase systems, infrared resonant-enhanced multiphoton ionization for gas-phase spectroscopy and spectrometry, infrared matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization and infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation for analysis and processing of organic materials, human neurosurgery and ophthalmic surgery using a medical infrared FEL and ultraviolet photoemission electron microscopy for nanoscale characterization of materials and nanoscale phenomena. The ongoing development of ultraviolet and X-ray FELs are discussed in terms of future opportunities for applications research.


Asunto(s)
Biología/métodos , Rayos Láser , Electrones , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(11): 114802, 2004 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15447346

RESUMEN

Electro-optic detection of the Coulomb field of a relativistic electron bunch combined with single-shot cross correlation of optical pulses is used to enable single-shot measurements of the shape and length of femtosecond electron bunches. This method overcomes a fundamental time-resolution limit of previous single-shot electro-optic measurements, which arises from the inseparability of time and frequency properties of the probing optical pulse. Using this new technique we have made real-time measurements of a 50 MeV electron bunch, observing the profile of 650 fs FWHM ( approximately 275 fs rms) long bunches.

17.
Mol Biol Cell ; 12(9): 2742-55, 2001 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11553713

RESUMEN

We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages.


Asunto(s)
Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo V/metabolismo , Fagosomas/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo , Tamaño de la Célula , Células Cultivadas , Pollos , Citosol/metabolismo , Eliminación de Gen , Macrófagos/citología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Mutantes , Proteínas de Microfilamentos/aislamiento & purificación , Microscopía Fluorescente , Microesferas , Peso Molecular , Movimiento (Física) , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/química , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/aislamiento & purificación , Miosina Tipo V/química , Miosina Tipo V/aislamiento & purificación , Fagosomas/química , Fenotipo , Unión Proteica
18.
J Mol Spectrosc ; 191(1): 88-92, 1998 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9724583

RESUMEN

For the first time, high-resolution infrared gas-phase absorption spectra of the BrNO2 molecule were recorded using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. In this paper, the nu4 bands of the 79BrNO2 and 81BrNO2 isotopomers around 1670 cm-1 are investigated. Although the spectra are highly congested, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for the ground and v4 = 1 states of 79BrNO2 and 81BrNO2 were determined. The results show that BrNO2 is a planar molecule of C2nu symmetry and confirm predictions from a recent ab initio study. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

20.
Klin Wochenschr ; 54(14): 661-3, 1976 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-979066

RESUMEN

To investigate the role of the renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome two patients with hypercorticism were infused with 20 mg saralasin (1-sar-8-ala-angiotensin II) over a period of 30 minutes under constant blood pressue control. In addition, one patient with primary aldosteronism, an established form of mineralocorticoid hypertension, served as control. Neither in the two patients with Cushing's syndrome nor in the patient with primary aldosteronism could a blood pressure lowering effect of saralasin be observed. In the two patients with hypercoritcism both renin activity and plasma aldosterone increased during saralasin infusion. The patient with primary aldosteronism only showed a weak increase in plasma aldosterone concentration.


Asunto(s)
Angiotensina II/análogos & derivados , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Síndrome de Cushing/fisiopatología , Saralasina/farmacología , Aldosterona/sangre , Síndrome de Cushing/sangre , Síndrome de Cushing/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/etiología , Renina/sangre
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