Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 776
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54989

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in alcohol per capita consumption from 1990 to 2016 in the Region of the Americas, covering 35 Member States. Data from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health were used to calculate the annual percent change of alcohol per capita consumption in each of the 35 countries of the Americas. The Americas as a whole showed no change in the total period, with a slight decrease in the period 2010–2016. From 1990 to 2016, all the countries that presented a trend of annual increase in annual percent change of alcohol per capita consumption were in the Caribbean and Central America. Large increases were found in the recent years in Cuba, Colombia, Uruguay, El Salvador, and several countries of the Non-Latin Caribbean. In conclusion, alcohol use remains a significant obstacle to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 3.5. To date, the policy response has been inadequate in protecting the people in the Americas from alcohol-attributable harms. Improving country capacity to collect and analyze data on alcohol per capita consumption is urgently needed to monitor progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and to serve to promote proven alcohol policies for reducing the harmful use of alcohol.


[RESUMEN]. El objetivo de este estudio es estimar las tendencias en el consumo per cápita de alcohol desde 1990 hasta el 2016 en 35 Estados Miembros de la Región de las Américas. Se emplearon datos del Sistema Mundial de Información sobre el Alcohol y la Salud de la OMS para calcular la variación porcentual por año del consumo per cápita de alcohol en cada uno de los 35 países de la Región. En general, la Región no mostró cambio en todo el período, salvo una disminución leve entre el 2010 y el 2016. De 1990 al 2016, todos los países que registraron una tendencia al alza en la variación anual porcentual del consumo per cápita de alcohol se encontraban en el Caribe y Centroamérica. En los últimos años se observó un aumento importante en Cuba, Colombia, Uruguay, El Salvador y varios países del Caribe no latino. En conclusión, el consumo de alcohol sigue siendo un obstáculo significativo para lograr el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible 3.5. Hasta la fecha, la respuesta de las políticas ha sido inadecuada para proteger a la población de la Región de los daños atribuibles al alcohol. Es necesario mejorar de manera urgente la capacidad a nivel de país para recopilar y analizar datos sobre el consumo per cápita de alcohol a fin de monitorear el progreso de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y promover políticas relativas al alcohol cuya eficacia en cuanto a la reducción del consumo nocivo ha sido comprobada.


[RESUMO]. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar as tendências do consumo de álcool per capita de 1990 a 2016 na Região das Américas, cobrindo os 35 Estados Membros. Dados do Sistema Mundial de Informação sobre Álcool e Saúde da OMS foram usados para calcular a mudança percentual anual do consumo de álcool per capita de cada um dos 35 países das Américas. As Américas, como um todo, não mostraram mudança alguma no período total, com uma diminuição leve no período entre 2010 e 2016. De 1990 a 2016, todos os países que apresentaram uma tendência de aumento anual na mudança percentual anual do consumo de álcool per capita estão no Caribe e na América Central. Um grande aumento foi encontrado nos anos recentes em Cuba, Colômbia, Uruguai, El Salvador e vários países não latinos do Caribe. Em conclusão, o consumo de álcool continua sendo um obstáculo significativo para o cumprimento do Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3.5. Até o momento, a resposta política foi inadequada para proteger a população nas Américas dos danos atribuíveis ao álcool. Melhorar a capacidade dos países de coletar e analisar dados sobre o consumo de álcool per capita é urgentemente necessário para monitorar o progresso dos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e para promover políticas comprovadas de redução do consumo nocivo de álcool.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo , Desarrollo Sostenible , Salud Pública , Américas
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109065, 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to examine the early impact of COVID-19 on substance use to assess implications for planning substance use treatment and support systems. METHOD: A systematic review of literature published up to March 2021 was conducted to summarize changes in prevalence, incidence, and severity of substance use associated with COVID-19 and the accompanying public health measures, including lockdown, stay-at-home orders, and social distancing. RESULTS: We identified 53 papers describing changes to substance use at the population level. The majority of papers described changes related to alcohol use and most relied on self-reported measures of consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with pre-pandemic use. There was less evidence to support changes in non-alcohol substance use. In general, risky pre-pandemic alcohol use, caregiving responsibilities, stress, depression, anxiety, and current treatment for a mental disorder were found to be associated with increased substance use. CONCLUSION: This review provides preliminary data on changes in substance use, indicating that certain segments of the population increased their alcohol use early on in the COVID-19 pandemic and may be at greater risk of harm and in need of additional services. There is a need for additional population-level information on substance use to inform evidence-based rapid responses from a treatment system perspective.

4.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 76, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620196

RESUMEN

The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is one of the most frequently used screening instrument for hazardous and harmful use of alcohol and potential alcohol dependence in primary health care (PHC) and other settings worldwide. It has been translated into many languages and adapted and modified for use in some countries, following formal adaptation procedures and validation studies. In the Russian Federation, the AUDIT has been used in different settings and by different health professionals, including addiction specialists (narcologists). In 2017, it was included as a screening instrument in the national guidelines of routine preventive health checks at the population-level (dispanserization). However, various Russian translations of the AUDIT are known to be in use in different settings and, so far, little is known about the empirical basis and validation of the instrument in Russia-a country, which is known for its distinct drinking patterns and their detrimental impact on health. The present contribution is the summary of two systematic reviews that were carried out to inform a planned national validation study of the AUDIT in Russia.Two systematic searches were carried out to 1) identify all validation efforts of the AUDIT in Russia and to document all reported problems encountered, and 2) identify all globally existing Russian translations of the AUDIT and document their differences and any reported issues in their application. The qualitative narrative synthesis of all studies that met the inclusion criteria of the first search highlighted the absence of any large-scale rigorous validation study of the AUDIT in primary health care in Russia, while a document analysis of all of the 122 Russian translations has revealed 61 unique versions, most of which contained inconsistencies and signaled obvious application challenges of the test.The results clearly signal the need for a validation study of the Russian AUDIT.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055991, 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625420

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The concept of a 'public health approach' to substance use is frequently but inconsistently invoked. This inconsistency is reflected in public policy, with governments using the term 'public health approach' in contradictory ways. This aim of this study is to clarify what is meant and understood when the term 'public health approach' is used in the context of substance use. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and PAIS Index. Eligible articles will be from peer-reviewed journals, in English, with full text available. There will be no limits on year of publication. Substance use must be the primary topic of the article. Editorials, commentaries and letters to the editor will be included, but not commentaries on other articles, unless the definition of a public health approach is central to the commentary. Data selection and collection will be conducted independently by two researchers, with a third separately resolving any disagreement. To answer the research question, we will extract authors' definitions of a public health approach to substance use as well as any descriptions of the central principles, characteristics and components of such an approach. To synthesise the data, we will employ thematic synthesis. Coding will be conducted by one researcher and verified by a second; two researchers will then group the codes into themes using an inductive process. Finally, the full research team will develop a set of analytic themes, which will be presented as a narrative. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not needed since the research will only involve published work. Our findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and, if possible, at conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021270632.

6.
Int J Drug Policy ; : 103381, 2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465496

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common, especially among young people, and is associated with risks for various health harms. Some jurisdictions have recently moved to legalization/regulation pursuing public health goals. Evidence-based 'Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines' (LRCUG) and recommendations were previously developed to reduce modifiable risk factors of cannabis-related adverse health outcomes; related evidence has evolved substantially since. We aimed to review new scientific evidence and to develop comprehensively up-to-date LRCUG, including their recommendations, on this evidence basis. METHODS: Targeted searches for literature (since 2016) on main risk factors for cannabis-related adverse health outcomes modifiable by the user-individual were conducted. Topical areas were informed by previous LRCUG content and expanded upon current evidence. Searches preferentially focused on systematic reviews, supplemented by key individual studies. The review results were evidence-graded, topically organized and narratively summarized; recommendations were developed through an iterative scientific expert consensus development process. RESULTS: A substantial body of modifiable risk factors for cannabis use-related health harms were identified with varying evidence quality. Twelve substantive recommendation clusters and three precautionary statements were developed. In general, current evidence suggests that individuals can substantially reduce their risk for adverse health outcomes if they delay the onset of cannabis use until after adolescence, avoid the use of high-potency (THC) cannabis products and high-frequency/-intensity of use, and refrain from smoking-routes for administration. While young people are particularly vulnerable to cannabis-related harms, other sub-groups (e.g., pregnant women, drivers, older adults, those with co-morbidities) are advised to exercise particular caution with use-related risks. Legal/regulated cannabis products should be used where possible. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use can result in adverse health outcomes, mostly among sub-groups with higher-risk use. Reducing the risk factors identified can help to reduce health harms from use. The LRCUG offer one targeted intervention component within a comprehensive public health approach for cannabis use. They require effective audience-tailoring and dissemination, regular updating as new evidence become available, and should be evaluated for their impact.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579021

RESUMEN

This study aimed to estimate the impact of alcohol use on mortality and health among people 69 years of age and younger in 2016. A comparative risk assessment approach was utilized, with population-attributable fractions being estimated by combining alcohol use data from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health with corresponding relative risk estimates from meta-analyses. The mortality and health data were obtained from the Global Health Observatory. Among people 69 years of age and younger in 2016, 2.0 million deaths and 117.2 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost were attributable to alcohol consumption, representing 7.1% and 5.5% of all deaths and DALYs lost in that year, respectively. The leading causes of the burden of alcohol-attributable deaths were cirrhosis of the liver (457,000 deaths), road injuries (338,000 deaths), and tuberculosis (190,000 deaths). The numbers of premature deaths per 100,000 people were highest in Eastern Europe (155.8 deaths per 100,000), Central Europe (52.3 deaths per 100,000 people), and Western sub-Saharan Africa (48.7 deaths per 100,000). A large portion of the burden of disease caused by alcohol among people 69 years of age and younger is preventable through the implementation of cost-effective alcohol policies such as increases in taxation.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
9.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387658

RESUMEN

AIM: To examine whether changes in alcohol consumption in Canada since the start of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic are associated with feelings of anxiety, depression, loneliness and/or with changes in employment due to COVID-19. METHODS: Data collection occurred between 29 May 2020 and 23 March 2021 via a web panel, AskingCanadians, which sampled 5892 adults (≥18 years of age). Data were collected on changes in alcohol consumption compared to before the pandemic (ordinal variable ranging from 1='much less alcohol' to 5='much more alcohol'), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7), self-perceived depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), self-perceived loneliness, changes in employment status due to COVID-19 and socio-demographic variables (age, gender, living situation, household income and urban vs rural residence). Multivariate associations were assessed using ordinal logistic regression. Effect modification by gender was tested using likelihood-ratio tests. RESULTS: Changes in alcohol consumption were positively associated with anxiety, feeling depressed and loneliness. In particular, people with mild to moderate (ordered Odds Ratio (OR):1.23, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.07, 1.62) or severe anxiety (ordered OR:1.49, 95% CI:1.15, 1.93) had a greater odds of increased drinking than did people with no to low levels of anxiety. Gender, age, household income, living situation and survey wave were also associated with changes in drinking. No effect modifications by gender were observed. CONCLUSION: Given the health harms caused by alcohol use, public health practitioners and primary care physicians should focus health messaging to identify and support individuals at risk of increased alcohol consumption, especially people experiencing depression, loneliness or anxiety.

10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(9): 1722-1734, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418121

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is considerable unexplained variability in alcohol abstinence rates (AR) in the placebo groups of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for alcohol dependence (AD). This is of particular interest because placebo responses correlate negatively with treatment effect size. Recent evidence suggests that the placebo response is lower in very heavy drinkers who show no "spontaneous improvement" prior to treatment initiation (high-severity population) than in a mild-severity population and in studies with longer treatment duration. We systematically investigated the relationship between population severity, treatment duration, and the placebo response in AR to inform a strategy aimed at reducing the placebo response and thereby increasing assay sensitivity in RCTs for AD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review on placebo-controlled RCTs for AD.We assigned retained RCTs to high- or mild-severity groups of studies based on baseline drinking risk levels and abstinence duration before treatment initiation. We tested the effects of population severity and treatment duration on the placebo response in AR using meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 19 retained RCTs (comprising 1996 placebo-treated patients), 11 trials were high-severity and 8 were mild-severity RCTs. The between-study variability in AR was lower in the high-severity than in the mild-severity studies (interquartile range: 7.4% vs. 20.9%). The AR in placebo groups was dependent on population severity (p = 0.004) and treatment duration (p = 0.017) and was lower in the high-severity studies (16.8% at 3 months) than the mild-severity studies (36.7% at 3 months). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacological RCTs for AD should select high-severity patients to decrease the magnitude and variability in the placebo effect and and improve the efficiency of drug development efforts for AD.

11.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347331

RESUMEN

In a recent commentary, Allamani asked how one can establish causality in epidemiological research, and specifically about causality as it relates to alcohol control policy. Epidemiology customarily uses a sufficient-component cause model, where a sufficient cause for an outcome is determined by a set of minimal conditions and events that inevitably produce the stated outcome. While this model is theoretically clear, its operationalisation often involves probabilistic elements. Recent advances in agent-based modelling may improve operationalisation. The implications for alcohol control policy from this model are straightforward: the so-called alcohol-attributable fraction denotes the cases of morbidity or mortality which would not have happened in the absence of alcohol use.

12.
Int J Drug Policy ; : 103420, 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456119

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The diverse forms of unrecorded alcohol, defined as beverage alcohol not registered in official statistics in the country where it is consumed, comprise about one fourth of all alcohol consumed worldwide. Since unrecorded alcohol is usually cheaper than registered commercial alcohol, a standard argument against raising alcohol excise taxes has been that doing so could potentially result in an increase in unrecorded consumption. This contribution examines whether increases in taxation have in fact led to increases in consumption of unrecorded alcohol, and whether these increases in unrecorded alcohol should be considered to be a barrier to raising taxes. A second aim is to outline mitigation strategies to reduce unrecorded alcohol use. METHODS: Narrative review of primary and secondary research, namely case studies and narrative and systematic reviews on unrecorded alcohol use worldwide. RESULTS: Unrecorded alcohol consumption did not automatically increase with increases in taxation and subsequent price increases of registered commercial alcohol. Instead, the level of unrecorded consumption depended on: a) the availability and type of unrecorded alcohol; b) whether such consumption was non-stigmatized; c) the primary population groups which consumed unrecorded alcohol before the policy change; and d) the policy measures taken. Mitigation strategies are outlined. CONCLUSIONS: Potential increases in the level of unrecorded alcohol consumption should be considered in the planning and implementation of substantial increases in alcohol taxation. However, unrecorded consumption should not be considered to be a principal barrier to implementing tax interventions, as evidence does not indicate an increase in consumption if mitigation measures are put in place by governments.

13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444809

RESUMEN

Alcohol use has been causally linked to more than 200 disease and injury conditions, as defined by three-digit ICD-10 codes. The understanding of how alcohol use is related to these conditions is essential to public health and policy research. Accordingly, this study presents a narrative review of different dose-response relationships for alcohol use. Relative-risk (RR) functions were obtained from various comparative risk assessments. Two main dimensions of alcohol consumption are used to assess disease and injury risk: (1) volume of consumption, and (2) patterns of drinking, operationalized via frequency of heavy drinking occasions. Lifetime abstention was used as the reference group. Most dose-response relationships between alcohol and outcomes are monotonic, but for diabetes type 2 and ischemic diseases, there are indications of a curvilinear relationship, where light to moderate drinking is associated with lower risk compared with not drinking (i.e., RR < 1). In general, women experience a greater increase in RR per gram of alcohol consumed than men. The RR per gram of alcohol consumed was lower for people of older ages. RRs indicated that alcohol use may interact synergistically with other risk factors, in particular with socioeconomic status and other behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, or physical inactivity. The literature on the impact of genetic constitution on dose-response curves is underdeveloped, but certain genetic variants are linked to an increased RR per gram of alcohol consumed for some diseases. When developing alcohol policy measures, including low-risk drinking guidelines, dose-response relationships must be taken into consideration.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Enfermedad , Mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Causalidad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255843, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a programme to reduce alcohol consumption for drinkers with high alcohol consumption levels. Only 2.9% of patients in primary health care (PHC) are screened for their alcohol use in Germany, despite high levels of alcohol consumption and attributable harm. We developed an open-access simulation model to estimate the impact of higher SBIRT delivery rates in German PHC settings on population-level alcohol consumption. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hypothetical population of drinkers and non-drinkers was simulated by sex, age, and educational status for the year 2009 based on survey and sales data. Risky drinking persons receiving BI or RT were sampled from this population based on screening coverage and other parameters. Running the simulation model for a ten-year period, drinking levels and heavy episodic drinking (HED) status were changed based on effect sizes from meta-analyses. In the baseline scenario of 2.9% screening coverage, 2.4% of the adult German population received a subsequent intervention between 2009 and 2018. If every second PHC patient would have been screened for alcohol use, 21% of adult residents in Germany would have received BI or RT by the end of the ten-year simulation period. In this scenario, population-level alcohol consumption would be 11% lower than it was in 2018, without any impact on HED prevalence. Screening coverage rates below 10% were not found to have a measurable effect on drinking levels. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale implementation of SBIRT in PHC settings can yield substantial reductions of alcohol consumption in Germany. As high screening coverage rates may only be achievable in the long run, other effective alcohol policies are required to achieve short-term reduction of alcohol use and attributable harm in Germany. There is large potential to apply this open-access simulation model to other settings and for other alcohol interventions.

15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(7): 496-505, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248222

RESUMEN

Objective: To validate a Russian-language version of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods: We invited 2173 patients from 21 rural and urban primary health-care centres in nine Russian regions to participate in the study (143 declined and eight were excluded). In a standardized interview, patients who had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months provided information on their sociodemographic characteristics and completed the Russian AUDIT, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to identify problem drinking and alcohol use disorders. We assessed the feasibility of administering the test, its internal consistency and its ability to predict hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders in primary health care in the Russian Federation. Findings: Of the 2022 patients included in the study, 1497 were current drinkers with Russian AUDIT scores. The test was internally consistent with good psychometric properties (Cronbach's α : 0.842) and accurately predicted alcohol use disorders and other outcomes (area under the curve > 75%). A three-item short form of the test correlated well with the full instrument and had similar predictive power (area under the curve > 80%). We determined sex-specific thresholds for all outcomes, as non-specific thresholds resulted in few women being identified. Conclusion: With the validated Russian AUDIT, there is no longer a barrier to introducing screening and brief interventions into primary health care in the Russian Federation to supplement successful alcohol control policies.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Atención Primaria de Salud , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Población Rural , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Población Urbana
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): 1071-1080, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is causally linked to multiple cancers. We present global, regional, and national estimates of alcohol-attributable cancer burden in 2020 to inform alcohol policy and cancer control across different settings globally. METHODS: In this population-based study, population attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated using a theoretical minimum-risk exposure of lifetime abstention and 2010 alcohol consumption estimates from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (assuming a 10-year latency period between alcohol consumption and cancer diagnosis), combined with corresponding relative risk estimates from systematic literature reviews as part of the WCRF Continuous Update Project, were applied to cancer incidence data from GLOBOCAN 2020 to estimate new cancer cases attributable to alcohol. We also calculated the contribution of moderate (<20 g per day), risky (20-60 g per day), and heavy (>60 g per day) drinking to the total alcohol-attributable cancer burden, as well as the contribution by 10 g per day increment (up to a maximum of 150 g). 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were estimated using a Monte Carlo-like approach. FINDINGS: Globally, an estimated 741 300 (95% UI 558 500-951 200), or 4·1% (3·1-5·3), of all new cases of cancer in 2020 were attributable to alcohol consumption. Males accounted for 568 700 (76·7%; 95% UI 422 500-731 100) of total alcohol-attributable cancer cases, and cancers of the oesophagus (189 700 cases [110 900-274 600]), liver (154 700 cases [43 700-281 500]), and breast (98 300 cases [68 200-130 500]) contributed the most cases. PAFs were lowest in northern Africa (0·3% [95% UI 0·1-3·3]) and western Asia (0·7% [0·5-1·2]), and highest in eastern Asia (5·7% [3·6-7·9]) and central and eastern Europe (5·6% [4·6-6·6]). The largest burden of alcohol-attributable cancers was represented by heavy drinking (346 400 [46·7%; 95% UI 227 900-489 400] cases) and risky drinking (291 800 [39·4%; 227 700-333 100] cases), whereas moderate drinking contributed 103 100 (13·9%; 82 600-207 200) cases, and drinking up to 10 g per day contributed 41 300 (35 400-145 800) cases. INTERPRETATION: Our findings highlight the need for effective policy and interventions to increase awareness of cancer risks associated with alcohol use and decrease overall alcohol consumption to prevent the burden of alcohol-attributable cancers. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291988

RESUMEN

A recent study of the impact of smoked cannabis on simulated driver behavior demonstrated a reduction in mean speed after smoked cannabis. Previous research identified an association between personality and individual differences and acute drug effects. The present study examined the impact of personality on the reduction in mean speed after smoking cannabis under single- and dual-task driving conditions originally reported by Brands et al. (2019). Sixty-one participants randomly assigned to the active drug condition completed a battery of self-report questionnaires measuring various personality constructs and subsequently operated a driving simulator before and 30 min after smoking a 12.5% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cigarette. Linear regression modeling tested the influence of self-reported driving errors, lapses, and violations, driver vengeance, psychological distress, impulsivity, and sensation seeking on the reduction in speed after smoking cannabis. After adjusting for the influence of sex, blood THC concentration, and predrug mean speed, impulsivity was a significant predictor of change in speed under both single- (ß = -.45, t = -3.94, p < .001) and dual- (ß = -.35, t = -2.74, p = .008) task driving conditions after cannabis. Higher trait impulsivity was significantly associated with greater reductions in driving speed after cannabis use, which may reflect greater sensitivity to drug effects and a stronger compensatory response. Further multidisciplinary study, including neurochemical, genetic, and psychological components, would be beneficial in helping to better understand how impulsivity and other personality or individual differences may impact the effects of cannabis on driver behavior and performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15127, 2021 07 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302018

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for premature mortality. Although alcohol control policies are known to impact all-cause mortality rates, the effect that policies have on specific age groups is an important area of research. This study investigates the effect of alcohol control policies implemented in 2009 and 2017 in Lithuania on all-cause mortality rates. All-cause mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 people) were obtained for 2001-2018 by 10-year age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 years, etc.). All-cause mortality rates, independent of macro-level secular trends (e.g., economic trends) were examined. Following a joinpoint analysis to control for secular trends, an interrupted time series analysis showed that alcohol control policies had a significant effect on all-cause mortality rates (p = .018), with the most significant impact occurring among young adults (20-29 and 30-39 years of age). For these age groups, their mortality rate decreased during the 12 months following policy implementation (following the policy in 2009 for those 20-29 years of age, p = .0026, and following the policy in 2017 for those 30-39 years of age, p = .011). The results indicate that alcohol control policy can impact all-cause mortality rates, above and beyond secular trends, and that the impact is significant among young adults.

19.
Int J Drug Policy ; 97: 103367, 2021 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311148

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the 1920s, eight of nine Canadian provinces legalized alcohol sales, ending prohibition in favor of government control. Much has been written about the rise and fall of Prohibition in North America, but there is little work examining these events in the light of current drug policy debates. This paper attempts to fill some of these gaps. METHODS: The aims of this paper are primarily exploratory and descriptive. Following a literature review, it draws from secondary and some primary sources to explore the debate around ending alcohol prohibition (i.e. legalizing its distribution) in Ontario between 1920 and 1927. It then uses material drawn from a comprehensive search of the Canadian House of Commons debates on cannabis legalization between 2016 and 2018 to draw parallels with the debates around alcohol legalization in Ontario about 90 years earlier. RESULTS: While alcohol and cannabis legalization occurred in very different social and political contexts, there are similarities in both the arguments in favor of ending prohibition (ineffectiveness at preventing consumption and collateral social harms) and post-legalization debates around regulation (most notably the optimal way to replace the illicit market). CONCLUSION: The Canadian cannabis legalization debates of the 2010s echo the alcohol legalization debates of the 1920s in remarkable and relevant ways. Ultimately the most striking parallel may be the extent to which the political leaders advocating for legalization emphasized that their policy was not liberalization, but more effective control.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...