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1.
Transplantation ; 103(6): e146-e158, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) is an important cause of kidney allograft loss; however, noninvasive markers to identify IFTA or guide antifibrotic therapy are lacking. Using angiotensin II (AngII) as the prototypical inducer of IFTA, we previously identified 83 AngII-regulated proteins in vitro. We developed mass spectrometry-based assays for quantification of 6 AngII signature proteins (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1, glutamine synthetase [GLNA], laminin subunit beta-2, lysophospholipase I, ras homolog family member B, and thrombospondin-I [TSP1]) and hypothesized that their urine excretion will correlate with IFTA in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Urine excretion of 6 AngII-regulated proteins was quantified using selected reaction monitoring and normalized by urine creatinine. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess protein expression of TSP1 and GLNA in kidney biopsies. RESULTS: The urine excretion rates of AngII-regulated proteins were found to be increased in 15 kidney transplant recipients with IFTA compared with 20 matched controls with no IFTA (mean log2[fmol/µmol of creatinine], bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1: 3.8 versus 3.0, P = 0.03; GLNA: 1.2 versus -0.4, P = 0.03; laminin subunit beta-2: 6.1 versus 5.4, P = 0.06; lysophospholipase I: 2.1 versus 0.6, P = 0.002; ras homolog family member B: 1.2 versus -0.1, P = 0.006; TSP1_GGV: 2.5 versus 1.9; P = 0.15; and TSP1_TIV: 2.0 versus 0.6, P = 0.0006). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated an area under the curve = 0.86 for the ability of urine AngII signature proteins to discriminate IFTA from controls. Urine excretion of AngII signature proteins correlated strongly with chronic IFTA and total inflammation. In a separate cohort of 19 kidney transplant recipients, the urine excretion of these 6 proteins was significantly lower following therapy with AngII inhibitors (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AngII-regulated proteins may represent markers of IFTA and guide antifibrotic therapies.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7: 41999, 2017 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165020

RESUMEN

The acronymously named "ESKAPE" pathogens represent a group of bacteria that continue to pose a serious threat to human health, not only due to their propensity for repeated emergence, but also due to their ability to "eskape" antibiotic treatment. The evolution of multi-drug resistance in these pathogens alone has greatly outpaced the development of new therapeutics, necessitating an alternative strategy for antibiotic development that considers the evolutionary mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance. In this study, we synthesize a novel inorganic antibiotic, phosphopyricin, which has antibiotic activity against the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). We show that this potent antibiotic is bactericidal, and exhibits low toxicity in an acute dose assay in mice. As a synthetic compound that does not occur naturally, phosphopyricin would be evolutionarily foreign to microbes, thereby slowing the evolution of resistance. In addition, it loses antibiotic activity upon exposure to light, meaning that the active antibiotic will not accumulate in the general environment where strong selective pressures imposed by antibiotic residuals are known to accelerate resistance. Phosphopyricin represents an innovation in antimicrobials, having a synthetic core, and a photosensitive chemical architecture that would reduce accumulation in the environment.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos Inorgánicos/química , Compuestos Organometálicos/química , Compuestos Organometálicos/farmacología , Animales , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Femenino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
3.
Clin Proteomics ; 13: 16, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499720

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-II (Ang II) mediates progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and other chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, markers of kidney Ang II activity are lacking. We previously defined 83 Ang II-regulated proteins in vitro, which reflected kidney Ang II activity in vivo. METHODS: In this study, we developed selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays for quantification of Ang II-regulated proteins in urine of ADPKD and CKD patients. We demonstrated that 47 of 83 Ang II-regulated transcripts were differentially expressed in cystic compared to normal kidney tissue. We then developed SRM assays for 18 Ang II-regulated proteins overexpressed in cysts and/or secreted in urine. Methods that yielded CV ≤ 6 % for control proteins, and recovery ~100 % were selected. Heavy-labeled peptides corresponding to 13 identified Ang II-regulated peptides were spiked into urine samples of 17 ADPKD patients, 9 patients with CKD predicted to have high kidney Ang II activity and 11 healthy subjects. Samples were then digested and analyzed on triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in duplicates. RESLUTS: Calibration curves demonstrated linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and within-run CVs < 9 % in the concentration range of 7/13 peptides. Peptide concentrations were normalized by urine creatinine. Deamidated peptide forms were monitored, and accounted for <15 % of the final concentrations. Urine excretion rates of proteins BST1, LAMB2, LYPA1, RHOB and TSP1 were significantly different (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA) between patients with CKD, those with ADPKD and healthy controls. Urine protein excretion rates were highest in CKD patients and lowest in ADPKD patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated significant association between urine protein excretion rates of most proteins and disease group (p < 0.05, ANOVA) as well as sex (p < 0.05, unpaired t test). Multivariate analysis across protein concentration, age and sex demonstrated good separation between ADPKD and CKD patients. CONCLUSIONS: We have optimized methods for quantification of Ang II-regulated proteins, and we demonstrated that they reflected differences in underlying kidney disease in this pilot study. High urine excretion of Ang II-regulated proteins in CKD patients likely reflects high kidney Ang II activity. Low excretion in ADPKD appears related to lack of communication between cysts and tubules. Future studies will determine whether urine excretion rate of Ang II-regulated proteins correlates with kidney Ang II activity in larger cohorts of chronic kidney disease patients.

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