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1.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315461

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a community pharmacy-based fall prevention intervention (STEADI-Rx) on the risk of falling and use of medications associated with an increased risk of falling. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 65 community pharmacies in North Carolina (NC). PARTICIPANTS: Adults (age ≥65 years) using either four or more chronic medications or one or more medications associated with an increased risk of falling (n = 10,565). INTERVENTION: Pharmacy staff screened patients for fall risk using questions from the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) algorithm. Patients who screened positive were eligible to receive a pharmacist-conducted medication review, with recommendations sent to patients' healthcare providers following the review. MEASUREMENTS: At intervention pharmacies, pharmacy staff used standardized forms to record participant responses to screening questions and information concerning the medication reviews. For participants with continuous Medicare Part D/NC Medicaid coverage (n = 3,212), the Drug Burden Index (DBI) was used to assess exposure to high-risk medications, and insurance claims records for emergency department visits and hospitalizations were used to assess falls. RESULTS: Among intervention group participants (n = 4,719), 73% (n = 3,437) were screened for fall risk. Among those who screened positive (n = 1,901), 72% (n = 1,373) received a medication review; and 27% (n = 521) had at least one medication-related recommendation communicated to their healthcare provider(s) following the review. A total of 716 specific medication recommendations were made. DBI scores decreased from the pre- to postintervention period in both the control and the intervention group. However, the amount of change over time did not differ between these two groups (P = .66). Risk of falling did not change between the pre- to postintervention period or differ between groups (P = .58). CONCLUSION: We successfully implemented STEADI-Rx in the community pharmacy setting. However, we found no differences in fall risk or the use of medications associated with increased risk of falling between the intervention and control groups.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919008

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This mixed methods study had 2 aims: (1) to describe the frequency of care coordination between pharmacists, prescribers, and care managers and (2) to identify pharmacists' strategies for care coordination and follow-up in a community pharmacy setting. DESIGN: This study used a mixed methods design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Pharmacists who were responsible for implementing North Carolina community pharmacy enhanced services network (NC CPESN®) activities in their pharmacy during the first or second year of the 3-year program (September 2014-August 2016). OUTCOME MEASURES: A survey was administered to gather data on care coordination in community pharmacies and for follow-up. In-depth interviews were conducted to expand on the findings from the quantitative data. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey data. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Surveys were received from 101 pharmacies (82.1% response rate). Fourteen pharmacies with missing responses were removed, resulting in 87 pharmacies being included in the analysis. The majority of pharmacies were single, independent pharmacies (46.5%), and approximately one-third of pharmacies had a clinical pharmacist on the staff (31.1%). To communicate with prescribers, pharmacists most frequently used facsimile (fax) (82.1%) or phone (65.5%). A total of 12 pharmacists participated in the semistructured interviews. Pharmacists defined care coordination as interdisciplinary collaboration and communication among the members of the health care team to provide the best possible patient-centered care. All pharmacists agreed that good health care provider (i.e., care manager and prescriber) relationships are crucial to the success of patient care; however, participants mentioned that building these relationships has been or is currently difficult to establish. CONCLUSION: Care coordination among pharmacists, prescribers, and care managers is important for improving patients' medication management and overall outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify care coordination between pharmacists, prescribers, and care managers and to identify strategies to facilitate care coordination. Results from this study have the potential to inform how care coordination and longitudinal follow-up are best implemented within the community pharmacy setting.

3.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822390

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the evolving roles of pharmacy technicians in the United States, the profession has attempted to define a national standard. Community pharmacy employers to-date have preferred on-the-job training to formal, accredited training programs or credentialing, however, limited evidence exists on the perceived needs of pharmacy technicians in the United States compared to those of community pharmacy employers. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to explore: 1) community pharmacy employer perceptions of associated benefits and perceived value of pharmacy technician certification and 2) needs of employers related to pharmacy technician attitudes and knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs). METHODS: Using a semi-structured interview guide, researchers interviewed 7 community pharmacy employers within top management teams in a variety of community pharmacy settings. The data were analyzed for themes using the human capital vs. signal theory. RESULTS: Employers and managers generally saw both attitude and KSAs as vital to success. However, given a choice between experience and attitude, attitude was preferred. There was general agreement that certified technicians offered more value to their organization, however gaps in certified technician KSAs were noted (i.e., lack of day-to-day practical skills, vaccination screening, motivating patients to change behaviors, patient communication and workflow management). CONCLUSIONS: New emerging directions for certification now exist due to the rapidly shifting pharmacy landscape, which is revolves around new and expanded clinical patient care services. This shifting landscape has exposed gaps, reinforced strengths, and uncovered potential new opportunities and needs related to technician certification.

4.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405079

RESUMEN

Community pharmacies are an ideal setting to manage high-risk medications and screen older adults at risk for falls. Appropriate training and resources are needed to successfully implement services in this setting. The purpose of this paper is to identify the key training, tools, and resources to support implementation of fall prevention services. The service was implemented in a network of community pharmacies located in North Carolina. Pharmacies were provided with onboard and longitudinal training, and a project coach. A toolkit contained resources to collect medication information, identify high-risk medications, develop and share recommendations with prescribers, market the service, and educate patients. Project champions at each pharmacy received a nine-question, web-based survey (Qualtrics) to identify usefulness of the training and resources. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty-one community pharmacies implemented the service. Twenty-three project champions (74%) completed the post-intervention survey. Comprehensive onboard training was rated as more useful than longitudinal training. Resources to identify high-risk medications, develop recommendations, and share recommendations with prescribers were considered most useful. By providing appropriate training and resources to support fall prevention services, community pharmacists can improve patient care as part of their routine workflow.

5.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(4): 417-424, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917893

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about how Medicare Part D Comprehensive Medication Review (CMR) affects quality of medication use and management. In this study, changes of plan level CMR completion rates over time were examined and their associations with medication use and management related (MUMR) quality measures. METHODS: Using Medicare Part D plan Star Rating and contract information data, a longitudinal data set was developed with CMR completion rate and 17 MUMR measures. T-tests and one-way Analysis of Variance were used to examine the variation of CMR rates between contracts and over time, respectively, as well as the regression adjusted associations using fixed-effects and ordinary least squares models, verified by Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: CMR completion rates increased substantially from contract year 2013-2016, with a larger increase among Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plans than stand-alone Prescription Drug Plans. Prior year's CMR completion rates had marginally positive effects on 4 of the 17 MUMR measures: medication adherence with statin drugs, continuous beta blocker treatment, and pharmacotherapy management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation (systemic corticosteroid or bronchodilator). Increasing CMR completion also was associated with increased chronic use of atypical antipsychotics by elderly beneficiaries in nursing homes, an unintended outcome and a reflection of poor quality of care. CMR completion rates in the same year had even more limited associations with other MUMR measures. CONCLUSIONS: At plan level, CMR completion rates had limited and inconsistent association with other MUMR measures. Although our research used an observational study design, the associations observed have policy implications to the Center for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) Star Ratings program and quality bonus payments, as well as implications for plans' quality improvement.


Asunto(s)
Medicare Part D , Administración del Tratamiento Farmacológico , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapéutico , Revisión de la Utilización de Medicamentos , Humanos , Inhibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Reductasas/uso terapéutico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Estados Unidos
6.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 59(3): 369-374.e2, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745189

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare viewpoints of nationally certified and noncertified technicians and explore the perceived value of technician certification in the job performance domains of medication safety, skills and abilities, experience, engagement and satisfaction, and productivity. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy technicians, from 6 states representing 4 regions of the United States, was conducted. Technician mailing lists were purchased from Boards of Pharmacy, and randomly selected technicians were sent survey invitations. Surveys were completed via Qualtrics and analyzed with the use of SAS. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy-six technicians (547 certified, 103 noncertified, and 26 previously certified) responded to the survey (9.4% response rate). Certified technicians reported significantly higher confidence rating for desire to take on new responsibilities (P < 0.01; Cohen d 0.45) and plans to remain in the pharmacy field (P = 0.01, Cohen d 0.35), lower rating for leaving the job in the next 12 months (P < 0.01; Cohen d 0.35), and perceived lower rate of medication errors (P < 0.01; Cohen d 0.35) compared with other technicians in the work setting. The majority of respondents stated confidence in performing the "final check" on another technician's preparation of a new or refill medication if allowed. Both certified and noncertified technicians noted dissatisfaction with pay. The majority of respondents reported that they spent none of or less than 10% of their workday assisting pharmacists with medication therapy management (MTM) sessions, immunizations, or point-of-care tests; however, 71 respondents specifically described how they assist pharmacists with MTM. CONCLUSION: Results from our survey sample indicate that certified technicians have a stronger organizational and career commitment and desire to take on new roles. A majority of respondents noted dissatisfaction with pay but feel a sense of pride in their work. Both groups were confident in their abilities needed for tech-check-tech product verification.

7.
J Pharm Pract ; 32(5): 524-528, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665720

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine community pharmacist preferences in transition of care (TOC) communications. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data were gathered via electronic survey of community pharmacists regarding their preferences for TOC communications. The survey was distributed via email by the North Carolina Board of Pharmacy. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Survey responses were received from 343 community pharmacists (response rate = 6.1%). Responders most commonly worked in an independent, single store (29.2%, n = 100) or national chain (29.2%, n = 100) pharmacy setting. Preferred method for a TOC communication was via electronic health record (63.0%, n = 184). Preferred TOC communication content are mentioned as follows: active (93.2%, n = 274) and discontinued (86.4%, n = 254) medications and reason for hospitalization (85.0%, n = 250). The top 3 self-identified barriers to utilizing a TOC communication: lack of care coordination with community pharmacy (35.0%, n = 14), lack of support from other health-care providers (22.5%, n = 9), and absence of compensation for providing the service (17.5%, n = 7). When asked if TOC communications were available, 97.5% (n = 278) indicated it would be useful. CONCLUSION: Community pharmacists acknowledged a need for TOC communications and shared their preferences in the content and method of communication. Future research is warranted to implement TOC communications between a health system and community pharmacy.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia , Transferencia de Pacientes/métodos , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Servicios Comunitarios de Farmacia/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Transferencia de Pacientes/tendencias , Farmacéuticos/tendencias
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