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2.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(8): 1296-1309, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289261

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the Americas, resulting in substantial negative economic and social impacts. This study describes the trends and inequalities of CVD burden in the Americas to guide programmatic interventions and health system responses. We examined the CVD burden trends by age, sex, and countries between 1990 and 2017 and quantified social inequalities in CVD burden across countries. In 2017, CVD accounted for 2 million deaths in the Americas, 29% of total deaths. Age-standardized DALY rates caused by CVD declined by -1.9% (95% uncertainty interval, -2.0 to -1.7) annually from 1990 to 2017. This trend varied with a striking decreasing trend over the interval 1994-2003 (annual percent change (APC) -2.4% [-2.5 to 2.2]) and 2003-2007 (APC -2.8% [-3.4 to -2.2]). This was followed by a slowdown in the rate of decline over 2007-2013 (APC -1.83% [-2.1 to -1.6]) and a stagnation during the most recent period 2013-2017 (APC -0.1% [-0.5 to 0.3]). The social inequality in CVD burden along the socio-demographic gradient across countries decreased 2.75-fold. The CVD burden and related social inequality have both substantially decreased in the Americas since 1990, driven by the reduction in premature mortality. This trend occurred in parallel with the improvement in the socioeconomic development and health care of the region. The deceleration and stagnation in the rate of improvement of CVD burden and persistent social inequality pose major challenges to reduce the CVD burden and the achievement of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals Target 3.4.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53150

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. A considerable number of clinical trials is being conducted globally in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including in low- and middle-income countries such as those in the Latin America and Caribbean region (LAC). Yet, an abundance of studies does not necessarily shorten the path to find safe and efficacious interventions for COVID-19. We analyze the trials for COVID-19 treatment and prevention that are registered from LAC countries in the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and identify a trend towards small repetitive non-rigorous studies that duplicate efforts and drain limited resources without producing meaningful conclusions on the safety and efficacy of the interventions being tested. We further assess the challenges to conducting scientifically sound and socially valuable research in the LAC region in order to inform recommendations to encourage clinical trials that are most likely to produce robust evidence during the pandemic.


[RESUMEN]. Se está llevando a cabo un número considerable de ensayos clínicos en todo el mundo en respuesta a la pandemia de COVID-19, incluso en países de ingresos bajos y medios como los de la región de América Latina y el Caribe. Sin embargo, la abundancia de estudios no necesariamente acorta el camino para encontrar intervenciones seguras y eficaces frente a la COVID-19. Se analizaron los ensayos para el tratamiento y la prevención de la COVID-19 de los países de América Latina y el Caribe que están registrados en la Plataforma de Registros Internacionales de Ensayos Clínicos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y se identificó una tendencia hacia la realización de estudios pequeños, repetitivos y no rigurosos que duplican los esfuerzos y merman recursos limitados sin producir conclusiones significativas sobre la seguridad y la eficacia de las intervenciones evaluadas. Se evaluaron asimismo los desafíos que plantea la realización de investigaciones científicamente sólidas y socialmente valiosas en la región de América Latina y el Caribe a fin de brindar recomendaciones que alienten la realización de ensayos clínicos que tengan más probabilidades de producir evidencia sólida durante la pandemia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Ensayo Clínico , Ética en Investigación , Políticas Públicas de Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Ensayo Clínico , Ética en Investigación , Políticas Públicas de Salud , América Latina , Región del Caribe
4.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 192, 2020 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115482

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Governments are incentivized to develop and implement health action programs focused on equity to ensure progress with effective strategies or interventions. OBJECTIVE: Identify and synthesize strategies or interventions that facilitate the reduction of health inequalities. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was carried out up until August 2019 in MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, LILACS, Scopus, Scielo and Epistemonikos. In addition, a snowball strategy was used. Literature reviews (LRs) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included. The identified interventions and outcomes were categorized based on the recommendation by the Cochrane group in "Effective Practice and Organization of Care". The quality of the included LRs was evaluated using the AMSTAR 2 tool. RESULTS: Four thousand ninety-five articles were identified, of which 97 were included in the synthesis of evidence. Most of the studies included focused on the general population, vulnerable populations and minority populations. The subjects of general health and healthy lifestyles were the most commonly addressed. According to the classification of the type of intervention, the domain covered most was the delivery arrangements, followed by the domain of implementation strategies. The most frequent group of outcomes was the reported outcome in (clinical) patients, followed by social outcomes. CONCLUSION: The strategies that facilitate the reduction of health inequalities must be intersectoral and multidisciplinary in nature, including all sectors of the health system. It is essential to continue generating interventions focused on strengthening health systems in order to achieve adequate universal health coverage, with a process of comprehensive and quality care.

5.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e112, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952534

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify and systematize available empirical evidence on factors and interventions that affect working conditions and environment in order to increase the attraction, recruitment and retention of human resources for health at the primary care level in rural, remote or underserved areas. Methods: Rapid review of reviews selected according to relevance, eligibility and inclusion criteria. The search was conducted on electronic and manual databases, including grey literature. AMSTAR I was used to assess the quality of systematic reviews and a thematic analysis for synthesis of the results. Results: Sixteen reviews were included, one of which contained 14 reviews. Of the total, 20 reviews analyzed factors and 9 evaluated the effectiveness of interventions. The evidence on factors is abundant, but of limited quality. Individual, family and "previous exposure to a rural setting" factors were associated with higher recruitment; organizational and external context factors were important for human resource retention. Networking and professional support influenced recruitment and retention. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions was limited, both in quantity and quality. The most frequently used intervention was incentives. Conclusions: Evidence on factors that are positively related to recruitment and retention of workers at the first level of care in rural, remote or underserved areas is sufficient and should be taken into account when designing interventions. Quality evidence on the effectiveness of interventions is scarce. More controlled studies with methodological rigor are needed, particularly in the Americas.

7.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52651

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Identificar y sistematizar la evidencia empírica disponible sobre factores e intervenciones que inciden en las condiciones y medio ambiente de trabajo para incrementar la atracción, captación y retención de recursos humanos en salud en el primer nivel de atención de áreas rurales, remotas o desatendidas. Métodos. Revisión rápida de revisiones, seleccionadas según criterios de pertinencia, elegibilidad e inclusión con búsquedas en bases de datos electrónicas, de literatura gris y manual. Se empleó el AMSTAR I para evaluar la calidad de revisiones sistemáticas y un análisis temático para síntesis de resultados. Resultados. Se incluyeron 16 revisiones, una de las cuales contenía a su vez 14 revisiones. Del total, 20 revisiones analizaron factores y 9 evaluaron efectividad de intervenciones. La evidencia sobre factores es abundante, pero de limitada calidad. Los factores individuales, familiares y la “exposición rural previa” se asociaron a mayor captación; factores organizacionales y del contexto externo fueron gravitantes en la retención. El trabajo en red y el apoyo profesional incidieron en la captación y retención. La evidencia sobre efectividad de intervenciones fue limitada, en cantidad y calidad. El tipo de intervención más frecuentemente empleada fueron los incentivos. Conclusiones. La evidencia sobre factores que se relacionan positivamente con la captación y retención de trabajadores en el primer nivel de atención de áreas rurales, remotas o desatendidas es suficiente y debería ser tenida en cuenta al diseñar intervenciones. La evidencia de calidad sobre la efectividad de intervenciones es escasa. Se requieren más estudios controlados con rigurosidad metodológica, particularmente en las Américas. Palabras clave Condiciones de trabajo


Objective. To identify and systematize available empirical evidence on factors and interventions that affect working conditions and environment in order to increase the attraction, recruitment and retention of human resources for health at the primary care level in rural, remote or underserved areas. Methods. Rapid review of reviews selected according to relevance, eligibility and inclusion criteria. The search was conducted on electronic and manual databases, including grey literature. AMSTAR I was used to assess the quality of systematic reviews and a thematic analysis for synthesis of the results. Results. Sixteen reviews were included, one of which contained 14 reviews. Of the total, 20 reviews analyzed factors and 9 evaluated the effectiveness of interventions. The evidence on factors is abundant, but of limited quality. Individual, family and “previous exposure to a rural setting” factors were associated with higher recruitment; organizational and external context factors were important for human resource retention. Networking and professional support influenced recruitment and retention. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions was limited, both in quantity and quality. The most frequently used intervention was incentives. Conclusions. Evidence on factors that are positively related to recruitment and retention of workers at the first level of care in rural, remote or underserved areas is sufficient and should be taken into account when designing interventions. Quality evidence on the effectiveness of interventions is scarce. More controlled studies with methodological rigor are needed, particularly in the Americas.


Asunto(s)
Condiciones de Trabajo , Medio Rural , Zonas Remotas , Área sin Atención Médica , Recursos Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Selección de Personal , Condiciones de Trabajo , Medio Rural , Zonas Remotas , Selección de Personal , Atención Primaria de Salud
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD004834, 2020 08 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853410

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On the American continent, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and MCL) are diseases associated with infection by several species of Leishmania parasites. Pentavalent antimonials remain the first-choice treatment. There are alternative interventions, but reviewing their effectiveness and safety is important as availability is limited. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions for all immuno-competent people who have American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ACML). SEARCH METHODS: We updated our database searches of the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and CINAHL to August 2019. We searched five trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing either single or combination treatments for ACML in immuno-competent people, diagnosed by clinical presentation and Leishmania infection confirmed by smear, culture, histology, or polymerase chain reaction on a biopsy specimen. The comparators were either no treatment, placebo only, or another active compound. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our key outcomes were the percentage of participants 'cured' at least three months after the end of treatment, adverse effects, and recurrence. We used GRADE to assess evidence certainty for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We included 75 studies (37 were new), totalling 6533 randomised participants with ATL. The studies were mainly conducted in Central and South America at regional hospitals, local healthcare clinics, and research centres. More male participants were included (mean age: roughly 28.9 years (SD: 7.0)). The most common confirmed species were L. braziliensis, L. panamensis, and L. mexicana. The most assessed interventions and comparators were non-antimonial systemics (particularly oral miltefosine) and antimonials (particularly meglumine antimoniate (MA), which was also a common intervention), respectively. Three studies included moderate-to-severe cases of mucosal leishmaniasis but none included cases with diffuse cutaneous or disseminated CL, considered the severe cutaneous form. Lesions were mainly ulcerative and located in the extremities and limbs. The follow-up (FU) period ranged from 28 days to 7 years. All studies had high or unclear risk of bias in at least one domain (especially performance bias). None of the studies reported the degree of functional or aesthetic impairment, scarring, or quality of life. Compared to placebo, at one-year FU, intramuscular (IM) MA given for 20 days to treat L. braziliensis and L. panamensis infections in ACML may increase the likelihood of complete cure (risk ratio (RR) 4.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84 to 21.38; 2 RCTs, 157 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), but may also make little to no difference, since the 95% CI includes the possibility of both increased and reduced healing (cure rates), and IMMA probably increases severe adverse effects such as myalgias and arthralgias (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.96; 1 RCT, 134 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). IMMA may make little to no difference to the recurrence risk, but the 95% CI includes the possibility of both increased and reduced risk (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.17 to 19.26; 1 RCT, 127 participants; low-certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, at six-month FU, oral miltefosine given for 28 days to treat L. mexicana, L. panamensis and L. braziliensis infections in American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) probably improves the likelihood of complete cure (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.38), and probably increases nausea rates (RR 3.96, 95% CI 1.49 to 10.48) and vomiting (RR 6.92, 95% CI 2.68 to 17.86) (moderate-certainty evidence). Oral miltefosine may make little to no difference to the recurrence risk (RR 2.97, 95% CI 0.37 to 23.89; low-certainty evidence), but the 95% CI includes the possibility of both increased and reduced risk (all based on 1 RCT, 133 participants). Compared to IMMA, at 6 to 12 months FU, oral miltefosine given for 28 days to treat L. braziliensis, L. panamensis, L. guyanensis and L. amazonensis infections in ACML may make little to no difference to the likelihood of complete cure (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.23; 7 RCTs, 676 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on moderate-certainty evidence (3 RCTs, 464 participants), miltefosine probably increases nausea rates (RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.49) and vomiting (RR 4.76, 95% CI 1.82 to 12.46) compared to IMMA. Recurrence risk was not reported. For the rest of the key comparisons, recurrence risk was not reported, and risk of adverse events could not be estimated. Compared to IMMA, at 6 to 12 months FU, oral azithromycin given for 20 to 28 days to treat L. braziliensis infections in ACML probably reduces the likelihood of complete cure (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76; 2 RCTs, 93 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared to intravenous MA (IVMA) and placebo, at 12 month FU, adding topical imiquimod to IVMA, given for 20 days to treat L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis and L. peruviana infections in ACL probably makes little to no difference to the likelihood of complete cure (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.80; 1 RCT, 80 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Compared to MA, at 6 months FU, one session of local thermotherapy to treat L. panamensis and L. braziliensis infections in ACL reduces the likelihood of complete cure (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95; 1 RCT, 292 participants; high-certainty evidence). Compared to IMMA and placebo, at 26 weeks FU, adding oral pentoxifylline to IMMA to treat CL (species not stated) probably makes little to no difference to the likelihood of complete cure (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.18; 1 RCT, 70 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence certainty was mostly moderate or low, due to methodological shortcomings, which precluded conclusive results. Overall, both IMMA and oral miltefosine probably result in an increase in cure rates, and nausea and vomiting are probably more common with miltefosine than with IMMA. Future trials should investigate interventions for mucosal leishmaniasis and evaluate recurrence rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis and its progression to mucosal disease.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis Cutánea/terapia , Administración Oral , Adulto , Antiprotozoarios/administración & dosificación , Antiprotozoarios/efectos adversos , Azitromicina/administración & dosificación , Azitromicina/efectos adversos , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertermia Inducida , Inmunocompetencia , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Interferón gamma/uso terapéutico , Vacunas contra la Leishmaniasis/uso terapéutico , Leishmaniasis Mucocutánea/terapia , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administración & dosificación , Antimoniato de Meglumina/efectos adversos , Pentoxifilina/administración & dosificación , Pentoxifilina/efectos adversos , Fosforilcolina/administración & dosificación , Fosforilcolina/efectos adversos , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
9.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e82, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695147

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy of skill mix of nurses and other health care professionals in primary health care. Methods: Systematic review of the literature aligned with the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), including observational and intervention studies. No restrictions were established for period or country of publication; studies published in Spanish, English and Portuguese were included. The search was carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, EMBASE and Web of Science electronic databases. Results: Eighteen studies were analyzed, including 6 from the United States; 3 from the Netherlands; 2 from the United Kingdom; 1 each from Australia, South Africa, South Korea, Scotland, Haiti and Japan; and 1 study with a prospective observational design from 8 countries. The studies reported that the skill mix among health professionals enables a better use of material resources; optimizes time spent on care; improves adhesion to treatment, quality of care and commitment and satisfaction with the work; and reduces the level of psychological distress in nursing professionals. Conclusions: The expansion of tasks of nurses and other health care professionals, and the skill mix as well as the development of interprofessional teams, are strategies that help to face a scarcity and poor distribution of human resources in urban and non-urban areas with improvement of the health care of the population and satisfaction of professionals and clients.

10.
Artículo en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52469

RESUMEN

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a efetividade da estratégia de combinação de tarefas dos profissionais de saúde, e do enfermeiro na Atenção Primária de Saúde. Método. Revisão sistemática da literatura alinhada com as recomendações do protocolo dos Principais Itens para Relatar Revisões Sistemáticas e Metanálises, incluindo estudos observacionais e de intervenções, sem estabelecimento de período de publicação, independentemente do país de origem e publicados nos idiomas espanhol, inglês e português. As buscas ocorreram nas bases de dados eletrônicas da MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, EMBASE e Web of Science. Resultados. Incluídos 18 estudos, dos quais 6 foram desenvolvidos nos Estados Unidos; 3 na Holanda; 2 no Reino Unido; um na África do Sul, Austrália, Coreia do Sul, Escócia, Haiti e Japão; e um estudo com desenho observacional prospectivo em 8 países. Os estudos relataram que, a combinação de tarefas entre os profissionais de saúde, possibilita melhor aproveitamento de recursos materiais, otimização do tempo gasto no atendimento, retenção do paciente no tratamento, melhora na qualidade do trabalho com diminuição dos níveis de sofrimento psicológico do enfermeiro e comprometimento e satisfação com o trabalho. Conclusão. A expansão de tarefas do enfermeiro, assim como de outras categorias de profissionais da saúde, a combinação de tarefas, bem como o desenvolvimento de equipes interprofissionais, são estratégias que podem ser empregadas em situações de escassez de recursos humanos e de má distribuição em áreas urbanas e não urbanas com resultados positivos na melhoria da atenção em saúde da população e satisfação dos profissionais e clientes.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy of skill mix of nurses and other health care professionals in primary health care. Methods. Systematic review of the literature aligned with the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), including observational and intervention studies. No restrictions were established for period or country of publication; studies published in Spanish, English and Portuguese were included. The search was carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, EMBASE and Web of Science electronic databases. Results. Eighteen studies were analyzed, including 6 from the United States; 3 from the Netherlands; 2 from the United Kingdom; 1 each from Australia, South Africa, South Korea, Scotland, Haiti and Japan; and 1 study with a prospective observational design from 8 countries. The studies reported that the skill mix among health professionals enables a better use of material resources; optimizes time spent on care; improves adhesion to treatment, quality of care and commitment and satisfaction with the work; and reduces the level of psychological distress in nursing professionals. Conclusions. The expansion of tasks of nurses and other health care professionals, and the skill mix as well as the development of interprofessional teams, are strategies that help to face a scarcity and poor distribution of human resources in urban and non-urban areas with improvement of the health care of the population and satisfaction of professionals and clients.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Grupo de Enfermería , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Recursos Humanos , Américas , Atención Primaria de Salud , Grupo de Enfermería , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Recursos Humanos , Américas
11.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 64, 2020 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522238

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Embedded approaches to implementation research (IR), whereby health system decision-makers participate actively in the research process, are gaining traction as effective approaches to optimise the delivery of health programmes and policies. However, the evidence base on the processes and effectiveness of such collaborative research remains inchoate. Standardised approaches to evaluate these initiatives are needed to identify core elements of 'embeddedness', unveil the underlying pathways of change, and assess contribution to evidence uptake in decision-making and overall outcomes of effect. The framework presented in this paper responds to this need, designed to guide the systematic evaluation of embedded IR. METHODS: This evaluation framework for embedded IR approaches is based on the experience of a joint initiative by the Pan American Health Organization/Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, which has supported 19 IR grants in 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries from 2014 to 2017. The conceptualisation of this framework drew on various sources of information, including empirical evidence and conceptual insights from the literature, interviews with content experts, and a prospective evaluation of the 2016 cohort that included semi-structured key informant interviews, document analysis, and a research team survey to examine key aspects of embedded research. RESULTS: We developed a widely applicable conceptual framework to guide the evaluation of embedded IR in various contexts. Focused on uncovering how this collaborative research approach influences programme improvement, it outlines expected processes and intermediate outcomes. It also highlights constructs with which to assess 'embeddedness' as well as critical contextual factors. The framework is intended to provide a structure by which to systematically examine such embedded research initiatives, proposing three key stages of evidence-informed decision-making - co-production of evidence, engagement with research, and enactment of programme changes. CONCLUSION: Rigorous evaluation of embedded IR is needed to build the evidence on its processes and effectiveness in influencing decision-making. The evaluation framework presented here addresses this gap with consideration of the complexity of such efforts. Its applicability to similar initiatives is bolstered by virtue of being founded on real-world experience; its potential to contribute to a nuanced understanding of embedded IR is significant.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007873, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945055

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy is a useful tool for the control of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the scientific evidence concerning the effectiveness and safety of different drugs in preventive chemotherapy for T. solium taeniasis in endemic populations. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of controlled and uncontrolled studies, assessing the efficacy and adverse effects (among other outcomes) of albendazole, niclosamide and/or praziquantel for preventive chemotherapy of T. solium taeniasis. A comprehensive search was conducted for published and unpublished studies. Two reviewers screened articles, completed the data extraction and assessment of risk of bias. A meta-analysis of cure rate and relative reduction in prevalence was performed. The protocol for this review was registered on the International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), number CRD42018112533. RESULTS: We identified 3555 records, of which we included 20 primary studies reported across 33 articles. Meta-analyses of drug and dose showed that a single dose of praziquantel 10mg/kg, albendazole 400mg per day for three consecutive days, or niclosamide 2g, resulted in better cure rates for T. solium taeniasis (99.5%, 96.4% and 84.3%, respectively) than praziquantel 5mg/kg or single dose albendazole 400mg (89.0% and 52.0%, respectively). These findings have a low certainty of evidence due to high risk of bias in individual studies and heterogeneity in combined estimates. In relation to side-effects, most studies reported either no or only mild and transient side-effects within the first three days following drug administration for all drugs and doses. CONCLUSION: Evidence indicated that praziquantel 10mg/kg, niclosamide 2g, and triple dose albendazole 400mg were effective as taenicides and could be considered for use in mass drug administration programs for the control of T. solium taeniasis. Evidence was not found that any of these drugs caused severe side effects at the indicated doses, although the extent of the available evidence was limited.


Asunto(s)
Anticestodos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención/métodos , Taenia solium/efectos de los fármacos , Teniasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Animales , Cisticercosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Humanos , Niclosamida/uso terapéutico , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Teniasis/prevención & control
13.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1103894

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Avaliar a efetividade da estratégia de combinação de tarefas dos profissionais de saúde, e do enfermeiro na Atenção Primária de Saúde. Método. Revisão sistemática da literatura alinhada com as recomendações do protocolo dos Principais Itens para Relatar Revisões Sistemáticas e Metanálises, incluindo estudos observacionais e de intervenções, sem estabelecimento de período de publicação, independentemente do país de origem e publicados nos idiomas espanhol, inglês e português. As buscas ocorreram nas bases de dados eletrônicas da MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, EMBASE e Web of Science. Resultados. Incluídos 18 estudos, dos quais 6 foram desenvolvidos nos Estados Unidos; 3 na Holanda; 2 no Reino Unido; um na África do Sul, Austrália, Coreia do Sul, Escócia, Haiti e Japão; e um estudo com desenho observacional prospectivo em 8 países. Os estudos relataram que, a combinação de tarefas entre os profissionais de saúde, possibilita melhor aproveitamento de recursos materiais, otimização do tempo gasto no atendimento, retenção do paciente no tratamento, melhora na qualidade do trabalho com diminuição dos níveis de sofrimento psicológico do enfermeiro e comprometimento e satisfação com o trabalho. Conclusão. A expansão de tarefas do enfermeiro, assim como de outras categorias de profissionais da saúde, a combinação de tarefas, bem como o desenvolvimento de equipes interprofissionais, são estratégias que podem ser empregadas em situações de escassez de recursos humanos e de má distribuição em áreas urbanas e não urbanas com resultados positivos na melhoria da atenção em saúde da população e satisfação dos profissionais e clientes.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Enfermería de Atención Primaria , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Personal de Salud , Recursos Humanos
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684696

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pityriasis rosea is a scaly, itchy rash that mainly affects young adults and lasts for 2 to 12 weeks. The effects of many available treatments are uncertain. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions for the management of pityriasis rosea in any individual diagnosed by a medical practitioner. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to October 2018: the Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We searched five trials registers. We also checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies, contacted trial authors, scanned the abstracts from major dermatology conference proceedings, and searched the CAB Abstracts database. We searched PubMed for adverse effects to November 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of interventions in pityriasis rosea. Treatment could be given in a single therapy or in combination. Eligible comparators were no treatment, placebo, vehicle only, another active compound, or placebo radiation treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane. Our key outcomes were good or excellent rash improvement within two weeks, rated separately by the participant and medical practitioner; serious adverse events; resolution of itch within two weeks (participant-rated); reduction in itch score within two weeks (participant-rated); and minor participant-reported adverse events not requiring withdrawal of the treatment. MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 trials (761 participants). In general, risk of selection bias was unclear or low, but risk of performance bias and reporting bias was high for 21% of the studies. Participant age ranged from 2 to 60 years, and sex ratio was similar. Disease severity was measured by various severity indices, which the included studies did not categorise. Six studies were conducted in India, three in Iran, two in the Philippines, and one each in Pakistan, the USA, and China. The included studies were conducted in dermatology departments and a paediatric clinic. Study duration ranged from 5 to 26 months. Three studies were funded by drug manufacturers; most studies did not report their funding source. The included studies assessed macrolide antibiotics, an antiviral agent, phototherapy, steroids and antihistamine, and Chinese medicine. None of the studies measured participant-rated good or excellent rash improvement. All reported outcomes were assessed within two weeks of treatment, except for adverse effects, which were measured throughout treatment. There is probably no difference between oral clarithromycin and placebo in itch resolution (risk ratio (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.52; 1 study, 28 participants) or rash improvement (medical practitioner-rated) (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.44; 1 study, 60 participants). For this comparison, there were no serious adverse events (1 study, 60 participants); minor adverse events and reduction in itch score were not measured; and all evidence was of moderate quality. When compared with placebo, erythromycin may lead to increased rash improvement (medical practitioner-rated) (RR 4.02, 95% CI 0.28 to 56.61; 2 studies, 86 participants, low-quality evidence); however, the 95% CI indicates that the result may also be compatible with a benefit of placebo, and there may be little or no difference between treatments. Itch resolution was not measured, but one study measured reduction in itch score, which is probably larger with erythromycin (MD 3.95, 95% CI 3.37 to 4.53; 34 participants, moderate-quality evidence). In the same single, small trial, none of the participants had a serious adverse event, and there was no clear difference between groups in minor adverse events, which included gastrointestinal upset (RR 2.00, CI 0.20 to 20.04; moderate-quality evidence). Two trials compared oral azithromycin to placebo or vitamins. There is probably no difference between groups in itch resolution (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.28 to 2.48) or reduction in itch score (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.43) (both outcomes based on one study; 70 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence from two studies indicates there may be no difference between groups in rash improvement (medical practitioner-rated) (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.00; 119 participants). In these same two studies, no serious adverse events were reported, and there was no clear difference between groups in minor adverse events, specifically mild abdominal pain (RR 5.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 47.10; moderate-quality evidence). Acyclovir was compared to placebo, vitamins, or no treatment in three trials (all moderate-quality evidence). Based on one trial (21 participants), itch resolution is probably higher with placebo than with acyclovir (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.94); reduction in itch score was not measured. However, there is probably a significant difference between groups in rash improvement (medical practitioner-rated) in favour of acyclovir versus all comparators (RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.53; 3 studies, 141 participants). Based on the same three studies, there were no serious adverse events in either group, and there was probably no difference between groups in minor adverse events (only one participant in the placebo group experienced abdominal pain and diarrhoea). One trial compared acyclovir added to standard care (calamine lotion and oral cetirizine) versus standard care alone (24 participants). The addition of acyclovir may lead to increased itch resolution (RR 4.50, 95% CI 1.22 to 16.62) and reduction in itch score (MD 1.26, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.78) compared to standard care alone. Rash improvement (medical practitioner-rated) was not measured. The trial reported no serious adverse events in either group, and there may be no difference between groups in minor adverse events, such as headache (RR 7.00, 95% CI 0.40 to 122.44) (all results based on low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When compared with placebo or no treatment, oral acyclovir probably leads to increased good or excellent, medical practitioner-rated rash improvement. However, evidence for the effect of acyclovir on itch was inconclusive. We found low- to moderate-quality evidence that erythromycin probably reduces itch more than placebo. Small study sizes, heterogeneity, and bias in blinding and selective reporting limited our conclusions. Further research is needed to investigate different dose regimens of acyclovir and the effect of antivirals on pityriasis rosea.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Pitiriasis Rosada/tratamiento farmacológico , Prurito/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Antagonistas de los Receptores Histamínicos H1/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fototerapia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Adulto Joven
15.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 85, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615511

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Progress towards universal health coverage requires health policies and systems that are informed by contextualised and actionable research. Many challenges impede the uptake of evidence to enhance health policy implementation and the coverage, quality, efficiency and equity of health systems. To address this need, we developed an innovative model of implementation research embedded in real-world policy and programme cycles and led directly by policy-makers and health systems decision-makers. The approach was tested in ten settings in Latin America and the Caribbean, supported under a common funding and capacity strengthening initiative. The present study aims to analyse ten embedded implementation research projects in order to identify barriers and facilitators to embedding research into policy and practice as well as to assess the programme, policy and systems improvements and the cross-cutting lessons in conducting research embedded in real-world policy and systems decision-making. METHODS: The multi-country analysis is based on the triangulation of data collected via three methods, namely (1) document review, (2) an electronic questionnaire and (3) in-depth interviews with decision-makers. Data from the document review was charted and narratively synthesised. Data from the questionnaire was used to assess three characteristics of the decision-maker's participation in embedded research, namely (1) level of engagement in different stages of research; (2) extent to which their capacities to conduct and use research were developed; and (3) the level of confidence in undertaking implementation research activities. Interview data was analysed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: The main barriers to effective delivery or scale-up of health interventions identified in the research projects were inadequate financing, fragmentation of healthcare services and information systems, limited capacity of health system stakeholders, insufficient time, cultural factors, and a lack of information. Decision-makers' experience in embedded research showed strong engagement in protocol development, moderate engagement in data collection and low engagement in data analysis. The in-depth interviews identified 17 facilitators and 8 barriers to embedding research into policy and systems. The principal facilitating factors were actionability of findings, relevance of research and engagement of decision-makers, whereas the main barriers were time and political processes. In Argentina, the research led to the development of new monitoring indicators to improve the implementation of the perinatal health policy, while in Chile, empirical findings supported the establishment of a training programme on reproductive rights, targeted to municipal health facilities. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-country analysis contributes to the evidence base for the embedded research approach to support health policy and systems decisions-making. Embedding research into policy and practice stimulates the relevance and applicability of research, while promoting decision-makers' engagement and likelihood to use research evidence in policy-making and health systems strengthening.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Ciencia de la Implementación , Formulación de Políticas , Investigación , Región del Caribe , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , América Latina , América del Sur , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
16.
Kidney Int ; 96(5): 1071-1076, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563333

RESUMEN

In June 2018, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences sponsored a workshop to identify research gaps in an increasingly common form of chronic kidney disease in agricultural communities, often termed "CKDu." The organizers invited a broad range of experts who provided diverse expertise and perspectives, many of whom had never addressed this particular epidemic. Discussion was focused around selected topics, including identifying and mitigating barriers to research in CKDu, creating a case definition, and defining common data elements. All hypotheses regarding etiology were entertained, and meeting participants discussed potential research strategies, choices in study design, and novel tools that may prove useful in this disease. Achievements of the workshop included robust cross-disciplinary discussion and preliminary planning of research goals and design. Specific challenges in implementing basic and clinical research and interventions in low- and middle-income countries were recognized. A balanced approach to leveraging local resources and capacity building without overreaching was emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026092, 2019 06 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217315

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and other congenital and developmental anomalies. In the absence of a ZIKV vaccine or prophylactics, principal investigators (PIs) and international leaders in ZIKV research have formed the ZIKV Individual Participant Data (IPD) Consortium to identify, collect and synthesise IPD from longitudinal studies of pregnant women that measure ZIKV infection during pregnancy and fetal, infant or child outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will identify eligible studies through the ZIKV IPD Consortium membership and a systematic review and invite study PIs to participate in the IPD meta-analysis (IPD-MA). We will use the combined dataset to estimate the relative and absolute risk of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), including microcephaly and late symptomatic congenital infections; identify and explore sources of heterogeneity in those estimates and develop and validate a risk prediction model to identify the pregnancies at the highest risk of CZS or adverse developmental outcomes. The variable accuracy of diagnostic assays and differences in exposure and outcome definitions means that included studies will have a higher level of systematic variability, a component of measurement error, than an IPD-MA of studies of an established pathogen. We will use expert testimony, existing internal and external diagnostic accuracy validation studies and laboratory external quality assessments to inform the distribution of measurement error in our models. We will apply both Bayesian and frequentist methods to directly account for these and other sources of uncertainty. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The IPD-MA was deemed exempt from ethical review. We will convene a group of patient advocates to evaluate the ethical implications and utility of the risk stratification tool. Findings from these analyses will be shared via national and international conferences and through publication in open access, peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42017068915).


Asunto(s)
Microcefalia/complicaciones , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Microcefalia/epidemiología , Microcefalia/virología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Atención Prenatal , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Virus Zika , Infección por el Virus Zika/transmisión
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e35, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093259

RESUMEN

Objectives: To evaluate the potential associations between chronic kidney disease of uncertain or non-traditional etiology (CKDnT) and agrochemicals, heat stress, heavy metals, and other factors identified in the literature in any region of the world and at any time. Methods: This was a systematic review of the most frequent exposures suspected to be possible causes of CKDnT. A search was conducted of PubMed, LILACS, World Wide Science electronic databases, among other sources. Only medium- and high-quality studies were included. The synthesis of evidence included a narrative synthesis, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Results: Four systematic reviews and 61 primary studies were included. Results of the meta-analysis suggest that exposure to agrochemicals and working in agriculture increase the risk of CKDnT, but this only reached significance for working in agriculture. When cross-sectional studies were excluded, agrochemical exposure became significant. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in the effect sizes. Conclusions: Based on the existing evidence and the precautionary principle, it is important to implement preventive measures to mitigate the damage caused by CKDnT to both agricultural workers and their communities (i.e., improvement of working conditions, cautious management of agrochemicals, etc.). More high-quality research is needed to measure impact and to build the evidence base.

19.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e36, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093260

RESUMEN

Objective: This review synthesizes the evidence (quantitative, general, and by typological categories) of disrespect and abuse during childbirth and abortion in health facilities in Latin America and the Caribbean. Methods: Systematic searches identified 18 primary studies. Q and I2 were calculated, meta-analyses and meta-regressions were performed, and subgroups were analyzed using a DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model grouped by inverse variance and the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. Results: Studies conducted in five Latin American countries were identified. No studies from the Caribbean were found. The aggregate prevalence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth and abortion was 39%. The aggregated prevalence of the phenomenon in childbirth was 43% and 29% during abortion. The high heterogeneity made it impossible to generate aggregate measures according to typological categories. Nevertheless, the frequencies of specific forms of the phenomenon were grouped typologically. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that disrespect and abuse during childbirth and abortion care are human-rights and public-health problems that are prevalent in some countries of the Region. It is necessary to reach international consensus on the definition and operationalization of this problem and to develop standardized methods for its measurement. Doing so is essential in order to achieve the targets of the 2030 Agenda related to reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and eliminating all forms of violence and discrimination against women.

20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(2): e001257, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997169

RESUMEN

This paper examines the characteristics of implementation research (IR) efforts in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) by describing how key IR principles and concepts have been used in published health research in LMICs between 1998 and 2016, with focus on how to better apply these principles and concepts to support large-scale impact of health interventions in LMICs. There is a stark discrepancy between principles of IR and what has been published. Most IR studies have been conducted under conditions where the researchers have considerable influence over implementation and with extra resources, rather than in 'real world' conditions. IR researchers tend to focus on research questions that test a proof of concept, such as whether a new intervention is feasible or can improve implementation. They also tend to use traditional fixed research designs, yet the usual conditions for managing programmes demand continuous learning and change. More IR in LMICs should be conducted under usual management conditions, employ pragmatic research paradigm and address critical implementation issues such as scale-up and sustainability of evidence-informed interventions. This paper describes some positive examples that address these concerns and identifies how better reporting of IR studies in LMICs would include more complete descriptions of strategies, contexts, concepts, methods and outcomes of IR activities. This will help practitioners, policy-makers and other researchers to better learn how to implement large-scale change in their own settings.

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