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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(23): 231101, 2017 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29286705

RESUMEN

According to the weak equivalence principle, all bodies should fall at the same rate in a gravitational field. The MICROSCOPE satellite, launched in April 2016, aims to test its validity at the 10^{-15} precision level, by measuring the force required to maintain two test masses (of titanium and platinum alloys) exactly in the same orbit. A nonvanishing result would correspond to a violation of the equivalence principle, or to the discovery of a new long-range force. Analysis of the first data gives δ(Ti,Pt)=[-1±9(stat)±9(syst)]×10^{-15} (1σ statistical uncertainty) for the titanium-platinum Eötvös parameter characterizing the relative difference in their free-fall accelerations.

2.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(21): 214003, 2015 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25965259

RESUMEN

Negative entropy has been known in Casimir systems for some time. For example, it can occur between parallel metallic plates modeled by a realistic Drude permittivity. Less well known is that negative entropy can occur purely geometrically, say between a perfectly conducting sphere and a conducting plate. The latter effect is most pronounced in the dipole approximation, which is reliable when the size of the sphere is small compared to the separation between the sphere and the plate. Therefore, here we examine cases where negative entropy can occur between two electrically and magnetically polarizable nanoparticles or atoms, which need not be isotropic, and between such a small object and a conducting plate. Negative entropy can occur even between two perfectly conducting spheres, between two electrically polarizable nanoparticles if there is sufficient anisotropy, between a perfectly conducting sphere and a Drude sphere, and between a sufficiently anisotropic electrically polarizable nanoparticle and a transverse magnetic conducting plate.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25871234

RESUMEN

Negative values of the Casimir entropy occur quite frequently at low temperatures in arrangements of metallic objects. The physical reason lies either in the dissipative nature of the metals as is the case for the plane-plane geometry or in the geometric form of the objects involved. Examples for the latter are the sphere-plane and the sphere-sphere geometry, where negative Casimir entropies can occur already for perfect metal objects. After appropriately scaling out the size of the objects, negative Casimir entropies of geometric origin are particularly pronounced in the limit of large distances between the objects. We analyze this limit in terms of the different scattering channels and demonstrate how the negativity of the Casimir entropy is related to the polarization mixing arising in the scattering process. If all involved objects have a finite zero-frequency conductivity, the channels involving transverse electric modes are suppressed and the Casimir entropy within the large-distance limit is found to be positive.

4.
Nature ; 467(7311): E1; discussion E2, 2010 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20811407

RESUMEN

In ref. 1 the authors present a re-interpretation of atom interferometry experiments published a decade ago. They now consider the atom interferometry experiments as a measurement of the gravitational redshift on the quantum clock operating at the Compton frequency omega(C) = mc(2)/ approximately 2pi x 3.0 x 10(25) Hz, where m is the caesium (Cs) atom rest mass. They then argue that this redshift measurement compares favourably with existing as well as projected clock tests. Here we show that this interpretation is incorrect.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(4): 040403, 2010 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20366691

RESUMEN

The thermal Casimir force between two metallic plates is known to depend on the description of material properties. For large separations the dissipative Drude model leads to a force a factor of 2 smaller than the lossless plasma model. Here we show that the plane-sphere geometry, in which current experiments are performed, decreases this ratio to a factor of 3/2, as revealed by exact numerical and large-distance analytical calculations. For perfect reflectors, we find a repulsive contribution of thermal photons to the force and negative entropy values at intermediate distances.

6.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 80(4 Pt 1): 041113, 2009 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19905279

RESUMEN

We explore an analogy between the thermodynamics of a free dissipative quantum particle in one dimension and that of an electromagnetic field between two mirrors of finite conductivity. While a free particle isolated from its environment will effectively be in the high-temperature limit for any nonvanishing temperature, a finite coupling to the environment leads to quantum effects ensuring the correct low-temperature behavior. Even then, it is found that under appropriate circumstances the entropy can be a nonmonotonic function of the temperature. Such a scenario with its specific dependence on the ratio of temperature and damping constant also appears for the transverse electric mode in the Casimir effect. The limits of vanishing dissipation for the quantum particle and of infinite conductivity of the mirrors in the Casimir effect both turn out to be noncontinuous.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(23): 230404, 2009 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19658911

RESUMEN

We give an exact series expansion of the Casimir force between plane and spherical metallic surfaces in the nontrivial situation where the sphere radius R, the plane-sphere distance L and the plasma wavelength lambda(P) have arbitrary relative values. We then present numerical evaluation of this expansion for not too small values of L/R. For metallic nanospheres where R, L and lambda(P) have comparable values, we interpret our results in terms of a correlation between the effects of geometry beyond the proximity force approximation and of finite reflectivity due to material properties. We also discuss the interest of our results for the current Casimir experiments which are performed with spheres of large radius R>>L.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(4): 040405, 2008 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18352246

RESUMEN

The lateral Casimir-Polder force between an atom and a corrugated surface should allow one to study experimentally nontrivial geometrical effects in the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. Here, we derive the theoretical expression of this force in the scattering approach. We show that large corrections to the "proximity force approximation" could be measured using present-day technology with a Bose-Einstein condensate used as a vacuum field sensor.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(10): 100402, 2006 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16605712

RESUMEN

We argue that the appropriate variable to study a nontrivial geometry dependence of the Casimir force is the lateral component of the Casimir force, which we evaluate between two corrugated metallic plates outside the validity of the proximity-force approximation. The metallic plates are described by the plasma model, with arbitrary values for the plasma wavelength, the plate separation, and the corrugation period, the corrugation amplitude remaining the smallest length scale. Our analysis shows that in realistic experimental situations the proximity-force approximation overestimates the force by up to 30%.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(5): 050405, 2006 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16486909

RESUMEN

Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves are intrinsic fluctuations of spacetime which lead to an unavoidable decoherence mechanism. This mechanism manifests itself as a degradation of the contrast of quantum interferences. It defines an ultimate decoherence border for matter-wave interferometry using larger and larger molecules. We give a quantitative characterization of this border in terms of figures involving the gravitational environment as well as the sensitivity of the interferometer to gravitational waves. The known level of gravitational noise determines the maximal size of the molecular probe for which interferences may remain observable. We discuss the relevance of this result in the context of ongoing progresses towards more and more sensitive matter-wave interferometry.

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