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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20788, 2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675339

RESUMEN

Research on proximity effects in superconductor/ferromagnetic hybrids has most often focused on how superconducting properties are affected-and can be controlled-by the effects of the ferromagnet's exchange or magnetic fringe fields. The opposite, namely the possibility to craft, tailor and stabilize the magnetic texture in a ferromagnet by exploiting superconducting effects, has been more seldom explored. Here we show that the magnetic flux trapped in high-temperature superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ microstructures can be used to modify the magnetic reversal of a hard ferromagnet-a cobalt/platinum multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy-and to imprint unusual magnetic domain distributions in a controlled manner via the magnetic field history. The domain distributions imprinted in the superconducting state remain stable, in absence of an external magnetic field, even after increasing the temperature well above the superconducting critical temperature, at variance to what has been observed for soft ferromagnets with in-plane magnetic anisotropy. This opens the possibility of having non-trivial magnetic configuration textures at room temperature after being tailored below the superconducting transition temperature. The observed effects are well explained by micromagnetic simulations that demonstrate the role played by the magnetic field from the superconductor on the nucleation, propagation, and stabilization of magnetic domains.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 027201, 2020 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004027

RESUMEN

Relating magnetotransport properties to specific spin textures at surfaces or interfaces is an intense field of research nowadays. Here, we investigate the variation of the electrical resistance of Ge(111) grown epitaxially on semi-insulating Si(111) under the application of an external magnetic field. We find a magnetoresistance term that is linear in current density j and magnetic field B, hence, odd in j and B, corresponding to a unidirectional magnetoresistance. At 15 K, for I=10 µA (or j=0.33 A m^{-1}) and B=1 T, it represents 0.5% of the zero field resistance, a much higher value compared to previous reports on unidirectional magnetoresistance (UMR). We ascribe the origin of this magnetoresistance to the interplay between the externally applied magnetic field and the pseudomagnetic field generated by the current applied in the spin-splitted subsurface states of Ge(111). This unidirectional magnetoresistance is independent of the current direction with respect to the Ge crystal axes. It progressively vanishes, either using a negative gate voltage due to carrier activation into the bulk (without spin-splitted bands), or by increasing the temperature due to the Rashba energy splitting of the subsurface states lower than ∼58k_{B}. We believe that UMR could be used as a powerful probe of the spin-orbit interaction in a wide range of materials.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5703, 2018 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632330

RESUMEN

Skyrmions in ultrathin ferromagnetic metal (FM)/heavy metal (HM) multilayer systems produced by conventional sputtering methods have recently generated huge interest due to their applications in the field of spintronics. The sandwich structure with two correctly-chosen heavy metal layers provides an additive interfacial exchange interaction which promotes domain wall or skyrmion spin textures that are Néel in character and with a fixed chirality. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a high resolution method ideally suited to quantitatively image such chiral magnetic configurations. When allied with physical and chemical TEM analysis of both planar and cross-sectional samples, key length scales such as grain size and the chiral variation of the magnetisation variation have been identified and measured. We present data showing the importance of the grain size (mostly < 10 nm) measured from direct imaging and its potential role in describing observed behaviour of isolated skyrmions (diameter < 100 nm). In the latter the region in which the magnetization rotates is measured to be around 30 nm. Such quantitative information on the multiscale magnetisation variations in the system is key to understanding and exploiting the behaviour of skyrmions for future applications in information storage and logic devices.

5.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(16): 165801, 2016 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26988255

RESUMEN

We report on the spin transport properties in p-doped germanium (Ge-p) using low temperature magnetoresistance measurements, electrical spin injection from a ferromagnetic metal and the spin pumping-inverse spin Hall effect method. Electrical spin injection is carried out using three-terminal measurements and the Hanle effect. In the 2-20 K temperature range, weak antilocalization and the Hanle effect provide the same spin lifetime in the germanium valence band (≈1 ps) in agreement with predicted values and previous optical measurements. These results, combined with dynamical spin injection by spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect, demonstrate successful spin accumulation in Ge. We also estimate the spin Hall angle θ(SHE) in Ge-p (6-7 x 10(-4) at room temperature, pointing out the essential role of ionized impurities in spin dependent scattering.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(9): 096602, 2016 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991190

RESUMEN

We present results on spin to charge current conversion in experiments of resonant spin pumping into the Dirac cone with helical spin polarization of the elemental topological insulator (TI) α-Sn. By angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), we first check that the Dirac cone (DC) at the α-Sn (0 0 1) surface subsists after covering Sn with Ag. Then we show that resonant spin pumping at room temperature from Fe through Ag into α-Sn layers induces a lateral charge current that can be ascribed to the inverse Edelstein effect by the DC states. Our observation of an inverse Edelstein effect length much longer than those generally found for Rashba interfaces demonstrates the potential of TIs for the conversion between spin and charge in spintronic devices. By comparing our results with data on the relaxation time of TI free surface states from time-resolved ARPES, we can anticipate the ultimate potential of the TI for spin to charge conversion and the conditions to reach it.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Estaño/química , Hierro/química , Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones/métodos , Plata/química , Temperatura
7.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 11(5): 444-8, 2016 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780660

RESUMEN

Facing the ever-growing demand for data storage will most probably require a new paradigm. Nanoscale magnetic skyrmions are anticipated to solve this issue as they are arguably the smallest spin textures in magnetic thin films in nature. We designed cobalt-based multilayered thin films in which the cobalt layer is sandwiched between two heavy metals and so provides additive interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMIs), which reach a value close to 2 mJ m(-2) in the case of the Ir|Co|Pt asymmetric multilayers. Using a magnetization-sensitive scanning X-ray transmission microscopy technique, we imaged small magnetic domains at very low fields in these multilayers. The study of their behaviour in a perpendicular magnetic field allows us to conclude that they are actually magnetic skyrmions stabilized by the large DMI. This discovery of stable sub-100 nm individual skyrmions at room temperature in a technologically relevant material opens the way for device applications in the near future.

8.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12751, 2015 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26244916

RESUMEN

The recent development in the fabrication of artificial oxide heterostructures opens new avenues in the field of quantum materials by enabling the manipulation of the charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom. In this context, the discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2-DEGs) at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces, which exhibit both superconductivity and strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC), represents a major breakthrough. Here, we report on the realisation of a field-effect LaAlO3/SrTiO3 device, whose physical properties, including superconductivity and SOC, can be tuned over a wide range by a top-gate voltage. We derive a phase diagram, which emphasises a field-effect-induced superconductor-to-insulator quantum phase transition. Magneto-transport measurements show that the Rashba coupling constant increases linearly with the interfacial electric field. Our results pave the way for the realisation of mesoscopic devices, where these two properties can be manipulated on a local scale by means of top-gates.

9.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6788, 2014 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25346028

RESUMEN

In LaTiO3/SrTiO3 and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, the bending of the SrTiO3 conduction band at the interface forms a quantum well that contains a superconducting two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG). Its carrier density and electronic properties, such as superconductivity and Rashba spin-orbit coupling can be controlled by electrostatic gating. In this article we show that the Fermi energy lies intrinsically near the top of the quantum well. Beyond a filling threshold, electrons added by electrostatic gating escape from the well, hence limiting the possibility to reach a highly-doped regime. This leads to an irreversible doping regime where all the electronic properties of the 2-DEG, such as its resistivity and its superconducting transition temperature, saturate. The escape mechanism can be described by the simple analytical model we propose.

10.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4291, 2014 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000146

RESUMEN

Perovskite materials engineered in epitaxial heterostructures have been intensely investigated during the last decade. The interface formed by an LaAlO3 thin film grown on top of a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 substrate hosts a two-dimensional electronic system and has become the prototypical example of this field. Although controversy exists regarding some of its physical properties and their precise origin, it is universally found that conductivity only appears beyond an LaAlO3 thickness threshold of four unit cells. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that this critical thickness can be reduced to just one unit cell when a metallic film of cobalt is deposited on top of LaAlO3. First-principles calculations indicate that Co modifies the electrostatic boundary conditions and induces a charge transfer towards the Ti 3d bands, supporting the electrostatic origin of the electronic system at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Our results expand the interest of this low-dimensional oxide system from in-plane to perpendicular transport and to the exploration of elastic and inelastic tunnel-type transport of (spin-polarized) carriers.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(10): 106602, 2014 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24679318

RESUMEN

Through combined ferromagnetic resonance, spin pumping, and inverse spin Hall effect experiments in Co|Pt bilayers and Co|Cu|Pt trilayers, we demonstrate consistent values of ℓsfPt=3.4±0.4 nm and θSHEPt=0.056±0.010 for the respective spin diffusion length and spin Hall angle for Pt. Our data and model emphasize the partial depolarization of the spin current at each interface due to spin-memory loss. Our model reconciles the previously published spin Hall angle values and explains the different scaling lengths for the ferromagnetic damping and the spin Hall effect induced voltage.

12.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 370(1977): 4958-71, 2012 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22987038

RESUMEN

Future spintronics devices will be built from elemental blocks allowing the electrical injection, propagation, manipulation and detection of spin-based information. Owing to their remarkable multi-functional and strongly correlated character, oxide materials already provide such building blocks for charge-based devices such as ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FETs), as well as for spin-based two-terminal devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions, with giant responses in both cases. Until now, the lack of suitable channel materials and the uncertainty of spin-injection conditions in these compounds had however prevented the exploration of similar giant responses in oxide-based lateral spin transport structures. In this paper, we discuss the potential of oxide-based spin FETs and report magnetotransport data that suggest electrical spin injection into the LaAlO(3)-SrTiO(3) interface system. In a local, three-terminal measurement scheme, we analyse the voltage variation associated with the precession of the injected spin accumulation driven by perpendicular or longitudinal magnetic fields (Hanle and 'inverted' Hanle effects). The spin accumulation signal appears to be much larger than expected, probably owing to amplification effects by resonant tunnelling through localized states in the LaAlO(3). We give perspectives on how to achieve direct spin injection with increased detection efficiency, as well on the implementation of efficient top gating schemes for spin manipulation.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(18): 186802, 2012 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22681101

RESUMEN

We report results of electrical spin injection at the high-mobility quasi-two-dimensional electron system (2-DES) that forms at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. In a nonlocal, three-terminal measurement geometry, we analyze the voltage variation associated with the precession of the injected spin accumulation driven by perpendicular or transverse magnetic fields (Hanle and inverted Hanle effect). The influence of bias and back-gate voltages reveals that the spin accumulation signal is amplified by resonant tunneling through localized states in the LaAlO3 strongly coupled to the 2-DES by tunneling transfer.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(22): 226601, 2012 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23368143

RESUMEN

It is well known that transport in lightly n-doped SrTiO(3) involves light and heavy electron bands. We have found that upon application of moderate quasi-isotropic pressures, the relative positions of these subbands are changed by a few meV and, eventually, a band inversion occurs at ~1 kbar. Such effects are, however, suppressed in the closely related KTaO(3) perovskite. We show that the extremely subtle electronic reconfiguration in SrTiO(3) is triggered by strain-induced structural transformations that are accompanied by remarkable mobility enhancements up to about Δµ/µ≈300%. Our results provide a microscopic rationale for the recently discovered transport enhancement under strain and underscore the role of the internal structural degrees of freedom in the modulation of the perovskite electronic properties.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(5): 056102, 2011 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21867080

RESUMEN

We present a direct comparison between experimental data and ab initio calculations for the electrostrictive effect in the polar LaAlO(3) layer grown on SrTiO(3) substrates. From the structural data, a complete screening of the LaAlO(3) dipole field is observed for film thicknesses between 6 and 20 uc. For thinner films, an expansion of the c axis of 2% matching the theoretical predictions for an electrostrictive effect is observed experimentally.

16.
Nature ; 469(7329): 189-93, 2011 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21228872

RESUMEN

As silicon is the basis of conventional electronics, so strontium titanate (SrTiO(3)) is the foundation of the emerging field of oxide electronics. SrTiO(3) is the preferred template for the creation of exotic, two-dimensional (2D) phases of electron matter at oxide interfaces that have metal-insulator transitions, superconductivity or large negative magnetoresistance. However, the physical nature of the electronic structure underlying these 2D electron gases (2DEGs), which is crucial to understanding their remarkable properties, remains elusive. Here we show, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, that there is a highly metallic universal 2DEG at the vacuum-cleaved surface of SrTiO(3) (including the non-doped insulating material) independently of bulk carrier densities over more than seven decades. This 2DEG is confined within a region of about five unit cells and has a sheet carrier density of ∼0.33 electrons per square lattice parameter. The electronic structure consists of multiple subbands of heavy and light electrons. The similarity of this 2DEG to those reported in SrTiO(3)-based heterostructures and field-effect transistors suggests that different forms of electron confinement at the surface of SrTiO(3) lead to essentially the same 2DEG. Our discovery provides a model system for the study of the electronic structure of 2DEGs in SrTiO(3)-based devices and a novel means of generating 2DEGs at the surfaces of transition-metal oxides.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(12): 126803, 2010 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20366557

RESUMEN

The quasi-two-dimensional electron gas found at the LaAlO{3}/SrTiO{3} interface offers exciting new functionalities, such as tunable superconductivity, and has been proposed as a new nanoelectronics fabrication platform. Here we lay out a new example of an electronic property arising from the interfacial breaking of inversion symmetry, namely, a large Rashba spin-orbit interaction, whose magnitude can be modulated by the application of an external electric field. By means of magnetotransport experiments we explore the evolution of the spin-orbit coupling across the phase diagram of the system. We uncover a steep rise in Rashba interaction occurring around the doping level where a quantum critical point separates the insulating and superconducting ground states of the system.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(23): 236802, 2010 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231492

RESUMEN

We report on a study of magnetotransport in LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 interfaces characterized by mobilities of the order of several thousands cm2/V s. We observe Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations whose period depends only on the perpendicular component of the magnetic field. This observation directly indicates the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas originating from quantum confinement at the interface. From the temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitude we extract an effective carrier mass m* ≃ 1.45 m(e). An electric field applied in the back-gate geometry increases the mobility, the carrier density, and the oscillation frequency.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(4): 046809, 2009 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19257462

RESUMEN

We report experimental investigations of the effects of microstructural defects and of disorder on the properties of 2D electron gases at oxide interfaces. The cross section for scattering of electrons at dislocations in LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) interfaces has been measured and found to equal approximately 5 nm. Our experiments reveal that the transport properties of these electron gases are strongly influenced by scattering at dislocation cores.

20.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 21(16): 164213, 2009 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21825393

RESUMEN

We report on the structural characterization of LaAlO(3)/SrTiO(3) interfaces and on their transport properties. LaAlO(3) films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition onto TiO(2) terminated (001) SrTiO(3) substrates inducing a metallic conduction at the interface. Resistance and Hall effect measurements reveal a sheet carrier density between 0.4 and 1.2 × 10(14) electrons cm(-2) at room temperature and a mobility of ∼300 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at low temperatures. A transition to a superconducting state is observed at a temperature of ∼200 mK. The superconducting characteristics display signatures of 2D superconductivity.

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