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1.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002963, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In light of the accelerating and rapidly evolving overdose crisis in the United States (US), new strategies are needed to address the epidemic and to efficiently engage and retain individuals in care for opioid use disorder (OUD). Moreover, there is an increasing need for novel approaches to using health data to identify gaps in the cascade of care for persons with OUD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between June 2018 and May 2019, we engaged a diverse stakeholder group (including directors of statewide health and social service agencies) to develop a statewide, patient-centered cascade of care for OUD for Rhode Island, a small state in New England, a region highly impacted by the opioid crisis. Through an iterative process, we modified the cascade of care defined by Williams et al. for use in Rhode Island using key national survey data and statewide health claims datasets to create a cross-sectional summary of 5 stages in the cascade. Approximately 47,000 Rhode Islanders (5.2%) were estimated to be at risk for OUD (stage 0) in 2016. At the same time, 26,000 Rhode Islanders had a medical claim related to an OUD diagnosis, accounting for 55% of the population at risk (stage 1); 27% of the stage 0 population, 12,700 people, showed evidence of initiation of medication for OUD (MOUD, stage 2), and 18%, or 8,300 people, had evidence of retention on MOUD (stage 3). Imputation from a national survey estimated that 4,200 Rhode Islanders were in recovery from OUD as of 2016, representing 9% of the total population at risk. Limitations included use of self-report data to arrive at estimates of the number of individuals at risk for OUD and using a national estimate to identify the number of individuals in recovery due to a lack of available state data sources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cross-sectional summaries of the cascade of care for OUD can be used as a health policy tool to identify gaps in care, inform data-driven policy decisions, set benchmarks for quality, and improve health outcomes for persons with OUD. There exists a significant opportunity to increase engagement prior to the initiation of OUD treatment (i.e., identification of OUD symptoms via routine screening or acute presentation) and improve retention and remission from OUD symptoms through improved community-supported processes of recovery. To do this more precisely, states should work to systematically collect data to populate their own cascade of care as a health policy tool to enhance system-level interventions and maximize engagement in care.

2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107514, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614328

RESUMEN

The prevalence of opioid use disorders among people who are incarcerated is high. People who are released from incarceration are at increased risk for overdose. The current study details the first year of implementation of a state-wide medications for addiction treatment (MAT) program in a unified jail and prison setting at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections in Cranston, Rhode Island. We conducted 40 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with people who were incarcerated and concurrently enrolled in the MAT program. Analysis employed a general, inductive approach in NVivo 12. We found that a majority of participants discussed program benefits such as reduced withdrawal symptoms, decreased prevalence of illicit drug use in the facility, improved general environment at the RIDOC, and increased post-release intentions to continue MAT. Suggested areas of improvement include reducing delays to first dose, increasing access to other recovery services in combination with MAT, improving staff training on stigma, and earlier access to medical discharge planning information prior to release. Our findings suggest that correctional MAT programs are acceptable to targeted populations and are a feasible intervention that may be transferable to other states.

3.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 106: 73-78, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540614

RESUMEN

People who are incarcerated are at increased risk for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition upon release, and one possible intervention for prevention is the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) upon release. The present study assessed HIV risk perceptions as well as PrEP awareness and interest among 39 people who were incarcerated and enrolled in a structured Medication for Addiction Treatment (MAT) program at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections using semi-structured, qualitative interviews. Analysis was conducted using a generalized, inductive method in NVivo 12. While PrEP awareness was low across the study sample, some participants were interested in PrEP uptake or learning more about PrEP after they were provided with an overview of it. PrEP interest strongly related to current perceived HIV risk. Potential barriers included side effects, adherence, and reluctance to take medications in general. MAT programs for people who are criminal justice (CJ) involved may serve as useful linkage spaces to PrEP information, access, and retention.

5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 104: 28-33, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370982

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in the criminal justice setting is an effective way to address opioid use disorder and prevent associated deaths in the community. The Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) is the first statewide correctional system in the United States to offer comprehensive MOUD services to incarcerated individuals.However, due to stigma, eligible individuals may be reluctant to engage with MOUD. This study aims to 1) evaluate the efficacy of an educational video intervention about MOUD and 2) characterize MOUD-related attitudes in a general incarcerated population. METHODS: Participants were recruited from eight elective classes offered to soon-to-be-released incarcerated individuals at RIDOC. Participants viewed an eight-minute video featuring incarcerated individuals speaking about their experiences using MOUD, designed to reduce MOUD-related stigma. Participants were administered surveys prior to and after watching the video to assess changes in MOUD knowledge (MOUD-K) and MOUD attitudes (MOUD-A). RESULTS: This evaluation of the intervention included 80 incarcerated participants (median age = 35, 93% male, 36% non-Hispanic White, and 26% non-Hispanic Black). Forty percent indicated non-medical opioid use within six months prior to incarceration; 13% had previously used MOUD. Significant improvements in MOUD-K scores (t(65) = -7.0, p < 0.0001) and MOUD-A scores (t(69) = -5.8, p < 0.0001) were detected after participants viewed the video. The intervention yielded greater ΔMOUD-A scores among those identifying as non-Hispanic Black, compared to non-Hispanic Whites (ß = 2.6, CI = 0.4, 4.8). CONCLUSION: The educational video improved both knowledge and positive attitudes towards MOUD, with changes in MOUD attitudes being influenced by race. These findings may inform future MOUD educational programs, thereby helping to reduce opioid use disorder-related morbidity and mortality.

6.
Sex Transm Dis ; 46(9): 602-607, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415042

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Incarceration and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, little is known about STI prevalence among people living with HIV (PLWH) during and after incarceration. METHODS: Electronic medical records from the Dallas County Jail and community HIV clinics were reviewed to determine the frequency and results of testing for gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among PLWH incarcerated in Dallas County Jail between 2010 and 2013. HIV viral loads (VL) and evidence of STI symptoms and treatment were also collected. RESULTS: During 2473 incarcerations, 6 (3%) of 190 tests were positive for gonorrhea, 7 (4%) of 190 for chlamydia, 231 (21%) of 1082 for syphilis, of which 53 (23%) were new diagnoses, and 48 (5%) of 1005 for HBV surface antigen. Among 1631 releases to the community, 808 followed up in community clinics, where 21 (4%) 553 tests were positive for gonorrhea, 23 (4%) of 555 for chlamydia, 150 (19%) of 808 for syphilis, of which 31 (21%) were new diagnoses, and 24 (6%) of 421 for HBV surface antigen. The majority of new STI cases, 51 (80%) of 64 in jail and 43 (77%)of 56 in the community, had a concurrent detectable (>200 copies/mL) HIV VL. CONCLUSIONS: Testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia was low, particularly in jail, which was attributed to testing protocols. High proportions of PLWH tested positive for syphilis and HBV infection in both settings. The majority of patients with active STIs had a detectable HIV VL. Routine, opt-out screening for STIs for PLWH during and after incarceration has the potential to identify a high proportion of STIs and improve secondary HIV prevention.

7.
Int J Drug Policy ; 70: 47-53, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As overdose deaths have increased in the United States, some lawmakers have explored punitive, "supply-side" interventions aimed at reducing the supply of fentanyl. While a rationale of seeking to protect people who use drugs is often given to justify harsh sentences for fentanyl distribution, there is no research to our knowledge on perceptions of the effect of drug-induced homicide laws among people who use drugs. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 40 people with opioid use disorder (OUD) who were enrolled in a medication for addiction treatment (MAT) program in a unified jail and prison system in Rhode Island on attitudes surrounding increased sentences for distribution of fentanyl, including recently enacted drug-induced homicide laws. Codes were developed using a generalized, inductive method and interviews analyzed in NVivo 12 after being coded by two coders. RESULTS: Most participants stated that drug-induced homicide laws would not be an effective strategy to stem the overdose crisis. We identified key themes, including discussions surrounding the autonomy of people who use drugs, widespread fentanyl prevalence as a barrier to implementation of drug-induced homicide laws, discussions of mass incarceration as ineffective for addressing substance use disorders, feelings that further criminalization could lead to violence, criminalization as a justification for interpersonal loss, and intention as meaningful to categorizing an act as homicide. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of centering the experiences of people with OUD in creating policies surrounding the overdose epidemic, potential unintended health consequences of drug-induced homicides laws such as deterrence from calling 911 and increased violence, and how drug-induced homicide laws may undermine advances made in expanding access to OUD treatment for people who are criminal justice-involved.

11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 49-55, 2019 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776571

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The timing of social service benefit issuance is thought to be associated with increased drug overdose fatalities. However, the extent to which this excess mortality is concentrated in communities with higher levels of benefit receipt has not been studied. We sought to examine if benefit receipt at the neighborhood level was associated with spatiotemporal patterns of overdose fatalities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all accidental overdose deaths recorded in Rhode Island from 2014 to 2016 (n = 838). Overdose incident locations were geocoded to the census block group level. Clusters of census block groups with excess overdose mortality at the beginning of a month were identified using spatial scan methods. Logistic regression models were fit to identify characteristics associated with the inclusion of a census block group within a cluster. RESULTS: Increased rates of overdose fatalities at the beginning of a month were observed relative to the end of a preceding month (Ratio: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38). The proportions of residents receiving cash public assistance or Supplemental Security Income were not associated with excess mortality at the beginning of a month; however, the proportion of residents living in unaffordable housing was (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.91). CONCLUSION: Despite previous research on benefit check issuance and overdose, welfare receipt was not associated with excess overdose mortality at the beginning of a month at the neighborhood level. Future research on housing cost burden and its influence on overdose death risk at the individual level is needed.


Asunto(s)
Censos , Sobredosis de Droga/mortalidad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rhode Island/epidemiología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
12.
Subst Abus ; 40(2): 125-131, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810496

RESUMEN

Background: Students from health professional schools participated in a half-day interprofessional education workshop centered on substance use disorder training. One component was a patient panel featuring individuals with a history of opioid use disorder who described the impact of addiction on their lives and their road to recovery using varied treatment options. We hypothesized that interacting with individuals with opioid use disorder early in training would elicit more humanistic perspectives and decrease bias and stigma in future health care professionals. Methods: After participating in the panel experience, health professional students (N = 580) from medicine, nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and social work were asked to complete short, 5-minute, rapid reflections. Prompts asked students whether the panel changed their perception of individuals with substance use disorder, to reflect on their attitudinal changes or lack thereof, and how working in interprofessional teams could impact the management and treatment of these patients. Conventional content analysis was performed. Results: Eighty-nine percent of students who attended the session completed the rapid reflections (n = 514). Overall, approximately 70% (n = 369) of students indicated that their perceptions of individuals with substance use disorder had changed as a result of the patient panel, with students from pharmacy more likely to indicate a change in attitudes. Themes across all professions included a change toward a more humanistic perspective, value of hearing real patient stories, and learning about treatment and recovery options. Student responses described how interprofessional health care teams can provide more holistic care with a broader range of therapeutic options that may improve long-term outcomes. Conclusions: A patient panel experience is influential on interprofessional students' attitudes toward patients who suffer from opioid use disorder. Students identified an interprofessional approach as being a valuable component of management and treatment of these patients.

13.
J Urban Health ; 96(1): 1-5, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623291
14.
Int J Drug Policy ; 61: 52-58, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344005

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The overdose epidemic has been exacerbated by a dramatic increase in deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF). Drug checking is a novel strategy to identify IMF in illicit drugs. We examined the uptake and acceptability of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults. METHODS: From May to September 2017, we recruited 93 young adults in Rhode Island who reported injecting drugs or using heroin, cocaine, or illicitly obtained prescription pills in the past 30 days. Participants were asked to test either their urine after drug use (post-consumption) or a drug sample prior to use (pre-consumption) using rapid fentanyl test strips. After a questionnaire and a brief training, participants received ten strips for their personal use and were asked to return for a one-month follow-up visit, which assessed the uptake and acceptability of the rapid strips tests and the behavioral outcomes associated with receipt of a positive test. RESULTS: Of the 81 (87%) participants who returned for follow-up and who had complete data, the mean age was 27, 45 (56%) were male, and 37 (46%) were non-white. A total of 62 participants (77%) reported using at least one test strip. Of these, 31 (50%) received at least one positive result. A positive result was associated with older age, homelessness, heroin use, injection drug use, ever witnessing an overdose, and concern about overdose or drugs being laced with fentanyl (all p < 0.05). Receiving a positive result was significantly associated with reporting a positive change in overdose risk behavior between baseline and follow-up (p ≤ 0.01). Among all participants, 79 (98%) reported confidence in their ability to use the test strips and 77 (95%) wanted to use them in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults reported high uptake and acceptability of fentanyl test strips to detect IMF in illicit drugs.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/análisis , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Fentanilo/análisis , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Tiras Reactivas , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/orina , Sobredosis de Droga/orina , Femenino , Fentanilo/orina , Heroína , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/orina , Rhode Island/epidemiología , Asunción de Riesgos , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/epidemiología , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/orina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 192: 94-97, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243145

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) is a potent synthetic opioid that has been contributing to overdose deaths in the United States. This study examined intake toxicology and six-month treatment outcomes for patients newly admitted to a single methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in Rhode Island with a high prevalence of illicit fentanyl. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to a single MMTP between November 1st, 2016 and August 31st, 2017 followed for six months. Outcomes measured included: 1) retention in treatment at 6 months; 2) evidence of sustained abstinence; 3) relapse; 4) methadone dosage required to achieve sustained abstinence; and 5) the number of days required to achieve abstinence. RESULTS: We observed 154 unique intake events (representing 147 patients). 80% (n = 123) tested positive for fentanyl at intake. During the six-month follow up period, 32% (n = 49) left treatment before six months, two individuals died within five weeks of discontinuation. No deaths were seen among those remaining in treatment. The majority (89%) who remained in treatment at six months achieved abstinence. No significant difference was seen for dose or time to achieve abstinence. Relapse was common (57%). Repeated exposure to fentanyl was seen frequently (71%) while in MMT before and after achieving abstinence. CONCLUSION: While there is concern that the potency of IMF may reduce the effectiveness of MAT, this study suggests that MMT is safe, abstinence achievable, and MMT is protective against death among fentanyl-exposed patients.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Fentanilo/efectos adversos , Metadona/administración & dosificación , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/tendencias , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/efectos adversos , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/métodos , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rhode Island/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
J Addict Med ; 12(6): 459-465, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095563

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Buprenorphine/naloxone, an evidence-based treatment for opioid use disorder, is sometimes diverted for non-medical use. In Rhode Island, the prevalence of opioid use and, more recently, of fentanyl in the illicit drug supply is driving overdose fatalities, which increases the need for treatment and raises questions about the changing role of diverted medication in shaping overdose risk. METHODS: This study considered data from 2 Rhode Island based studies (conducted in 2009 and 2016, respectively) of people who use illicit or diverted prescription opioids and their patterns of buprenorphine/naloxone diversion. Using targeted sampling, individuals who use opioids completed a brief questionnaire about their drug use. For the 2016 study, logistic regression was used to identify associations with recent and lifetime use of diverted medication. RESULTS: A total of 128 individuals who use opioids non-medically participated in the 2016 study. Of these, 38% (n = 13) reported diverted buprenorphine/naloxone use in the past 2 months, similar to the pattern observed in 2009 (41%, n = 41). Common motivations for using diverted medication included the management of withdrawal symptoms (40%, n = 35) and self-treatment of opioid use disorder (39%, n = 34). Few reported using to "get high" (12%, n = 4). Seeking buprenorphine/naloxone treatment in the previous 12 months was positively associated with using diverted medication in the past 2 months (odds ratio = 5.14, 95% confidence interval = 1.0-26.5, P = 0.05). Participants of both studies reported the same barriers to care in 2009 and 2016. CONCLUSION: The use of diverted/buprenorphine remains common among people who use opioids non-medically and indicates a severe shortage in treatment capacity and inaccessibility of existing services.


Asunto(s)
Combinación Buprenorfina y Naloxona/uso terapéutico , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Antagonistas de Narcóticos/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Desvío de Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/estadística & datos numéricos , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rhode Island , Adulto Joven
18.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2018(8): omy046, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151215

RESUMEN

The etiology of posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) is typically multifactorial. Patients with HIV are at risk for the development of this syndrome. We review 17 published cases of HIV and PRES and describe the second reported case of PRES in the setting of HIV and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). IRIS has not yet been described as a risk factor for PRES.

19.
Vaccine ; 36(37): 5651-5656, 2018 09 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prison setting carries unique risks for varicella outbreaks and the disease in adults, particularly those who are immunocompromised, can be life-threatening. In 2016-17, there were three outbreaks of varicella at three different correctional facilities in Rhode Island. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend post-exposure vaccination within three to five days for affected populations however the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) notes the logistical challenges of vaccinating exposed incarcerated individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive analysis was performed for each outbreak along with an overview of the response. Varicella serologies were obtained from the exposed population at each facility and the results compiled for comparative analysis. A literature review was then performed to identify and analyze other reported varicella outbreaks in incarcerated populations. RESULTS: In each outbreak, the sentinel event was an inmate with herpes zoster. In prison A, there were 432 inmates exposed to the virus leading to 5 cases of varicella, while the outbreak in Prison B exposed 46 inmates and led to 3 cases. In Prison C, there was one case of primary varicella and 97 inmates were exposed. DISCUSSION: It is remarkable that there were 3 unrelated outbreaks in a short time and, although corroborating data would be necessary to establish a trend, it may signal an increased risk of varicella transmission within this population. Correctional facilities should remain vigilant and have plans for managing the disease including isolation protocols, serology testing and post-exposure vaccination when indicated. While the BOP does not provide clear recommendations on the use of post-exposure prophylaxis during an outbreak response in this population, the experience in Rhode Island and the review of the literate demonstrate steps that can be taken to facilitate a response including post-exposure vaccination in line with CDC recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Varicela/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Herpes Zóster/epidemiología , Prisiones , Adulto , Herpesvirus Humano 3 , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rhode Island/epidemiología , Vigilancia de Guardia , Pruebas Serológicas , Estados Unidos
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