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1.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104822, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592931

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Overcoming substantial shortcomings of soft liners as physico-chemical changes and liner-biofilm-related infections remains a challenge in the rehabilitation treatment. In this study, protective non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatments were developed on the soft liner surface to improve its surface and physico-chemical properties and to reduce fungal colonization after biofilm inhibition challenge. METHODS: Resinous liner specimens (Coe-Soft) were prepared and distributed in 3 groups according to the surface treatments: (1) untreated (control); (2) treated with sulfur hexafluoride-based NTP (SF6); and (3) treated with hexamethyldisiloxane-based NTP (HMDSO). To test the NTP stability and their protective and antimicrobial effect on the liner surface over time, the morphology, chemical composition, roughness, water contact angle, shore A hardness, sorption and solubility were evaluated before and after the specimens were exposed to dual-species biofilm of Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis for 14 days. Colony forming units and biofilm structure were assessed. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Both treatments modified the surface morphology, increased hydrophobicity and roughness of the liner, and were effective to reduce C. albicans adhesion without affecting the commensal health-associated S. oralis. HMDSO presented chemical stability and lower hardness in both periods, whereas SF6 exhibited higher initial hardness than control and the highest sorption; contrarily, similar solubility was noted for all groups. CONCLUSION: HMDSO-based film showed improved physico-chemical properties and inhibited C. albicans biofilm. Thus, it has potential for use to control candida-related stomatitis and improve liner's stability even after being exposed to biofilm inhibition challenge.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Biopelículas , Alineadores Dentales , Gases em Plasma , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Candida albicans , Ensayo de Materiales , Gases em Plasma/farmacología , Streptococcus oralis , Propiedades de Superficie
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104728, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585445

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of two glucose concentrations (0.1 mM and 1.0 mM, simulating glucose concentration in saliva of healthy and diabetic individuals) on Candida albicans biofilm grown on epithelial monolayer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C. albicans was inoculated on epithelial monolayers supplemented with 0.1 mM, 1.0 mM or no glucose. Control groups without C. albicans were also evaluated. Tissue response was assessed through the production of Interleukin-1α, Interleukin-8, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The complex of monolayer and biofilms were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), Caspase-3 (CASP3), ß-defensin-1 (DEFB-1) and ß-defensin-3 (DEFB-3). The biofilm architecture was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: The production of Interleukin-1α and Interleukin-8 were increased in the presence of C. albicans (p < 0.05). Glucose did not interfere in the release of any cytokine evaluated. C. albicans downregulated transcripts for CDH1 (p < 0.05). Glucose did not induce a significant change in CDH1, CASP3, DEFB-1 and DEFB-3 messenger RNA expression. The biofilms were more structured in the presence of glucose, but no difference in the diffusion of hyphae through the epithelial cells were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that glucose concentration does not affect the behavior of C. albicans during tissue invasion and other mechanisms must be related to the greater susceptibility of diabetic individuals to candidiasis.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Candida albicans , Candidiasis , Células Epiteliales/microbiología , Glucosa/farmacología , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos
3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(9): 3105-3112, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897706

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the effect of high-fluoride dentifrice (5000 µg F-/g) and fluoride-containing bonding composite resin on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten volunteers wore palatal appliances containing bovine enamel blocks with metallic brackets bonded with fluoride-free or fluoride-containing composite resin. During three phases of 14 days each, three dentifrices with different fluoride concentrations (0, 1100, and 5000 µg F-/g) were tested. The cariogenic challenge consisted of 20% sucrose solution dripped 8x/day onto the dental blocks. At the end of each phase, biofilm formed was collected for fluoride analysis. Cross section hardness was performed in enamel blocks, and the lesion area was calculated. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test (α = 5%). RESULTS: The only signicant factor for all the variables under study was the dentifrice. Smaller lesion area and higher fluoride concentration on biofilm were found in 5000 µg F-/g group, irrespective of bonding composite resin (p < 0.001). Neither bracket-bonding composite resin nor the interaction between the factors was statistically significant (p > 0.05) for all the variables. CONCLUSION: High-fluoride dentifrice is effective in reducing demineralization on enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets, while the fluoride-containing bonding composite resin does not influence it. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Since high-fluoride dentifrice was able to reduce demineralization adjacent to brackets, it can be an option to caries management in orthodontics patients.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2140, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572344

RESUMEN

Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium with high cariogenic potential, coordinates competence for natural transformation and bacteriocin production via the XIP and CSP pheromones. CSP is effective in inducing bacteriocin responses but not competence in chemically defined media (CDM). This is in contrast to XIP, which is a strong inducer of competence in CDM but can also stimulate bacteriocin genes as a late response. Interconnections between the pathways activated by the two pheromones have been characterized in certain detail in S. mutans UA159, but it is mostly unknown whether such findings are representative for the species. In this study, we used bioassays based on luciferase reporters for the bacteriocin gene cipB and the alternative sigma factor sigX to investigate various S. mutans isolates for production and response to CSP and XIP pheromones in CDM. Similar to S. mutans UA159, endogenous CSP was undetectable in the culture supernatants of all tested strains. During optimization of the bioassay using the cipB reporter, we discovered that the activity of exogenous CSP used as a standard was reduced over time during S. mutans growth. Using a FRET-CSP reporter peptide, we found that S. mutans UA159 was able to degrade CSP, and that such activity was not significantly different in isogenic mutants with deletion of the protease gene htrA or the competence genes sigX, oppD, and comR. CSP cleavage was also detected in all the wild type strains, indicating that this is a conserved feature in S. mutans. For the XIP pheromone, endogenous production was observed in the supernatants of all 34 tested strains at peak concentrations in culture supernatants that varied between 200 and 26000 nM. Transformation in the presence of exogenous XIP was detected in all but one of the isolates. The efficiency of transformation varied, however, among the different strains, and for those with the highest transformation rates, endogenous XIP peak concentrations in the supernatants were above 2000 nM XIP. We conclude that XIP production and inducing effect on transformation, as well as the ability to degrade CSP, are conserved functions among different S. mutans isolates. Understanding the functionality and conservation of pheromone systems in S. mutans may lead to novel strategies to prevent or treat unbalances in oral microbiomes that may favor diseases.

5.
Biofouling ; 35(2): 173-186, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935231

RESUMEN

The chemical composition of biomaterials can drive their biological responses; therefore, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the proteomic profile of the salivary pellicle formed on titanium (Ti) alloys containing niobium (Nb) and zirconium (Zr). The experimental groups consisted of Ti35NbxZr (x = 5 and 10 wt%) alloys, and commercially pure titanium (cpTi); titanium aluminium vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloys were used as controls. The physical and chemical characteristics of the Ti materials were analysed. The proteomic profile was evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Bacterial adhesion (2 h) of mixed species (Streptococcus sanguinis and Actinomyces naeslundii) was investigated as colony-forming units (n = 6). This paper reports the finding that salivary pellicle composition can be modulated by the composition of the Ti material. The Ti35NbxZr group showed a significant ability to adsorb proteins from saliva, which can favour interactions with cells and compatibility with the body.


Asunto(s)
Aleaciones/química , Película Dental/química , Niobio/química , Proteoma/análisis , Proteínas y Péptidos Salivales/análisis , Titanio/química , Circonio/química , Adsorción , Adhesión Bacteriana , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Proteómica
6.
Caries Res ; 53(1): 16-23, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874649

RESUMEN

Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) could increase the penetration of fluoride through dental biofilm, reducing its cariogenicity. We measured the concentration of fluoride in EPS-containing (EPS+) or not-containing (EPS-) Streptococcus mutans bacterial pellets resembling test biofilms, before and up to 60 min after a 0.05% NaF rinse in situ. Fluoride penetration and clearance were higher in EPS+ bacterial pellets. The data suggest that EPS enhances fluoride penetration, but also accelerates fluoride clearance from dental biofilms.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Cariostáticos/química , Fluoruros/química , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/química , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Cariostáticos/farmacología , Estudios Cruzados , Caries Dental/microbiología , Difusión , Método Doble Ciego , Fluoruros/farmacología , Fructosa/química , Glucosa/química , Humanos , Concentración Osmolar , Análisis de Regresión , Saliva/fisiología , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Streptococcus mutans/fisiología , Sacarosa/química
7.
J Prosthet Dent ; 120(2): 290-298, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551382

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Biofilms can reduce the corrosion resistance of titanium because of the bacterial metabolism of fermentable carbohydrates, including sucrose. However, studies evaluating whether biofilms exposed to higher sucrose concentrations can affect the electrochemical behavior of titanium are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to test the electrochemical behavior of titanium previously exposed to biofilm supplemented with different sucrose concentrations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were formed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) surfaces and supplemented constantly with different sucrose concentrations (0%, 1%, 10%, and 40%) for 7 days (experimental groups) (n=12 per group). CpTi disks without biofilm were used as a control (n=12). The standard electrochemical tests open-circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic curve were performed. Data were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests (α=.05). RESULTS: The biofilm exposed to sucrose had an increased biofilm dry weight (P<.05). The polysaccharide amount and the pH drop were higher in the groups exposed to sucrose (P<.05). No difference was noted between the control and experimental groups for the electrochemical properties of cpTi (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: Biofilms exposed to greater carbohydrate concentration did not alter the corrosive behavior of titanium.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Electroquímica , Ensayo de Materiales , Sacarosa/metabolismo , Titanio/química , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Corrosión , Implantes Dentales , Materiales Dentales/química , Espectroscopía Dieléctrica , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Polisacáridos/química , Saliva Artificial , Streptococcus mutans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Propiedades de Superficie , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Caries Res ; 52(4): 323-330, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444502

RESUMEN

Since there is no consensus about whether starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose, we used a validated 3-species biofilm model to evaluate if starch combined with sucrose provokes higher root dentine demineralization than sucrose alone. Biofilms (n = 18) composed by Streptococcus mutans (the most cariogenic bacteria), Actinomces naeslundii (which has amylolytic activity), and Streptococcus gordonii (which binds salivary amylase) were formed on root dentine slabs under exposure 8 ×/day to one of the following treatments: 0.9% NaCl, 1% starch, 10% sucrose, or a combination of 1% starch and 10% sucrose. Before each treatment, biofilms were pretreated with human whole saliva for 1 min. The pH of the culture medium was measured daily as an indicator of biofilm acidogenicity. After 96 h of growth, the biofilms were collected, and the biomass, bacteria viability, and polysaccharides were analyzed. Dentine demineralization was assessed by surface hardness loss (% SHL). Biofilm bioarchitecture was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Treatment with a starch and sucrose combination provoked higher (p = 0.01) dentine demineralization than sucrose alone (% SHL = 53.2 ± 7.0 vs. 43.2 ± 8.7). This was supported by lower pH values (p = 0.007) of the culture medium after daily exposure to the starch and sucrose combination compared with sucrose (4.89 ± 0.29 vs. 5.19 ± 0.32). Microbiological and biochemical findings did not differ between biofilms treated with the combination of starch and sucrose and sucrose alone (p > 0.05). Our findings give support to the hypothesis that a starch and sucrose combination is more cariogenic for root dentine than sucrose alone.


Asunto(s)
Dentina/fisiopatología , Sacarosa en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Caries Radicular/etiología , Almidón/efectos adversos , Desmineralización Dental/etiología , Raíz del Diente/fisiopatología , Actinomyces/fisiología , Animales , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bovinos , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagen , Dentina/microbiología , Dureza , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Microscopía Confocal , Modelos Animales , Caries Radicular/diagnóstico por imagen , Caries Radicular/microbiología , Saliva/fisiología , Streptococcus gordonii/fisiología , Streptococcus mutans/fisiología , Propiedades de Superficie , Raíz del Diente/diagnóstico por imagen , Raíz del Diente/microbiología
9.
Biofouling ; 34(10): 1175-1184, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744421

RESUMEN

This study aimed to test the dose-response effect of chlorhexidine on multispecies biofilms formed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloy. Biofilms were formed on cpTi and TiZr discs and treated two times per day with five different chlorhexidine concentrations (0.12, 0.20, 0.50, 1, 2%). The biofilms were collected for microbiological, biochemical and microscopic analyses. The significance of differences among groups was evaluated by linear regression, ANOVA, Bonferroni and Tukey tests. The mean number of colony-forming units decreased as the chlorhexidine concentration increased for both cpTi and TiZr (p < 0.05). The maximum effect was observed with the 0.5% concentration. Confocal microscopy images suggested an increase in the number of dead bacterial cells with increased chlorhexidine concentration. The biofilm pH increased after chlorhexidine exposure (p < 0.05). Chlorhexidine showed an antimicrobial dose-response effect in controlling biofilm on cpTi and TiZr. 0.5% chlorhexidine can be used to achieve the maximum antimicrobial effect on both materials.


Asunto(s)
Aleaciones , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Clorhexidina/farmacología , Prótesis e Implantes/microbiología , Titanio , Circonio , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga
10.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181168, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715508

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to evaluate if extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) are used by Streptococcus mutans (Sm) biofilm during night starvation, contributing to enamel demineralization increasing occurred during daily sugar exposure. Sm biofilms were formed during 5 days on bovine enamel slabs of known surface hardness (SH). The biofilms were exposed to sucrose 10% or glucose + fructose 10.5% (carbohydrates that differ on EPS formation), 8x/day but were maintained in starvation during the night. Biofilm samples were harvested during two moments, on the end of the 4th day and in the morning of the 5th day, conditions of sugar abundance and starvation, respectively. The slabs were also collected to evaluate the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL). The biofilms were analyzed for EPS soluble and insoluble and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS), viable bacteria (CFU), biofilm architecture and biomass. pH, calcium and acid concentration were determined in the culture medium. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test or Student's t-test. The effect of the factor carbohydrate treatment for polysaccharide analysis was significant (p < 0.05) but not the harvest moment (p > 0.05). Larger amounts of soluble and insoluble EPS and IPS were formed in the sucrose group when compared to glucose + fructose group (p < 0.05), but they were not metabolized during starvation time (S-EPS, p = 0.93; I-EPS, p = 0.11; and IPS = 0.96). Greater enamel %SHL was also found for the sucrose group (p < 0.05) but the demineralization did not increase during starvation (p = 0.09). In conclusion, the findings suggest that EPS metabolization by S. mutans during night starvation do not contribute to increase enamel demineralization occurred during the daily abundance of sugar.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Esmalte Dental/microbiología , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo , Desmineralización Dental/microbiología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Calcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Esmalte Dental/metabolismo , Espacio Extracelular/metabolismo , Espacio Extracelular/microbiología , Fructosa/farmacología , Glucosa/farmacología , Dureza , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Técnicas In Vitro , Incisivo/metabolismo , Incisivo/microbiología , Microscopía Confocal , Streptococcus mutans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sacarosa/farmacología , Desmineralización Dental/metabolismo
11.
Pathog Dis ; 74(3)2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26755532

RESUMEN

Candida-associated stomatitis affects up to 60% of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated fungal species. The oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of S. oralis and A. oris on the development of C. albicans biofilms on denture material. Resin discs were coated with saliva and at early (1.5 h) or later (24 h) stages of biofilm development, cell numbers of each species were determined. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms labelled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Interkingdom interactions underpinning biofilm development were also evaluated planktonically utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Synergistic interactions between all three species occurred within biofilms and planktonically. Bacterial cells coaggregated with each other and adhered singly or in coaggregates to C. albicans hyphal filaments. Streptococcus oralis appeared to enhance hyphal filament production and C. albicans biovolume was increased 2-fold. Concomitantly, cell numbers of S. oralis and A. oris were enhanced by C. albicans. Thus, cooperative physical and metabolic processes occurring between these three microbial species intensify pathogenic plaque communities on denture surfaces.


Asunto(s)
Actinomyces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candida albicans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dentaduras/microbiología , Streptococcus oralis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Simbiosis/fisiología , Adulto , Humanos , Hibridación Fluorescente in Situ , Consorcios Microbianos/fisiología , Microscopía Confocal , Saliva , Estomatitis Subprotética/microbiología
12.
Corros Sci ; 100: 133-146, 2015 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26834277

RESUMEN

The surface characteristics and electrochemical properties of bioactive coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with calcium, phosphorous, silicon and silver on commercially pure titanium were evaluated. PEO treatment produced a porous oxide layer, which improved the surface topography, and enriched the surface chemistry with bioactive elements, responsible for mimicking bone surface. The surfaces with higher calcium concentration presented antibacterial and biocompability properties with better responses for corrosion and barrier properties, due to the presence of rutile crystalline structure. PEO may be a promising surface treatment option to improve the electrochemical behavior of dental implants mitigating treatment failures.

13.
J Prosthet Dent ; 112(6): 1349-55, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25258264

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Candida biofilms on denture surfaces are substantially reduced after a single immersion in denture cleanser. However, whether this effect is maintained when dentures are immersed in cleanser daily is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the daily use of enzymatic cleanser on Candida albicans biofilms on denture base materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surfaces of polyamide and poly(methyl methacrylate) resin specimens (n=54) were standardized and divided into 12 groups (n=9 per group), according to study factors (material type, treatment type, and periods of treatment). Candida albicans biofilms were allowed to form over 72 hours, after which the specimens were treated with enzymatic cleanser once daily for 1, 4, or 7 days. Thereafter, residual biofilm was ultrasonically removed and analyzed for viable cells (colony forming units/mm(2)) and enzymatic activity (phospholipase, aspartyl-protease, and hemolysin). Factors that interfered with the response variables were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparison method (α=.05). RESULTS: Polyamide resin presented more viable cells of Candida albicans (P<.001) for both the evaluated treatment types and periods. Although enzymatic cleansing significantly (P<.001) reduced viable cells, daily use did not maintain this reduction (P<.001). Phospholipase activity significantly increased with time (P<.001) for both materials and treatments. However, poly(methyl methacrylate) based resin (P<.001) and enzymatic cleansing treatment (P<.001) contributed to lower phospholipase activity. Aspartyl-protease and hemolysin activities were not influenced by study factors (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although daily use of an enzymatic cleanser reduced the number of viable cells and phospholipase activity, this treatment was not effective against residual biofilm over time.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Candida albicans/efectos de los fármacos , Materiales Dentales/química , Limpiadores de Dentadura/uso terapéutico , Nylons/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Proteasas de Ácido Aspártico/análisis , Boratos/uso terapéutico , Candida albicans/enzimología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Película Dental/microbiología , Proteínas Hemolisinas/análisis , Humanos , Inmersión , Ensayo de Materiales , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Fosfolipasas/análisis , Método Simple Ciego , Sulfatos/uso terapéutico , Propiedades de Superficie , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Clin Oral Investig ; 18(9): 2179-85, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24590620

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily exposure to a denture cleanser on a multispecies biofilm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multispecies biofilms (five bacteria and Candida albicans) were developed for 64.5 h on acrylic resin specimens and randomized into control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, biofilms were immersed in denture cleanser for 3 min/day for seven consecutive days. In the control group, the biofilms were developed with no treatment for the same period. Biofilms from both groups were collected after 1, 4, and 7 days and analyzed for the number of microorganisms and polysaccharide concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy (CLSM) analyses were performed. RESULTS: The total microorganism counts and bacterial populations were lower in the experimental group compared to the control group for all of the periods evaluated. However, the C. albicans counts continuously increased in all of the cleanser-exposed biofilms, with abundant hyphae forms on SEM and CLSM images. The polysaccharide concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group after 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: Daily exposure of a multispecies biofilm to a denture cleanser reduces the number of total microorganisms but favors C. albicans development. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Daily use of denture cleanser is an effective method for controlling bacteria in biofilm, but it can potentially select C. albicans, an important etiological agent of oral candidosis.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Limpiadores de Dentadura/farmacología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopía Confocal , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Factores de Tiempo
15.
J Bacteriol ; 194(15): 3781-8, 2012 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22609914

RESUMEN

The competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and the sigX-inducing peptide (XIP) are known to induce Streptococcus mutans competence for genetic transformation. For both pheromones, direct identification of the native peptides has not been accomplished. The fact that extracellular XIP activity was recently observed in a chemically defined medium devoid of peptides, as mentioned in an accompanying paper (K. Desai, L. Mashburn-Warren, M. J. Federle, and D. A. Morrison, J. Bacteriol. 194:3774-3780, 2012), provided ideal conditions for native XIP identification. To search for the XIP identity, culture supernatants were filtered to select for peptides of less than 3 kDa, followed by C(18) extraction. One peptide, not detected in the supernatant of a comS deletion mutant, was identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation as identical to the ComS C-terminal sequence GLDWWSL. ComS processing did not require Eep, a peptidase involved in processing or import of bacterial small hydrophobic peptides, since eep deletion had no inhibitory effect on XIP production or on synthetic XIP response. We investigated whether extracellular CSP was also produced. A reporter assay for CSP activity detection, as well as MS analysis of supernatants, revealed that CSP was not present at detectable levels. In addition, a mutant with deletion of the CSP-encoding gene comC produced endogenous XIP levels similar to those of a nondeletion mutant. The results indicate that XIP pheromone production is a natural phenomenon that may occur in the absence of natural CSP pheromone activity and that the heptapeptide GLDWWSL is an extracellular processed form of ComS, possibly the active XIP pheromone. This is the first report of direct identification of a ComR/ComS pheromone.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Feromonas/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Streptococcus mutans/fisiología , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/aislamiento & purificación , Competencia de la Transformación por ADN , Eliminación de Gen , Espectrometría de Masas , Proteoma/análisis , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo
16.
Braz Dent J ; 23(1): 45-8, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22460314

RESUMEN

To be relevant in terms of public health, widely-used toothpastes should have at least 1,000 ppm of soluble fluoride (F) concentration. Thus, the concentrations of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) in the top-selling Brazilian toothpastes were evaluated. Samples (n=3) from toothpastes Colgate Anti-cáries(®), Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint(®), Colgate Tripla Ação Menta Original(®), Colgate Tripla Ação Menta Suave(®) and Sorriso Dentes Brancos(®) were obtained from each of the five regions of the country. The concentrations of TF and TSF were analyzed with ion-specific electrode calibrated with F standards and the results were expressed in ppm (µg F/g). All toothpastes showed TF concentration lower than 1,500 ppm F (1,388.2 ± 25.8 to 1,483.2 ± 98.2). The TSF values were higher than 1,000 ppm F and ranged from 1,035.5 ± 61.5 to 1,221.8 ± 35.2 for calcium carbonate/monofluorophosphate-based toothpastes and from 1,455.6 ± 12.5 to 1,543.0 ± 147.3 for silica/sodium fluoride-based toothpaste. Top-selling Brazilian toothpastes presented available fluoride concentration to control caries regardless of the region where they are purchased.


Asunto(s)
Cariostáticos/análisis , Fluoruros/análisis , Pastas de Dientes/química , Análisis de Varianza , Brasil , Electrodos de Ion-Selectivo
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(1): 45-48, 2012. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-618004

RESUMEN

To be relevant in terms of public health, widely-used toothpastes should have at least 1,000 ppm of soluble fluoride (F) concentration. Thus, the concentrations of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) in the top-selling Brazilian toothpastes were evaluated. Samples (n=3) from toothpastes Colgate Anti-cáries®, Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint®, Colgate Tripla Ação Menta Original®, Colgate Tripla Ação Menta Suave® and Sorriso Dentes Brancos® were obtained from each of the five regions of the country. The concentrations of TF and TSF were analyzed with ion-specific electrode calibrated with F standards and the results were expressed in ppm (µg F/g). All toothpastes showed TF concentration lower than 1,500 ppm F (1,388.2 ± 25.8 to 1,483.2 ± 98.2). The TSF values were higher than 1,000 ppm F and ranged from 1,035.5 ± 61.5 to 1,221.8 ± 35.2 for calcium carbonate/monofluorophosphate-based toothpastes and from 1,455.6 ± 12.5 to 1,543.0 ± 147.3 for silica/sodium fluoride-based toothpaste. Top-selling Brazilian toothpastes presented available fluoride concentration to control caries regardless of the region where they are purchased.


Para ter relevância em termos de saúde pública, os cremes dentais amplamente utilizados pela população devem ter fluoreto (F) solúvel numa concentração mínima de 1.000 ppm F. Assim, as concentrações de fluoreto total (FT) e flureto solúvel total (FST) nos cremes dentais mais vendidos no Brasil foram avaliados. Os cremes dentais (n=3) Colgate Anti-cáries®, Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint®, Colgate Tripla Ação Menta Original®, Colgate Tripla Ação Menta Suave® e Sorriso Dentes Brancos® foram obtidos nas cinco regiões do país. As concentrações de FT e FST foram analisadas com eletrodo íon-específico calibrado com padrões de F e os resultados foram expressos em ppm (µg F/g). Todos os cremes dentais apresentaram concentração de FT inferior a 1.500 ppm F (1.388,2 ± 25,8 a 1.483,2 ± 98,2). Os valores de FST foram superiores a 1.000 ppm F e variaram de 1.035,5 ± 61,5 a 1.221,8 ± 35,2 para cremes dentais a base de carbonato de cálcio/monofluorfosfato e de 1.455,6 ± 12,5 a 1.543,0 ± 147,3 para o creme dental à base de sílica/fluoreto de sódio. Os cremes dentais mais vendidos no Brasil apresentaram concentração de fluoreto solúvel para controlar cárie, independentemente da região onde foram comprados.


Asunto(s)
Cariostáticos/análisis , Fluoruros/análisis , Pastas de Dientes/química , Análisis de Varianza , Brasil , Electrodos de Ion-Selectivo
18.
Braz Dent J ; 21(2): 123-9, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20640358

RESUMEN

Preload loss can favor the occurrence of implant-abutment interface misfit, and bacterial colonization at this interface may lead to implant failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preload loss and bacterial penetration through the implant-abutment interface of conical and external hexagon connection systems subjected to thermal cycling and mechanical fatigue (TM). Four different implant-abutment connection systems were evaluated (n=6): external hexagon with universal post, Morse taper with universal post, Morse taper with universal post through bolt, and locking taper with standard abutment. The assemblies (implant-abutment) were subjected to a thermal cycling regimen (1,000 cycles of 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C) and to mechanical fatigue (1.0 million cycles, 1.0 Hz, 120 N). The assemblies were immersed in Tryptic Soy + Yeast Extract broth containing Streptococcus sanguinis and incubated at 37 degrees C and 10% CO(2) for 72 h. Detorque values were recorded. The bacterial penetration was assessed and the abutments were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The preload data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. All screw abutment systems showed significantly higher (p<0.05) detorque values when subjected to TM and all conical systems presented bacterial penetration. The results show no relationship between the preload loss and the bacterial penetration.


Asunto(s)
Pilares Dentales/microbiología , Implantes Dentales/microbiología , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Contaminación de Equipos/prevención & control , Análisis de Varianza , Implantación Dental Endoósea/instrumentación , Implantes Dentales/clasificación , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Ajuste de Precisión de Prótesis/microbiología , Distribución Aleatoria , Método Simple Ciego , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
19.
Braz Dent J ; 21(1): 55-9, 2010 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20464322

RESUMEN

The addition of different polymers, such as polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), to denture base resins could be an option to modify acrylic resin mechanical properties. This study evaluated the surface hardness, impact and flexural strength, flexural modulus and peak load of 2 acrylic resins, one subjected to a long and another subjected to a short polymerization cycle, which were prepared with or without the addition of 2% PTFE. Four groups were formed according to the polymerization cycle and addition or not of PTFE. Forty specimens were prepared for each test (10 per group) with the following dimensions: hardness (30 mm diameter x 5 mm thick), impact strength (50 x 6 x 4 mm) and flexural strength (64 x 10 x 3.3 mm) test. The results of the flexural strength test allowed calculating flexural modulus and peak of load values. All tests were performed in accordance with the ISO 1567:1999 standard. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test with the level of significance set at 5%. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for surface hardness. Flexural strength, impact strength and peak load were significantly higher (p<0.05) for resins without added PTFE. The flexural modulus of the acrylic resin with incorporated 2% PTFE polymerized by long cycle was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the other resins. Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the addition of PTFE did not improve the mechanical properties of the evaluated acrylic resins.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Materiales Dentales/química , Politetrafluoroetileno/química , Módulo de Elasticidad , Dureza , Calor , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Fenómenos Mecánicos , Docilidad , Polímeros/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 21(1): 55-59, Jan. 2010. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-552355

RESUMEN

The addition of different polymers, such as polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), to denture base resins could be an option to modify acrylic resin mechanical properties. This study evaluated the surface hardness, impact and flexural strength, flexural modulus and peak load of 2 acrylic resins, one subjected to a long and another subjected to a short polymerization cycle, which were prepared with or without the addition of 2 percent PTFE. Four groups were formed according to the polymerization cycle and addition or not of PTFE. Forty specimens were prepared for each test (10 per group) with the following dimensions: hardness (30 mm diameter x 5 mm thick), impact strength (50 x 6 x 4 mm) and flexural strength (64 x 10 x 3.3 mm) test. The results of the flexural strength test allowed calculating flexural modulus and peak of load values. All tests were performed in accordance with the ISO 1567:1999 standard. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test with the level of significance set at 5 percent. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found for surface hardness. Flexural strength, impact strength and peak load were significantly higher (p<0.05) for resins without added PTFE. The flexural modulus of the acrylic resin with incorporated 2 percent PTFE polymerized by long cycle was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the other resins. Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the addition of PTFE did not improve the mechanical properties of the evaluated acrylic resins.


A adição de diferentes polímeros como o politetrafluoretileno (PTFE) às resinas para base de próteses removíveis pode ser uma opção para modificar as propriedades mecânicas das resinas acrílicas. Este estudo avaliou a dureza de superfície, a resistência ao impacto e à flexão, o módulo flexural e a carga de ruptura de duas resinas acrílicas, uma submetida ao ciclo longo e a outra ao ciclo curto de polimerização, as quais foram preparadas com ou sem a adição de PTFE a 2 por cento. Quatro grupos foram formados de acordo com os ciclos de polimerização e a adição ou não de PTFE. Quarenta espécimes foram preparados para cada teste (10 espécimes por grupo) com as seguintes dimensões: dureza de superfície (30 mm diametro x 5 mm espessura), resistência ao impacto (50 x 6 x 4 mm), resistência à flexão (64 x 10 x 3,3 mm). O módulo flexural e a carga de ruptura foram calculados a partir dos valores obtidos no teste de resistência à flexão. Todos os testes foram realizados em conformidade com a Norma ISO 1567:1999. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5 por cento. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p>0,05) para dureza de superfície. Os valores de resistência à flexão, resistência ao impacto e carga de ruptura foram maiores para as resinas sem a adição de PTFE (p<0,05). O valor do módulo flexural da resina acrílica com adição de PTFE a 2 por cento, polimerizada por ciclo longo, foi maior do que as outras resinas (p<0,05). Dentro das limitações deste estudo, pode-se concluir que a adição de politetrafluoretileno não melhorou as propriedades mecânicas das resinas acrílicas avaliadas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Materiales Dentales/química , Politetrafluoroetileno/química , Módulo de Elasticidad , Dureza , Calor , Ensayo de Materiales , Fenómenos Mecánicos , Docilidad , Polímeros/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie , Factores de Tiempo
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