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1.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10493, 2015 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990870

RESUMEN

The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(26): 267604, 2014 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615386

RESUMEN

We experimentally demonstrate the first inductive readout of optically hyperpolarized phosphorus-31 donor nuclear spins in an isotopically enriched silicon-28 crystal. The concentration of phosphorus donors in the crystal was 1.5×10(15) cm(-3), 3 orders of magnitude lower than has previously been detected via direct inductive detection. The signal-to-noise ratio measured in a single free induction decay from a 1 cm(3) sample (≈10(15) spins) was 113. By transferring the sample to an X-band ESR spectrometer, we were able to obtain a lower bound for the nuclear spin polarization at 1.7 K of ∼64%. The (31)P-T2 measured with a Hahn echo sequence was 420 ms at 1.7 K, which was extended to 1.2 s with a Carr Purcell cycle. The T1 of the (31)P nuclear spins at 1.7 K is extremely long and could not be determined, as no decay was observed even on a time scale of 4.5 h. Optical excitation was performed with a 1047 nm laser, which provided above-band-gap excitation of the silicon. The buildup of the hyperpolarization at 4.2 K followed a single exponential with a characteristic time of 577 s, while the buildup at 1.7 K showed biexponential behavior with characteristic time constants of 578 and 5670 s.

3.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1469, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403570

RESUMEN

Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

4.
Science ; 336(6086): 1280-3, 2012 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22679091

RESUMEN

A quantum computer requires systems that are isolated from their environment, but can be integrated into devices, and whose states can be measured with high accuracy. Nuclear spins in solids promise long coherence lifetimes, but they are difficult to initialize into known states and to detect with high sensitivity. We show how the distinctive optical properties of enriched (28)Si enable the use of hyperfine-resolved optical transitions, as previously applied to great effect for isolated atoms and ions in vacuum. Together with efficient Auger photoionization, these resolved hyperfine transitions permit rapid nuclear hyperpolarization and electrical spin-readout. We combine these techniques to detect nuclear magnetic resonance from dilute (31)P in the purest available sample of (28)Si, at concentrations inaccessible to conventional measurements, measuring a solid-state coherence time of over 180 seconds.

5.
Gene Ther ; 18(8): 827-34, 2011 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21390072

RESUMEN

Malignant melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer and its incidence is expected to rise over the next two decades. At present, there are no effective therapies for advanced melanoma. We have previously shown that administration of whole recombinant yeast expressing human MART-1 (hMART-IT) induces protective antimelanoma immunity in a B16F10 transplantable mouse model. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the hMART-IT vaccine in a congenic strain of genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma, which recapitulates both the underlying genetics and the proper tumor microenvironment of naturally occurring melanoma. Subcutaneous administration of hMART-IT induced cytotoxicity against melanoma cells and antigen-specific production of Th1-specific cytokines by splenocytes. Weekly administration of hMART-IT significantly delayed the development of melanoma and prolonged the survival of mice compared with controls. Although histological analysis demonstrated diffuse infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells, no reduction of regulatory T cells was observed, suggesting that hMART-IT cannot prevent immunotolerance in the tumor microenvironment. This study provides a proof of concept that genetically engineered mouse models lend valuable insights into immunotherapeutics being tested in the preclinical setting.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Cáncer/uso terapéutico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ingeniería Genética , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Vacunas Sintéticas/uso terapéutico , Animales , Citotoxicidad Inmunológica , Antígeno MART-1/inmunología , Melanoma Experimental/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/inmunología
6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(6): 067601, 2010 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20868014

RESUMEN

Donors in silicon hold considerable promise for emerging quantum technologies, due to their uniquely long electron spin coherence times. Bismuth donors in silicon differ from more widely studied group V donors, such as phosphorous, in several significant respects: They have the strongest binding energy (70.98 meV), a large nuclear spin (I=9/2), and a strong hyperfine coupling constant (A=1475.4 MHz). These larger energy scales allow us to perform a detailed test of theoretical models describing the spectral diffusion mechanism that is known to govern the electron spin decoherence of P donors in natural silicon. We report the electron-nuclear double resonance spectra of the Bi donor, across the range 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, and confirm that coherence transfer is possible between electron and nuclear spin degrees of freedom at these higher frequencies.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(13): 137402, 2010 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20481913

RESUMEN

As the deepest group-V donor in Si, Bi has by far the largest hyperfine interaction and also a large I = 9/2 nuclear spin. At zero field this splits the donor ground state into states having total spin 5 and 4, which are fully resolved in the photoluminescence spectrum of Bi donor bound excitons. Under a magnetic field, the 60 expected allowed transitions cannot be individually resolved, but the effects of the nuclear spin distribution, -9/2 < or = I(z) < or = 9/2, are clearly observed. A strong hyperpolarization of the nuclear spin towards I(z) = -9/2 is observed to result from the nonresonant optical excitation. This is very similar to the recently reported optical hyperpolarization of P donors observed by EPR at higher magnetic fields. We introduce a new model to explain this effect, and predict that it may be very fast.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(25): 257401, 2009 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19659118

RESUMEN

We demonstrate a method which can hyperpolarize both the electron and nuclear spins of 31P donors in Si at low field, where both would be essentially unpolarized in equilibrium. It is based on the selective ionization of donors in a specific hyperfine state by optically pumping donor bound exciton hyperfine transitions, which can be spectrally resolved in 28Si. Electron and nuclear polarizations of 90% and 76%, respectively, are obtained in less than a second, providing an initialization mechanism for qubits based on these spins, and enabling further ESR and NMR studies on dilute 31P in 28Si.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(17): 177402, 2008 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18518336

RESUMEN

Dramatic reductions of the linewidths of well-known deep centers in 28Si reveal "isotopic fingerprints" of the constituents. The approximately 1014 meV Cu center, thought to be either a Cu pair or an isolated Cu, is shown to contain four Cu atoms, and the approximately 780 meV Ag center is shown to contain four Ag. The approximately 944 meV ;{*}Cu center, thought to be a different configuration of a Cu pair, in fact contains three Cu and one Ag, and a new two-Cu two-Ag center is found. The approximately 735 meV center, previously assigned to Fe, actually contains Au and three Cu. This suggests a family of four-atom (Cu, Ag, Au) centers.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(22): 227401, 2006 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17155840

RESUMEN

We resolve the remarkably sharp bound exciton transitions of highly enriched 28Si using a single-frequency laser and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, as well as photocurrent spectroscopy. Well-resolved doublets in the spectrum of the 31P donor reflect the hyperfine coupling of the electronic and nuclear donor spins. The optical detection of the nuclear spin state, and selective pumping and ionization of donors in specific electronic and nuclear spin states, suggests a number of new possibilities which could be useful for the realization of silicon-based quantum computers.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(3): 037404, 2006 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16486768

RESUMEN

Stimulated Stokes emission has been observed from silicon crystals doped by antimony donors when optically excited by radiation from a tunable infrared free electron laser. The photon energy of the emission is equal to the pump photon energy reduced by the energy of the intervalley transverse acoustic (TA) g phonon in silicon (approximately 2.92 THz). The emission frequency covers the range of 4.6-5.8 THz. The laser process occurs due to a resonant coupling of the 1s(E) and 1s(A1) donor states (separation approximately 2.97 THz) via the g-TA phonon, which conserves momentum and energy within a single impurity center.

12.
Urologe A ; 44(6): 625-9, 2005 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15891866

RESUMEN

Sentinel lymph node biopsy has replaced elective lymph node dissection in the management of melanoma. It provides an exact staging method of the regional lymph basin and is associated with low morbidity. Patients who are found to have a positive sentinel lymph node can selectively undergo regional lymph node dissection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy also provides the means to stratify patients into homogeneous groups for adjuvant therapies. Sentinel lymph node involvement is regarded as an independent prognostic factor. The therapeutic value of subsequent surgical and medical therapies in patients with positive sentinel nodes is currently being investigated in clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Melanoma/patología , Melanoma/secundario , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela/métodos , Humanos , Ganglios Linfáticos/cirugía , Metástasis Linfática , Melanoma/cirugía , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Pronóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
13.
J Food Prot ; 64(11): 1817-9, 2001 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11726165

RESUMEN

Sprouts eaten raw are increasingly perceived as hazardous foods because they have been vehicles in outbreaks of foodborne disease, often involving Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. Although the source of these pathogens has not been established, it is known that the seeds usually are already contaminated at the time sprouting begins. Earlier studies had shown that ammonia was lethal to these same pathogens in manure, so it seemed reasonable to determine whether ammonia was effective against them when associated with seeds to be used for sprouting. Experimentally contaminated (10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g) and dried seeds, intended for sprouting, were sealed in glass jars in which 180 or 300 mg of ammonia/liter of air space was generated by action of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide. Samples were taken after intervals up to 22 h at 20 degrees C. Destruction of approximately 2 to 3 logs was observed with both bacteria associated with alfalfa seeds, versus 5 to 6 logs with mung beans. Greater kills are apparently associated with lower initial bacterial loads. Germination of these seeds was unaffected by the treatment. It appears that this simple treatment could contribute significantly to the safety of sprout production from alfalfa seeds and mung beans.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco/farmacología , Escherichia coli O157/efectos de los fármacos , Fabaceae/microbiología , Medicago sativa/microbiología , Salmonella typhimurium/efectos de los fármacos , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/crecimiento & desarrollo , Contaminación de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Fumigación , Salmonella typhimurium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas
15.
J Immunol ; 166(12): 7504-13, 2001 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11390504

RESUMEN

Endotoxin tolerance, the transient, secondary down-regulation of a subset of endotoxin-driven responses after exposure to bacterial products, is thought to be an adaptive response providing protection from pathological hyperactivation of the innate immune system during bacterial infection. However, although protecting from the development of sepsis, endotoxin tolerance also can lead to fatal blunting of immunological responses to subsequent infections in survivors of septic shock. Despite considerable experimental effort aimed at characterizing the molecular mechanisms responsible for a variety of endotoxin tolerance-related phenomena, no consensus has been achieved yet. IL-12 is a macrophage- and dendritic cell (DC)-derived cytokine that plays a key role in pathological responses to endotoxin as well as in the induction of protective responses to pathogens. It recently has been shown that IL-12 production is suppressed in endotoxin tolerance, providing a likely partial mechanism for the increased risk of secondary infections in sepsis survivors. We examined the development of IL-12 suppression during endotoxin tolerance in mice. Decreased IL-12 production in vivo is clearly multifactorial, involving both loss of CD11c(high) DCs as well as alterations in the responsiveness of macrophages and remaining splenic DCs. We find no demonstrable mechanistic role for B or T lymphocytes, the soluble mediators IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-alphabeta, or nitric oxide, or the NF-kappaB family members p50, p52, or RelB.


Asunto(s)
Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Tolerancia Inmunológica , Interleucina-12/antagonistas & inhibidores , Interleucina-12/biosíntesis , Lipopolisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Lipopolisacáridos/inmunología , Macrófagos Peritoneales/inmunología , Animales , Apoptosis/inmunología , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/citología , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta Inmunológica , Regulación hacia Abajo/inmunología , Femenino , Tolerancia Inmunológica/genética , Inmunización Secundaria , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales , Integrina alfaXbeta2/biosíntesis , Interferón Tipo I/deficiencia , Interferón Tipo I/genética , Interleucina-10/deficiencia , Interleucina-10/genética , Macrófagos Peritoneales/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Ratones Desnudos , FN-kappa B/deficiencia , FN-kappa B/genética , Subunidad p50 de NF-kappa B , Óxido Nítrico/deficiencia , Óxido Nítrico/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas/deficiencia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas/genética , Bazo/citología , Bazo/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Factor de Transcripción ReIB , Factores de Transcripción/deficiencia , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/biosíntesis , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/deficiencia , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 86(26 Pt 1): 6010-3, 2001 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11415416

RESUMEN

We report the first high resolution photoluminescence studies of isotopically pure Si (99.896% (28)Si). New information is obtained on isotopic effects on the indirect band gap energy, phonon energies, and phonon broadenings, which is in good agreement with calculations and previous results obtained in Ge and diamond. Remarkably, the linewidths of the no-phonon boron and phosphorus bound exciton transitions in the (28)Si sample are much narrower than in natural Si and are not well resolved at our maximum instrumental resolution of approximately 0.014 cm(-1). The removal of the dominant broadening resulting from isotopic randomness in natural Si reveals new fine structure in the boron bound exciton luminescence.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 84(22): 5220-3, 2000 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10990907

RESUMEN

The observation of far-infrared stimulated emission from shallow donor transitions in silicon is reported. Lasing with a wavelength of 59 &mgr;m due to the neutral donor intracenter 2p(0)-->1s(E) transition in Si:P pumped by CO2 laser radiation is obtained. Populations of D0 and D- center states and the balance of the radiation absorption and amplification are theoretically analyzed.

18.
Avian Dis ; 44(3): 668-75, 2000.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11007017

RESUMEN

This study examines drag swabbing distance, media for moistening the drag swabs, and site selection when sampling a laying facility by drag swabbing manure piles. Manure piles at a laying facility in California's San Joaquin Valley were sampled with drag swabs over various distances. Samples were cultured for Salmonella spp. with standard laboratory methods, and most probable number calculations. Salmonella spp. counts were expected to be highly variable because of reported clustering. Therefore, total bacteria and Escherichia coli, which were assumed to have a more uniform distribution on the surface of the manure, were additionally used as proxies for Salmonella. Media for moistening the swabs were compared by seeding postswabbing samples with Salmonella typhimurium, and culturing at different delay times. Total bacterial counts were compared between samples that were obtained from either wet or dry surfaces. Numbers of Salmonella spp. and total bacteria peaked within 120 feet of swabbing distance. Higher total bacteria counts were obtained by swabbing wet areas rather than dry areas, but the distance that could be swabbed effectively was shorter in wet areas. Moistening media selected for the swab resulted in statistically different culture counts, but did not show any important difference in maintaining Salmonella viability over a 48-hr period when the samples were kept at refrigerated temperatures. Once swabs became fully loaded with fecal material, bacterial numbers failed to increase with further use. Overuse of a swab may result in failure to detect Salmonella enteritidis on chicken manure if the distribution of this organism is clustered.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , California , Pollos , Femenino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Salmonella typhimurium/aislamiento & purificación , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes/veterinaria
19.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 101(4): 229-38, 2000 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10770518

RESUMEN

Our objective was to characterize retroviral sequences by RT-PCR with gag and env primers on RNA from RT-positive retroviral particles produced by multiple sclerosis (MS) derived B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. Sequence variants with high homology to the potentially functional subgroup RGH of the human endogenous retrovirus RTVL-H/HERV-H family were found. The same sequences were also specifically found in the particulate fraction of a series of MS patient plasma samples and were absent in controls. South-Western blots demonstrate the presence of a nucleic acid binding protein, corresponding in size and function to the nucleocapsid protein, Gag NC, of other retroviruses. We also present indications for transmission of the retrovirus to PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from healthy individuals.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos B/virología , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Esclerosis Múltiple/virología , Secuencia de Bases , Línea Celular , Retrovirus Endógenos/patogenicidad , Productos del Gen gag/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , ARN , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Homología de Secuencia de Ácido Nucleico
20.
J Immunol ; 164(4): 1722-9, 2000 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10657616

RESUMEN

IL-12 is a pivotal cytokine that links the innate and adaptive immune responses. TNF-alpha also plays a key role in orchestrating inflammation and immunity. The reciprocal influence of these two inflammatory mediators on each other may have significant impact on the cytokine balance that shapes the type and extent of immune responses. To investigate the relationship between TNF-alpha and IL-12 production, we analyzed the effects of exposure of human monocyte-derived macrophages to TNF-alpha on LPS- or Staphylococcus aureus-induced IL-12 production in the presence or absence of IFN-gamma. TNF-alpha is a potent inhibitor of IL-12 p40 and p70 secretion from human macrophages induced by LPS or S. aureus. IL-10 is not responsible for the TNF-alpha-mediated inhibition of IL-12. TNF-alpha selectively inhibits IL-12 p40 steady-state mRNA, but not those of IL-12 p35, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, or IL-6. Nuclear run-on analysis identified this specific inhibitory effect at the transcriptional level for IL-12 p40 without down-regulation of the IL-12 p35 gene. The major transcriptional factors identified to be involved in the regulation of IL-12 p40 gene expression by LPS and IFN-gamma, i.e., c-Rel, NF-kappaB p50 and p65, IFN regulatory factor-1, and ets-2, were not affected by TNF-alpha when examined by nuclear translocation and DNA binding. These data demonstrate a selective negative regulation on IL-12 by TNF-alpha, identifying a direct negative feedback mechanism for inflammation-induced suppression of IL-12 gene expression.


Asunto(s)
Inmunosupresores/farmacología , Interleucina-12/antagonistas & inhibidores , Interleucina-12/biosíntesis , Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/fisiología , Transporte Biológico/inmunología , Núcleo Celular/inmunología , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , ADN/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/inmunología , Humanos , Interferón gamma/fisiología , Interleucina-10/fisiología , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Cinética , Monocitos/inmunología , Monocitos/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/inmunología , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/inmunología , Unión Proteica/inmunología , Transducción de Señal/inmunología , Staphylococcus aureus/inmunología , Transcripción Genética/inmunología , Activación Transcripcional/inmunología
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