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Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647515


BACKGROUND: The role of combination immunomodulatory therapy with systemic corticosteroids and tocilizumab (TCZ) for aged patients with COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study including consecutive patients ≥65 years that developed severe COVID-19 between March 3 and May 1, 2020 and were treated with corticosteroids at various doses (methylprednisolone [0.5 mg/Kg/12 hours to 250 mg/24 hours]), either alone ("CS group") or associated to intravenous tocilizumab (400-600 mg, one to three doses) ("CS-TCZ group"). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality by day +14, whereas secondary outcomes included mortality by day +28 and clinical improvement (discharge and/or a ≥2-point decrease on a six-point ordinal scale) by day +14. Propensity score (PS)-based adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) were applied. RESULTS: Overall, 181 and 80 patients were included in the CS and CS-TCZ groups. All-cause 14-day mortality was lower in the CS-TCZ group, both in the PS-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17 - 0.68; P-value = 0.002) and IPTW-weighted models (odds ratio [OR]: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.68; P-value = 0.001). This protective effect was also observed for 28-day mortality (PS-adjusted HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.72; P-value = 0.003). Clinical improvement by day +14 was higher in the CS-TCZ group in the IPTW analysis only (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.49 - 3.41; P-value <0.001). The occurrence of secondary infection was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of corticosteroids and TCZ was associated with better outcomes among patients ≥65 years with severe COVID-19.

Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592340


OBJETIVES: A subgroup of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered to develop a cytokine release syndrome and have been treated with tocilizumab, but a significant percentage of patients evolve. Our objective was to determine the usefulness of anakinra as rescue treatment for patients with tocilizumab-refractory COVID-19 disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with COVID19 pneumonia who received anakinra as salvage therapy after failure of tocilizumab were compared (1:1) to selected controls in a historical cohort of patients treated with tocilizumab. Cases and controls were matched by age, comorbidities, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio at baseline and time elapsed since the initiation of treatment with tocilizumab. The primary outcome was the improvement in clinical status measured by a six-point ordinal scale, from baseline to day 21. RESULTS: The study included 20 cases and 20 controls (mean age 65.3±12.8 years, 65% males). No differences were found in the clinical improvement rates at 7, 14 and 21 days of follow-up. In-hospital mortality rate for patients receiving anakinra was 55% vs. 45% in the control group (P=0.527). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anakinra was not useful to improve the prognosis of patients with tocilizumab-refractory severe COVID-19.

J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672860


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 112(3): 121-129, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156546


OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical features and outcomes of patients presenting with life-threatening systemic disease in a large cohort of Spanish patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: The GEAS-SS multicentre registry was formed in 2005 with the aim of collecting a large series of Spanish patients with primary SS, and included more than 20 Spanish reference centres with substantial experience in the management of SS patients. By January 2018, the database included 1580 consecutive patients fulfilling the 2002 classification criteria for primary SS. Severe, life-threatening systemic disease was defined as an activity level scored as "high" in at least one ESSDAI domain. RESULTS: Among 1580 patients, 208 (13%) were classified as presenting a severe, potentially life-threatening systemic disease: 193 presented one ESSDAI domain classified as high, 14 presented two high scored domains and only one presented three high activity domains. The ESSDAI domains involved consisted of lymphadenopathy in 78 (37%) cases, CNS in 28 (13%), PNS in 25 (12%), pulmonary in 25 (12%), renal in 21 (10%), cutaneous in 19 (9%), articular in 18 (9%), haematological in 7 (3%) and muscular in 4 (2%). Patients with severe systemic disease were more frequently men (p=0.001) and had a higher frequency of anaemia (p<0.001), lymphopenia (p<0.001), rheumatoid factor (p=0.021), low C3 levels (p=0.015), low C4 levels (p<0.001) and cryoglobulins (p<0.001). From a therapeutic point of view, systemic patients received more frequently glucocorticoids (p<0.001), immunosuppressants (p<0.001), intravenous immunoglobulins (p=0.008) and rituximab (p<0.001). We found an overall mortality rate of 20% in severe systemic patients, a rate that reached to 33% in patients presenting two or more high systemic involvements; these patients had a higher frequency of low C4 levels (p=0.012) and cryoglobulins (p=0.001) in comparison with those with a single severe organ involved. CONCLUSIONS: 13% of patients with primary SS develop a potentially life-threatening systemic disease (mainly lymphoma, but also severe internal organ involvements including nervous system, the lungs and the kidneys). This subset of patients requires intensive therapeutic management with a mortality rate of nearly 20% of cases.

Síndrome de Sjögren/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Sistema de Registros , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Síndrome de Sjögren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjögren/mortalidad , Síndrome de Sjögren/terapia , España/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento
J Hematol Oncol ; 10(1): 90, 2017 04 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416003


BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to characterize the risk of cancer in a large cohort of patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SjS). METHODS: We had analyzed the development of cancer in 1300 consecutive patients fulfilling the 2002 SjS classification criteria. The baseline clinical and immunological characteristics and systemic activity (ESSDAI scores) were assessed at diagnosis as predictors of cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for age at diagnosis and gender. The sex-and age-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of cancer were estimated from 2012 Spanish mortality data. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 91 months, 127 (9.8%) patients developed 133 cancers. The most frequent type of cancer was B-cell lymphoma (including 27 MALT and 19 non-MALT B-cell lymphomas). Systemic activity at diagnosis of primary SjS correlated with the risk of hematological neoplasia and cryoglobulins with a high risk of either B-cell or non-B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Patients with cytopenias had a high risk of non-MALT B-cell and non-B-cell cancer, while those with low C3 levels had a high risk of MALT lymphomas and those with monoclonal gammopathy and low C4 levels had a high risk of non-MALT lymphomas. The estimated SIR for solid cancer was 1.13 and 11.02 for hematological cancer. SIRs for specific cancers were 36.17 for multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative diseases, 19.41 for Hodgkin lymphoma, 6.04 for other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, 5.17 for thyroid cancer, 4.81 for cancers of the lip and oral cavity, and 2.53 for stomach cancer. CONCLUSIONS: One third of cancers developed by patients with primary SjS are B-cell lymphomas. The prognostic factors identified at SjS diagnosis differed according to the subtype of B-cell lymphoma developed. Primary SjS is also associated with the development of some non-hematological cancers (thyroid, oral cavity, and stomach).

Neoplasias/etiología , Síndrome de Sjögren/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/etiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Linfoma de Células B/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Medición de Riesgo
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 53(2): 321-31, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24162151


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate systemic involvement in primary SS in a large cohort of Spanish patients using the EULAR-SS disease activity index (ESSDAI) definitions. METHODS: Systemic involvement was characterized using ESSDAI definitions for the 10 clinical domains (constitutional, lymphadenopathy, glandular, articular, cutaneous, pulmonary, renal, peripheral nervous system, central nervous system and muscular). ESSDAI scores at diagnosis, during follow-up and cumulated at the last visit were calculated. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 921 patients. After a mean follow-up of 75 months, 77 (8%) patients still had an ESSDAI score of zero at the last visit. Organ by organ, the percentage of patients who developed activity during the follow-up (ESSDAI score ≥ 1 at any time) ranged between 1.4% and 56%, with articular, pulmonary and peripheral neurological involvement being the most common. Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed the following features at diagnosis and had the closest association with systemic activity (statistically significant independent variables in at least two domains): cryoglobulinaemia in five domains; anaemia, lymphopenia and low C3 levels in three domains each and age <35 years in two domains. Sicca features, ANA and RF at diagnosis were not associated with a higher cumulated activity score in any clinical domain. CONCLUSION: Primary SS is undeniably a systemic disease, with the joints, lungs, skin and peripheral nerves being the most frequently involved organs. Cytopenias, hypocomplementaemia and cryoglobulinaemia at diagnosis strongly correlated with higher cumulated ESSDAI scores in the clinical domains. Clinically the ESSDAI provides a reliable picture of systemic involvement in primary SS.

Sistema de Registros , Síndrome de Sjögren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjögren/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Artropatías/epidemiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Enfermedades de la Piel/epidemiología , España/epidemiología