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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e23280, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821806

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: South Africa adopted a universal test and treatment program for HIV infection in 2015. The standard of care that people living with HIV receive consists of 3 sessions of readiness counseling delivered by lay counselors (LCs). In the largest antiretroviral therapy (ART) program worldwide, effective and early HIV and ART education and support are key for ensuring ART adoption, adherence, and retention in care. Having LCs to deliver readiness counseling allows for the wide task-sharing of this critical activity but carries the risks of loss of standardization, incomplete content delivery, and inadequate monitoring and supervision. Systems for ensuring that a minimum standard of readiness counseling is delivered to the growing number of people living with HIV are essential in the care cascade. In resource-constrained, high-burden settings, mobile health (mHealth) apps may potentially offer solutions to these treatment gaps by providing content structure and delivery records. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore, at a large Cape Town-based nonprofit HIV care organization, the staff's perceived preimplementation barriers and facilitators of an mHealth intervention (Masivukeni) developed as a structured app for ART readiness counseling. METHODS: Masivukeni is a laptop-based app that incorporates written content, graphics, short video materials, and participant activities. In total, 20 participants were included in this study. To explore how an mHealth intervention might be adopted across different staff levels within the organization, we conducted 7 semistructured interviews (participants: 7/20, 35%) and 3 focus groups (participants in 2 focus groups: 4/20, 20%; participants in 1 focus group: 3/20, 15%) among LCs, supervisors, and their managers. In total, 20 participants were included in this study. Interviews lasted approximately 60 minutes, and focus groups ranged from 90 to 120 minutes. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to explore the perceived implementation barriers and facilitators of the Masivukeni mHealth intervention. RESULTS: Several potential facilitators of Masivukeni were identified. Multimedia and visual elements were generally regarded as aids in content delivery. The interactive learning components were notably helpful, whereas facilitated updates to the adherence curriculum were important to facilitators and managers. The potential to capture administrative information regarding LC delivery and client logging was regarded as an attractive feature. Barriers to implementation included security risks and equipment costs, the high volume of clients to be counseled, and variable computer literacy among LCs. There was uncertainty about the app's appeal to older clients. CONCLUSIONS: mHealth apps, such as Masivukeni, were perceived as being well placed to address some of the needs of those who deliver ART adherence counseling in South Africa. However, the successful implementation of mHealth apps appeared to be dependent on overcoming certain barriers in this setting.

2.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(3): 246-256, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334266

RESUMEN

HIV-related enacted stigma and social problems may increase risk for depression and/or behavioral problems among adolescents and young adults with perinatal HIV(AYA-PHIV), yet few studies have explored stigma in AYA-PHIV residing in low-to-middle income regions, including Southeast Asia. We assessed HIV-related enacted stigma and social problems in AYA-PHIV who participated in the RESILIENCE study (clinicaltrials.gov identification: U19AI53741) in Thailand and Cambodia using specific questions during structured in-person interviews. Depression was measured by the Child Depression Inventory for children <15 years, or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scales for youth ≥15 years); behavioral problems were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-caregiver report). Among 195 AYA-PHIV (median age 16.9 years), 25.6% reported a lifetime experience of enacted stigma, while 10.8% experienced social problems due to HIV infection. The frequency of depressive symptoms was nearly two-fold higher among AYA-PHIV with compared to those without HIV-related enacted stigma (34.7% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.005). Caregiver-reported behavioral problems were detected in 14.6% of all AYA-PHIV, with no differences between those with and without HIV-related enacted stigma. Low household income and caregiver mental health problems were independent risk factors for depressive symptoms; HIV-related enacted stigma was also associated with increased risk, warranting targeted services to support AYA-PHIV.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236088

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is an urgent need to make neuropsychological (NP) testing more acceptable, accessible, and culturally salient, particularly for culturally, educationally, and linguistically diverse individuals from countries who may have little-to-no experience with NP testing. In settings with limited resources such as South Africa, unique cultural and contextual factors (e.g., structural inequality, poverty) may impact the experience of NP evaluation. Research in this area is limited and requires further exploration. This qualitative study explores the role of cultural and contextual factors that may impact the experience of NP evaluation in a sample of Xhosa-speaking South African adults. Participant interviews explored the context from which individuals arrived at the NP assessment (e.g., quality of education, understanding of cognitive disorders), and their experience of completing NP tests. METHOD: This qualitative study used data from semistructured interviews to conduct a thematic analysis exploring contextual factors and the experience of completing NP tests for the first time among Xhosa-speaking South African adults (N = 22). Results: Although no participants had prior experience with NP testing, most found testing procedures acceptable. Most participants, however, reported a limited understanding of the purpose of NP testing and cognitive problems. Additionally, some participants reported perceptions and attitudes that could affect test performance, such as misinterpreting standard testing procedures (e.g., no feedback from the examiner, being stopped mid-task) as indicative of poor performance. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided much needed exploration into unique cultural factors that may impact the experience of NP assessment in South Africa, which could bias test performance and interpretation, and may aid the field of cross-cultural NP in better serving culturally and linguistically diverse populations. In these countries, neuropsychologists may need to actively evaluate participants' understanding of NP testing to help foster optimal assessment conditions. They may also need to educate participants on possible causes of cognitive disorders.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025390

RESUMEN

Despite evidence of premature, accentuated and accelerated aging for some age-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases in people living with HIV (PLHIV), the evidence for these abnormal patterns of aging on neurocognition remains unclear. Further, no systematic review has been dedicated to this issue. Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched standard databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Articles were included if they analyzed and reported the effect of age on neurocognition among PLHIV as one of their major findings, if they were conducted in the combination anti-retroviral therapy era (after 1996) and published in a peer-reviewed journal in English. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) appraisal tools. To systematically target the abnormal patterns of neurocognitive aging, we define premature cognitive aging as significant interaction effect of HIV status and age on cross-sectional neurocognitive test performance covering both the normal and abnormal performance range; accentuated cognitive aging as significant interaction effect of HIV status and age on cross-sectional neurocognitive impairment (NCI) rate, thus covering the abnormal performance range only; accelerated cognitive aging as significant interaction effect of HIV status and age on longitudinal neurocognitive test performance or incidence of NCI. Because these definitions require an age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV-) control group, when no controls were included, we determined the range of the age effect on neurocognitive test performance or NCI among PLHIV. A total of 37 studies originating from the US (26), UK (2), Italy (2), Poland (2), China (2), Japan (1), Australia (1), and Brazil (1) were included. Six studies were longitudinal and 14 included HIV- controls. The quality appraisal showed that 12/37 studies neither used an age-matched HIV- controls nor used demographically corrected cognitive scores. A meta-analysis was not possible because study methods and choice of neurocognitive measurement methods and outcomes were heterogeneous imposing a narrative synthesis. In studies with an HIV- control sample, premature neurocognitive aging was found in 45% of the cross-sectional analyses (9/20), while accelerated neurocognitive aging was found in 75% of the longitudinal analyses (3/4). There was no evidence for accentuated aging, but this was tested only in two studies. In studies without an HIV- control sample, the age effect was always present but wide (NCI OR = 1.18-4.8). While large sample size (> 500) was associated with abnormal patterns of cognitive aging, most of the studies were under powered. Other study characteristics such as longitudinal study design and higher proportion of older participants were also associated with the findings of abnormal cognitive aging. There is some support for premature and accelerated cognitive aging among PLHIV in the existing literature especially among large and longitudinal studies and those with higher proportion of older samples. Future HIV and cognitive aging studies need to harmonize neuropsychological measurement methods and outcomes and use a large sample from collaborative multi-sites to generate more robust evidences.

5.
Psychol Trauma ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969701

RESUMEN

Objective: The link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative health outcomes is well established among middle-aged adults and within the general population; however, ACEs' impact on physical health among emerging adults and specific ethnic minority groups, such as distinct Asian American subgroups, remains understudied and poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between ACEs, anger expression, stress, and physical health in a sample of Asian Indian (AI) emerging adults (18-29 years) living in the United States. Method: Participants (N = 132; Mage = 23.52; 13.6% first generation; 86.4% born in United States) completed an electronic questionnaire measuring variables of ACEs, anger expression, recent stress, health history, self-rated health, and recent physical illness symptoms. Chi-square, regression, and mediation analyses were conducted to examine associations among variables. Results: ACEs significantly predicted greater anger expression, perceived stress, number of chronic health conditions, and recent physical illness symptoms. Ninety-four percent of participants with ≥ 3 ACEs endorsed at least 1 previously diagnosed medical condition, and these participants exhibited remarkably high odds of diabetes and high blood pressure. Mediation analyses indicated anger expression significantly mediated ACEs' impact on recent stress and physical illness symptoms. Conclusions: Findings evidence that ACE-related physical health consequences are, in fact, already detectable by emerging adulthood among AI Americans. The distinct ACEs patterns and pronounced ACE-related health consequences found in this population warrant further study. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 22: 100187, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874938

RESUMEN

Introduction: Several studies of neuropsychological measures have been undertaken in patients with psychotic disorders from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is, however, unclear if the measures used in these studies are appropriate for cognitive screening in clinical settings. We undertook a systematic review to determine if measures investigated in research on psychotic disorders in LMICs meet the clinical utility criteria proposed by The Working Group on Screening and Assessment. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were employed. We determined if tests had been validated against a comprehensive test battery, the duration and scope of the tests, the personnel administering the tests, and the means of administration. Results: A total of 31 articles were included in the review, of which 11 were from Africa. The studies included 3254 participants with psychosis and 1331 controls. 3 studies reported on the validation of the test against a comprehensive cognitive battery. Assessments took 1 h or less to administer in 6/31 studies. The average number of cognitive domains assessed was four. Nonspecialized staff were used in only 3/31 studies, and most studies used pen and paper tests (17/31). Conclusion: Neuropsychological measures used in research on psychotic disorders in LMICs typically do not meet the Working Group on Screening and Assessment clinical utility criteria for cognitive screening. Measures that have been validated in high-income countries but not in LMICs that do meet these criteria, such as the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, therefore deserve further study in LMIC settings.

7.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(8): 344-355, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757979

RESUMEN

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is vital for optimal HIV treatment. However, there is limited ART adherence research on the US Latinx population, who are at increased risk for HIV infection and worse HIV health outcomes. This study examined electronically measured ART adherence (Medication Event Monitoring System) and its association with demographic, clinical, neurocognitive, and sociocultural variables in Latinx and non-Latinx white (NLW) persons living with HIV [PLWH (N = 128)]. Latinx participants demonstrated worse adherence than NLW participants (p = 0.04). Linear regressions revealed different predictors of adherence. Among Latinx participants, recent cocaine use, stress, and, unexpectedly, higher US acculturation predicted worse adherence (ps < 0.05). Among NLW participants, recent cocaine use predicted worse adherence (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons within the Latinx group were not conducted due to subsample size. Thus, ethnicity, sociocultural variables, and cocaine use are important considerations for ART adherence, and poor ART adherence may be one pathway explaining worse outcomes in Latinx PLWH. Culturally tailored adherence interventions incorporating substance use treatment, acculturation, and stress management are warranted to improve health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Aculturación , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677005

RESUMEN

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH), especially the mild forms, even those with well-controlled HIV. Recommendations from the literature suggest routine and regular screening for HAND to detect it early and manage it effectively and adjust treatments, if warranted, when present. However, screening for HAND is not routinely done, as there are no current guidelines on when to screen and which test or tests to use. Furthermore, many of the available screening tools for HAND often cannot accurately detect the mild forms of HAND and require highly trained healthcare professionals to administer and score the tests, a requirement that is not feasible for those low- and middle-income countries with the highest HIV incidence and prevalence rates. The purpose of this chapter was to review recent research on screening tests to detect HAND and report on the strengths, limitations, and psychometric properties of those tests to detect HAND.

9.
AIDS Care ; : 1-10, 2020 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698680

RESUMEN

First-time antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiators may be more vulnerable to poor ART adherence because they may be coping with a new HIV diagnosis, facing logistical challenges to accessing and adhering to ART for the first time, and have not yet developed support networks or the skills to support long-term adherence. We recruited 324 participants in two HIV clinics near Cape Town, South Africa. Sociodemographic/psychosocial factors were measured at baseline and self-reported adherence at the 6 month follow-up. We conducted multivariable regression to determine which baseline factors were associated with 6-month adherence. A better patient-clinic relationship score (OR: 1.08 [95% CI: 1.05-1.11]) was associated with higher adherence. A drug use problem (0.51 [0.29-0.87]), higher social isolation (0.93 [0.87-0.99]), and greater number of years living with HIV before initiating ART (0.92 [0.86-1.00]) were associated with adherence levels below 90%. Patient-clinic relationships and social support are key psycho-social factors in early adherence behavior. Reducing drug use problems through targeted screening and early intervention may improve ART adherence.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 383, 2020 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in approximately 50% of people living with HIV. It typically affects memory, learning, working memory, fine motor skills, speed of information processing, verbal fluency and executive functioning cognitive domains. NCI can affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), employability, driving ability and activities of daily living. NCI is not routinely screened for in Zimbabwe, and the burden is not known in this setting. The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine NCI prevalence using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at two primary health care clinics in Harare; 2) To assess the pattern of cognitive impairment across cognitive domains using a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery in HIV-positive patients compared to HIV-negative controls. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 18 years or older; minimum 7 years education; no neurological or psychiatric disorders. HIV-positive participants were on ART for ≥3 months; HIV-negative participants had a confirmed HIV negative status in the past month. A comprehensive NP battery, functional assessments, demographic and medical history questionnaires were administered. The NP battery consisted of tests assessing memory, learning, working memory, fine motor skills, speed of information processing, verbal fluency and executive functioning. RESULTS: Two-hundred-and-thirty-one participants were recruited. Of those, 155 were HIV-positive (Female = 70%, Age M = 37.8; SD 11.2) and 76 HIV-negative (Female = 63%, Age M = 31.2; SD 9.9). HIV-positive participants were on ART for an average of 6 years. NCI was present in 49.7% HIV positive participants. Compared to HIV-negative participants, the HIV-positive group had significantly poorer scores in 5 out of 7 cognitive domains. A good level of education is negatively correlated with NCI. CONCLUSIONS: NCI prevalence in HIV-positive population Zimbabwe is consistent with global estimates. NCI persists in adults who are on ART. Routine assessment of NCI in adults attending primary care clinics using this adapted battery is therefore important so that they are identified early and are provided the necessary interventions.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH , Atención Primaria de Salud , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
11.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138523

RESUMEN

Management of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is becoming increasingly important with HIV-positive people living normal life spans. We aimed to establish the level of HAND awareness among doctor and nurse occupational health practitioners, screening used to detect impairment, factors limiting screening for HAND, and training needs. One-hundred-and-five members of the nursing and physician professional societies for occupational health practitioners in South Africa and Occupational Health Departments at five South African universities responded to an email invitation to complete an online survey addressing demographics, HAND knowledge, screeners being used to screen for HAND and related training needs. While 80% had heard of HAND, few (13.3%) were aware of the Frascati criteria. Only 2% had received training addressing HAND; 11.4% screened for HAND; 45.7% did not know what screening tool to us; 80% preferred spending <15 min on screening. The largest obstacle to screening was lack of expertise (77.1%) but 77.3% thought it important to screen for HAND. 94.3% wanted screening training. Health providers are poorly informed about HAND and lack expertise and tools to screen for HAND in their treatment programs. While few had relevant training, they recognize the importance of screening for HAND in the workplace and desire training.

12.
AIDS ; 34(5): 737-748, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895148

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive model of neurocognitive trajectories in children with perinatal HIV (pHIV). DESIGN: Machine learning analysis of baseline and longitudinal predictors derived from clinical measures utilized in pediatric HIV. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five children (ages 2-14 years at baseline; Mage = 6.4 years) with pHIV in Southeast Asia underwent neurocognitive assessment at study enrollment and twice annually thereafter for an average of 5.4 years. Neurocognitive slopes were modeled to establish two subgroups [above (n = 145) and below average (n = 140) trajectories). Gradient-boosted multivariate regressions (GBM) with five-fold cross validation were conducted to examine baseline (pre-ART) and longitudinal predictive features derived from demographic, HIV disease, immune, mental health, and physical health indices (i.e. complete blood count [CBC]). RESULTS: The baseline GBM established a classifier of neurocognitive group designation with an average AUC of 79% built from HIV disease severity and immune markers. GBM analysis of longitudinal predictors with and without interactions improved the average AUC to 87 and 90%, respectively. Mental health problems and hematocrit levels also emerged as salient features in the longitudinal models, with novel interactions between mental health problems and both CD4 cell count and hematocrit levels. Average AUCs derived from each GBM model were higher than results obtained using logistic regression. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the feasibility of machine learning to identify children with pHIV at risk for suboptimal neurocognitive development. Results also suggest that interactions between HIV disease and mental health problems are early antecedents to neurocognitive difficulties in later childhood among youth with pHIV.

13.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 27(2): 173-180, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265567

RESUMEN

The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) has been adapted for use in many different languages and in low- and middle-income countries. However, few adaptations have evaluated performance differences between home- and acquired-language administrations. The present study examined performance on an adapted HVLT-R between multilingual South Africans who chose to be tested in a home or acquired language. The HVLT-R was administered to 112 multilingual, isiXhosa as home language, Black South African adults (49% men) with no major medical, neurological, or psychiatric problems. Sixty-one preferred to take the test in isiXhosa and 51 preferred English. We examined between-language differences in word equivalency, primary scores, learning indices, and serial position effects. We also examined language, age, education, and gender on test performance. English-examinees were significantly younger and more educated than isiXhosa-examinees (p's < .05). Although isiXhosa words had more letters and syllables than English words (p's <.001), there were no significant differences between groups on HVLT-R performance or serial recall (p's > .05). More education and being a woman predicted better Total and Delayed Recall (p's<.05). Performance on this modified HVLT-R appears similar between English and isiXhosa administrations among South African isiXhosa first language speakers, which makes comparisons between preferred language administrations appropriate.


Asunto(s)
Multilingüismo , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Aprendizaje Verbal , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Sudáfrica/etnología , Aprendizaje Verbal/fisiología
14.
AIDS Care ; 32(1): 21-29, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174426

RESUMEN

There are an estimated 2.1 million youth less than 15 years of age living with HIV globally (the majority perinatally HIV-infected [PHIV]) and millions more perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) youth who are expected to survive through adolescence and into adulthood. Transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood requires adaptation to more demanding social interactions, academic pressures, and individual responsibilities which place distinct demands on neurocognitive functions. This study examined longitudinal trajectories of neurocognitive test performance in the domains of processing speed (PS), working memory (WM), and executive functioning (EF) among PHIV and demographically similar PHEU from adolescence through young adulthood. Data for this paper come from four time points, spanning approximately 10 years, within the Child and Adolescent Self-Awareness and Health Study (CASAH). Youth age ranged from 15 to 29 years. Longitudinal linear mixed effect models were computed for each test. Few differences in performance were found on tests of EF and WM between PHIV and PHEU youth as they aged, though PHEU youth showed significantly better PS as they aged than PHIV youth. Future research is needed to understand these vulnerable youth's neurocognitive trajectories as a function of HIV infection and -exposure, biological functions and psychosocial stressors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Recolección de Datos , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Relaciones Interpersonales , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
15.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(sup1): 1-26, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043112

RESUMEN

Objective: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at risk for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)/Neurocognitive Impairment (NCI). HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is high, but neuropsychological screening and testing for NCI among HIV-infected individuals is not done frequently. This systematic review aims to establish how NCI among HIV-infected individuals is being assessed in SSA, if and how the tests are adapted, if norms exist and identify personnel who administer them.Method: We searched PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Two reviewers screened the articles for inclusion and risk of bias. We included studies from SSA with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery.Results: We retrieved 212 articles and 23 articles met inclusion criteria. The most commonly used tests were the Color Trails Test 1, Color Trails Test 2, and the WAIS III Digit Symbol Test. Some tests were translated into French (Cameroon), Luganda (Uganda), Chichewa (Malawi), isiXhosa (South Africa), and Afrikaans (South Africa). Some verbal learning tests were adapted to reflect culturally appropriate language. Test administrators were either non-specialized personnel supervised by clinical neuropsychologists or clinical psychologists.Conclusion: Overall, the tests used are similar to the tests being used globally to assess NCI among HIV-infected individuals and there is a general consistency across countries. However, there is generally a lack of norms for the tests and the process of adaptation is not always well described. Future research should establish whether these tests measure neuropsychological constructs as successfully as they do in western populations where the tests were developed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Trastornos Neurocognitivos/etiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica
16.
AIDS ; 33(9): 1411-1420, 2019 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950883

RESUMEN

: Tremendous biomedical advancements in HIV prevention and treatment have led to aspirational efforts to end the HIV epidemic. However, this goal will not be achieved without addressing the significant mental health and substance use problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) and people vulnerable to acquiring HIV. These problems exacerbate the many social and economic barriers to accessing adequate and sustained healthcare, and are among the most challenging barriers to achieving the end of the HIV epidemic. Rates of mental health problems are higher among both people vulnerable to acquiring HIV and PLWH, compared with the general population. Mental health impairments increase risk for HIV acquisition and for negative health outcomes among PLWH at each step in the HIV care continuum. We have the necessary screening tools and efficacious treatments to treat mental health problems among people living with and at risk for HIV. However, we need to prioritize mental health treatment with appropriate resources to address the current mental health screening and treatment gaps. Integration of mental health screening and care into all HIV testing and treatment settings would not only strengthen HIV prevention and care outcomes, but it would additionally improve global access to mental healthcare.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Humanos
17.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 685-700, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869933

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Impaired processing speed (PS) is a feature of cognitive profiles associated with neurological disorders particularly prevalent in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs). However, commonly used PS tests are not validated for use in LMICs. We assessed, using a sample of healthy South African adults, the construct validity of PS tests contained within NeuroScreen (a tablet-based application and test battery designed to be culturally fair), and established preliminary normative data for those tests (Study 1). Moreover, because South Africa has the highest population prevalence of people living with HIV and PS deficits are a core feature of HIV-associated cognitive impairment, we assessed whether NeuroScreen could detect PS impairment in a sample of HIV-infected South African adults (Study 2). METHODS: In Study 1 (N = 112 healthy adults) and Study 2 (the Study 1 sample, plus n = 102 HIV-infected adults), we administered Neuroscreen and a standardized paper-and-pencil neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: In Study 1, factor analyses indicated that NeuroScreen PS scores loaded onto one factor and converged with scores on paper-and-pencil PS tests. Regression modeling indicated that age significantly predicted NeuroScreen PS performance (i.e., younger participants performed better). In Study 2, HIV-infected participants performed significantly more poorly on NeuroScreen PS tests than their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of HIV-infected participants displayed impaired PS when judged against the regression-based norms. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that NeuroScreen has cross-cultural utility in assessing adult PS performance, and that it might be useful in tracking trajectories of PS decline within HIV infection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estándares de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
18.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 32(3): 210-217, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30695001

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive disorders remain a major global burden with an estimated 47 million people living with dementia worldwide. Rates of cognitive disorders are expected to grow, especially as the global population ages. Global trends also indicate that about half of the global population lives in urban settings. To help guide future research, as well as the development of targeted and tailored interventions to prevent and care for people living with cognitive disorders, we present an up-to-date review and summary of the literature examining cognitive disorders and urbanization. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature between January 2017 and September 2018 on cognitive disorders and urbanization. We found that rates of dementia among urban dwellers tends to be lower than those of rural dwellers. Leading theories explaining this difference tend to focus on better access to higher quality education, as well as public and health services among urban dwellers. We also found that greater exposure to air and noise pollutants may negatively impact cognition. SUMMARY: The reasons why older adults living in urban settings appear to have lower rates of dementia and better performance on cognitive measures are not well understood. Furthermore, the definitions of urban and rural and cognitive disorder, as well as how they are measured vary greatly between studies, making comparisons difficult.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Salud Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Urbanización , Trastornos del Conocimiento/epidemiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
19.
AIDS Care ; 31(1): 61-68, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950105

RESUMEN

Despite the increased recognition of how neighborhood conditions bear on cognitive and academic outcomes, no studies have examined the influences of objective and subjective neighborhood indices on specific areas of cognitive functioning among youth living with perinatal HIV (PHIV). In the United States (US), this is of particular concern as HIV has disproportionately affected African American youth living in economically disadvantaged and racially segregated communities. Thus, based on a longitudinal cohort study of psychosocial and behavioral health outcomes in 340 perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) and PHIV youth residing in New York City, ages 9-16 years at enrollment, we analyzed data from baseline and multiple follow-up (FU) quantitative interviews with youth and their primary caregivers, from when they were at least 13-years-old (approximately 4-6 years post enrollment). We examined the association between baseline neighborhood indices (2000 US census data and caregiver's perception of neighborhood stressors) and youth receptive language skills (PPVT; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) at FU2 and FU3. Census data (percentage of families in neighborhood living below the national poverty rate, median neighborhood household income, and percentage of residents professionally employed) were not independently associated with PPVT scores at both follow-ups. However, in the logistic regression model, the more caregivers perceived their neighborhood as stressful and subjected to violence, the stronger the relationship between census data indicators of low resource neighborhoods and lower PPVT scores for both groups. Findings support "place-based" policies and practices that alleviate caregiver experiences of neighborhood stressors which may contribute to improved cognitive outcomes for youth living with and affected by PHIV.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Trastornos del Lenguaje/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia , Adolescente , Niño , Cognición/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lenguaje , Trastornos del Lenguaje/etiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , New York/epidemiología , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Embarazo , Vocabulario
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(1): e5, 2018 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. South Africa has 7 million people living with HIV (PLHIV) with up to three-quarters of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve individuals having NCI. South Africa's health system struggles to meet the care needs of its millions of PLHIV; screening for NCI is typically neglected due to limited clinical staff trained to administer, score, and interpret neuropsychological tests, as well as long test batteries and limited screening tools for South African populations. Without accurate, clinically useful, and relatively brief NCI screening tests that can be administered by all levels of clinical staff, critical opportunities to provide psychoeducation, behavioral planning, additional ART adherence support, and adjuvant therapies for NCI (when they become available) are missed. To address these challenges and gap in care, we developed an mHealth app screening tool, NeuroScreen, to detect NCI that can be administered by all levels of clinical staff, including lay health workers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine sensitivity and specificity of an adapted version of NeuroScreen to detect NCI (as determined by a gold standard neuropsychological test battery administered by a trained research psychometrist) among HIV-infected South Africans when administered by a lay health worker. METHODS: A total of 102 HIV-infected black South African adults who had initiated ART at least 12 months prior were administered NeuroScreen and a gold standard neuropsychological test battery in the participants' choice of language (ie, English or isiXhosa). Three composite z scores were calculated for NeuroScreen: (1) sum of all individual test scores, (2) sum of all individual test scores and error scores from four tests, and (3) sum of four tests (abbreviated version). Global deficit scores were calculated for the gold standard battery where a score of 0.5 or greater indicated the presence of NCI. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 33.31 (SD 7.46) years, most (59.8%, 61/102) had at least 12 years of education, and 81.4% (83/102) of the sample was female. Gold standard test battery results indicated that 26.5% (27/102) of the sample had NCI. Sensitivity and specificity of age-, education-, and sex-adjusted NeuroScreen scores were 81.48% and 74.67% for composite score 1, 81.48% and 81.33% for composite score 2, and 92.59% and 70.67% for composite score 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: NeuroScreen, a highly automated, easy-to-use, tablet-based screening test to detect NCI among English- and isiXhosa-speaking South African HIV patients demonstrated robust sensitivity and specificity to detect NCI when administered by lay health workers. NeuroScreen could help make screening for NCI more feasible. However, additional research is needed with larger samples and normative test performance data are needed.

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