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1.
New Phytol ; 227(6): 1872-1884, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392621

RESUMEN

Niche conservatism is the tendency of lineages to retain the same niche as their ancestors. It constrains biological groups and prevents ecological divergence. However, theory predicts that niche conservatism can hinder gene flow, strengthen drift and increase local adaptation: does it mean that it also can facilitate speciation? Why does this happen? We aim to answer these questions. We examined the variation of chloroplast DNA, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms, morphological traits and environmental variables across the Dioon merolae cycad populations. We tested geographical structure, scenarios of demographic history, and niche conservatism between population groups. Lineage divergence is associated with the presence of a geographical barrier consisting of unsuitable habitats for cycads. There is a clear genetic and morphological distinction between the geographical groups, suggesting allopatric divergence. However, even in contrasting available environmental conditions, groups retain their ancestral niche, supporting niche conservatism. Niche conservatism is a process that can promote speciation. In D. merolae, lineage divergence occurred because unsuitable habitats represented a barrier against gene flow, incurring populations to experience isolated demographic histories and disparate environmental conditions. This study explains why cycads, despite their ancient lineage origin and biological stasis, have been able to diversify into modern ecosystems worldwide.

2.
Ann Bot ; 121(3): 535-548, 2018 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293877

RESUMEN

Background and Aims: Biogeographic transition zones are promising areas to study processes of biogeographic evolution and its influence on biological groups. The Mexican transition zone originated due to the overlap of Nearctic and Neotropical biota, which promoted great biological diversification. However, since most previous studies in this area were focused on revealing the phylogeography of Nearctic plants, how historical biogeographic configuration influenced the expansion and diversification of the Neotropical flora remains almost unknown. Using the cycad genus Dioon (Zamiaceae), this study aimed to test whether the biogeographic provinciality of the Mexican transition zone reflects the history of diversification of Neotropical plants. Methods: Two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions were analysed from 101 specimens of 15 Dioon species to reveal the distribution of haplogroups. In addition, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 84 specimens were used to test the concordance between phylogenetic clusters and the biogeographic provinces. An ultrametric tree was constructed from the sequences containing SNPs to reconstruct the biogeographic events of vicariance and dispersal of Dioon across the Neotropical biogeographic provinces. Key Results: Four Dioon lineages with strong phylogeographic structures were recognized using both cpDNA and SNP data. The lineages correspond to two clades that originated from a common ancestor in Eastern Mexico. One clade expanded and diversified in South-east Mexico and Central America. Another clade diversified into three lineages that dispersed to North-east, South and North-west Mexico. Each lineage was biogeographically delimitated. Biogeographic provinces might have provided disparate ecological conditions that facilitated speciation in Dioon since the Miocene. Conclusions: The current genetic structure and species diversity of Dioon depict the history of expansion and diversification of the northernmost Neotropical provinces. Past biogeographic connectivities were favoured by elevated topographies, since mountain systems served as corridors for the migration of Dioon and as refugia of tropical communities that diversified during the formation of modern Neotropical forests.


Asunto(s)
Zamiaceae/genética , América Central , ADN de Cloroplastos/genética , Variación Genética/genética , Haplotipos/genética , México , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Zamiaceae/anatomía & histología
3.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 33(2): 142-144, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590216

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses (DDs) of 5 insecticides for the Rockefeller susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti , using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay as a tool for monitoring insecticide resistance in the Cuban vector control program. The 30-min DD values determined in this study were 13.5 µg/ml, 6.5 µg/ml, 6 µg/ml, 90.0 µg/ml, and 15.0 µg/ml for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and propoxur, respectively. To compare the reliability of CDC bottle bioassay with the World Health Organization susceptible test, 3 insecticide-resistant strains were evaluated for deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Results showed that the bottles can be used effectively from 21 to 25 days after treatment and reused up to 4 times, depending on the storage time. The CDC bottle bioassay is an effective tool to assess insecticide resistance in field populations of Ae. aegypti in Cuba and can be incorporated into vector management programs using the diagnostic doses determined in this study.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas , Control de Mosquitos , Animales , Cuba , Femenino , Control de Mosquitos/instrumentación , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 68(2): 125-135, may.-ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-844985

RESUMEN

Introducción: el programa de control de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) en Cuba utiliza temefos como larvicida y piretroides como adulticidas, aunque el organofosforado clorpirifos ha sido utilizado esporádicamente. Conocer el nivel de resistencia a estos insecticidas es esencial para lograr un control efectivo de esta especie. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de resistencia a insecticidas en su grado técnico y en sus formulaciones comerciales en Ae. aegypti de Pinar del Río. Métodos: una cepa de Ae. aegypti del Área de Salud Raúl Sánchez, Pinar del Río, fue evaluada a través de los bioensayos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para determinar la susceptibilidad en larvas al organofosforado temefos en su formulación técnica. Se evaluaron además tres formulaciones granuladas de temefos (Abatex-G1, Biolarv G-1 y Temefar G-1). En el estado adulto se determinó el nivel de susceptibilidad a los insecticidas piretroides: cipermetrina, deltametrina, lambdacialotrina y al organofosforado clorpirifos, en su formulación técnica. Además se evaluaron algunos en su formulación comercial: Galgotrin 25 EC (cipermetrina), Aqua K-Otrina 2 EW (deltametrina) y Clorcide 44 EC (clorpirifos). Resultados: en larvas, se encontró alta resistencia a temefos, en su formulación técnica, y con los productos en su formulación comercial, se observó una efectividad del 100 por ciento, con recambio diario de agua, de hasta 20 días para Temefar G1, 18 días para Biolarv G1 y 12 días para Abatex G1. En los ensayos de adultos, la cepa resultó susceptible a cipermetrina, deltametrina y clorpirifos, y resistente a lambdacialotrina. Con respecto a las tres formulaciones comerciales evaluadas, solo se observó resistencia a Aqua K-Otrina 2 EW. Conclusiones: el uso de estrategias de control integrado de Ae. aegypti se hace necesario para disminuir la frecuencia de uso de temefos, y así recuperar la efectividad de este insecticida. Además, se evitaría la aparición de resistencia a productos adulticidas que aun mantienen su efectividad para el control efectivo de esta especie en la zona de estudio(AU)


Introduction: the control program of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cuba uses temephos as larvicide and pyrethroids as adulticide although the organophosphorate chlorpyrifos has been barely used. The level of knowledge about resistance to insecticides is essential to effectively control this species. Objective: to determine the level of resistance to insecticides of Ae. aegypti from Pinar del Rio in its technical aspect and in commercial formulations. Methods: one Ae. aegypti strain from the health area Raul Sánchez in Pinar del Rio province was evaluated through the World Health Organization bioassays to determine susceptibility of larvae to temephos in its technical formulation. Additionally, three granulated formulations of temephos were evaluated (Abatex-G1, Biolarv G-1 and Temefar G-1). In the adult state, the level of susceptibility to pyrethroids called cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda cyhalothrine and to organophosphate chlorpyrifos in its technical formulation. Some of them were evaluated in its commercial formulation (Galgotrin 25 EC (cypermethrin), Aqua K-Otrina 2 EW (deltamethrin) and Clorcide 44 EC (chlorpyrifos). Results: it was found in larvae that the resistance to temephos was high in the technical formulation, but the commercial formulation showed an effectiveness rate of 100 percent., with daily change of water, up to 20 days for Temefar G1, 18 days for Biolarv G1 and 12 for Abatex G1. In the assays with adult vectors, the strain turned to be susceptible to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos and resistant to lambda cyhalothrin. Regarding the three evaluated commercial formulations, resistance to Aqua K-Otrina 2 EW was proved. Conclusions: the use of integrated control strategies for Ae. aegypti makes it necessary to reduce the frequency of use of temephos and to recover the effectiveness of this insecticide. Moreover, it will avoid the occurrence of resistance to adulticide products that are still effective for the control of this species in the study area(AU)


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a los Insecticidas/fisiología , Control Biológico de Vectores/métodos , Aedes , Insecticidas Organofosforados/métodos
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 68(2): 125-135, may.-ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | CUMED | ID: cum-67454

RESUMEN

Introducción: el programa de control de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) en Cuba utiliza temefos como larvicida y piretroides como adulticidas, aunque el organofosforado clorpirifos ha sido utilizado esporádicamente. Conocer el nivel de resistencia a estos insecticidas es esencial para lograr un control efectivo de esta especie.Objetivo: determinar el nivel de resistencia a insecticidas en su grado técnico y en sus formulaciones comerciales en Ae. aegypti de Pinar del Río.Métodos: una cepa de Ae. aegypti del Área de Salud Raúl Sánchez, Pinar del Río, fue evaluada a través de los bioensayos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para determinar la susceptibilidad en larvas al organofosforado temefos en su formulación técnica. Se evaluaron además tres formulaciones granuladas de temefos (Abatex-G1, Biolarv G-1 y Temefar G-1). En el estado adulto se determinó el nivel de susceptibilidad a los insecticidas piretroides: cipermetrina, deltametrina, lambdacialotrina y al organofosforado clorpirifos, en su formulación técnica...


Introduction: the control program of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cuba uses temephos as larvicide and pyrethroids as adulticide although the organophosphorate chlorpyrifos has been barely used. The level of knowledge about resistance to insecticides is essential to effectively control this species.Objective: to determine the level of resistance to insecticides of Ae. aegypti from Pinar del Rio in its technical aspect and in commercial formulations.Methods: one Ae. aegypti strain from the health area Raul Sánchez in Pinar del Rio province was evaluated through the World Health Organization bioassays to determine susceptibility of larvae to temephos in its technical formulation. Additionally, three granulated formulations of temephos were evaluated (Abatex-G1, Biolarv G-1 and Temefar G-1). In the adult state, the level of susceptibility to pyrethroids called cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda cyhalothrine and to organophosphate chlorpyrifos in its technical formulation. Some of them were evaluated in its commercial formulation (Galgotrin 25 EC (cypermethrin), Aqua K-Otrina 2 EW (deltamethrin) and Clorcide 44 EC (chlorpyrifos).Results: it was found in larvae that the resistance to temephos was high in the technical formulation, but the commercial formulation showed an effectiveness rate of 100 percent, with daily change of water, up to 20 days for Temefar G1, 18 days for Biolarv G1 and 12 for Abatex G1. In the assays with adult vectors, the strain turned to be susceptible to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos and resistant to lambda cyhalothrin. Regarding the three evaluated commercial formulations, resistance to Aqua K-Otrina 2 EW was proved.Conclusions: the use of integrated control strategies for Ae. aegypti makes it necessary to reduce the frequency of use of temephos and to recover the effectiveness of this insecticide...


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Resistencia a los Insecticidas
6.
Naturwissenschaften ; 102(9-10): 59, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26362779

RESUMEN

Quantitative data on the ecology of the main plant communities along an altitudinal gradient in northeastern Mexico were obtained with the aim of identifying the most important environmental variables that affect plant distribution and composition. The main threats to these communities were also investigated. Importance value index (IVi) of the 39 most important species and 16 environmental variables were recorded at 35 altitudinal gradients each spaced at intervals of at least 100-m altitude. Classification and ordination of vegetation showed six well-differentiated but overlapping plant communities: alpine meadow, cold conifer forest, mesic mixed forest, xeric scrub, Tamaulipan piedmont scrub, and halophytic grassland. Altitude, minimum and average temperatures, and organic matter content are the main variables affecting the plant distribution in northeastern Mexico. Urban growth, mechanized agriculture, and changes in land use are the main threats in the short and medium term to plant communities in this area. Climate change also seems to be having an impact at present or in the near future as shown by the presence of exotic shrubs from warmer areas in mesic and temperate areas inhabited by oak and oak-pine forest.


Asunto(s)
Altitud , Clima , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Plantas/clasificación , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , México
7.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 10: 62, 2014 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25179469

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Trough collections of plants and interviews with 110 individuals, an ethnobotanical study was conducted in order to determine the knowledge and use plant species in Rayones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The aim of this study was to record all useful plants and their uses, to know whether differences exist in the knowledge about the number of species and uses between women and men, and to know if there is a correlation between the age of individuals and knowledge of species and their uses. METHODS: A total of 110 persons were interviewed (56 men, 56 women). Semistructured interviews were carried out. The data were analyzed by means of Student t test and the Pearson Correlation Coeficient. RESULTS: A total of 252 species, 228 genera and 91 families of vascular plants were recorded. Astraceae, Fabaceae and are the most important families with useful species and Agave and Opuntia are the genera with the highest number of useful species. One hundred and thirty six species are considered as medicinal. Agave, Acacia and Citrus are the genera with the highest number of medicinal species. Other uses includes edible, spiritual rituals, construction and ornamentals. There was a non-significant correlation between the person's age and number of species, but a significant very low negative correlation between the person's age and number of uses was found. CONCLUSIONS: Knowing their medicinal uses is an important issue for the people of Rayones. Boiling and preparing infusions are the main ways of using plants by residents. The leaves, the branches, and the fruits are the most commonly used parts. Almost 18% of the flora is used for wood and construction purposes. Several uses such as cosmetic, shampoo, firming skin tonics and health hair products recorded in Rayones has not been reported for other areas in the state of Nuevo León. In Rayones, women have a greater knowledge about plants and their uses than men, particularly, medicinal plants, but, men have a greater knowledge about wood and construction species.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Conducta Ceremonial , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plantas Comestibles , Plantas Medicinales
8.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 30(4): 298-304, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843136

RESUMEN

Studies were conducted to compare levels of insecticide resistance and to determine the metabolic resistance mechanisms in larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti from Cuba. Three insecticide-resistant reference strains of Ae. aegypti from Cuba were examined. These strains were derived from a Santiago de Cuba strain isolated in 1997; it was previously subjected to a strong selection for resistance to temephos (SAN-F6), deltamethrin (SAN-F12), and propoxur (SAN-F13) and routinely maintained in the laboratory under selection pressure up to the present time, when the study was carried out. In addition, an insecticide-susceptible strain was used for comparison. The insecticide resistance in larvae and adults was determined using standard World Health Organization methodologies. Insecticide resistance mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays. The esterases (α EST and ß EST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities were significantly higher in adults than in the larvae of the three resistant strains studied. The association of resistance level with the biochemical mechanism for each insecticide was established for each stage. The observed differences between larval and adult stages of Ae. aegypti in their levels of insecticide resistance and the biochemical mechanisms involved should be included as part of monitoring and surveillance activities in Ae. aegypti vector control programs.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/efectos de los fármacos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas/farmacología , Aedes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aedes/metabolismo , Animales , Cuba , Femenino , Larva/efectos de los fármacos , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/metabolismo
9.
J Med Entomol ; 51(6): 1213-9, 2014 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309309

RESUMEN

The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/genética , Insecticidas , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , Animales , Cuba , Femenino , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética , Larva , Masculino
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 64(3): 256-267, jul.-sep. 2012.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-653844

RESUMEN

Introducción: las enzimas esterasas han sido identificadas como mecanismo de resistencia a temefos en Aedes aegypti de Cuba, larvicida más utilizado en el mundo. Objetivo: caracterizar parcialmente la actividad de esterasas en larvas expuestas y no expuestas a dosis subletales de temefos en una cepa de Aedes aegypti resistente a este insecticida. Métodos: se utilizó una cepa de Aedes aegypti de referencia susceptible (Rockefeller) y otra resistente a temefos (SANtemF11). Se expusieron las larvas de la cepa SANtemF11 a la concentración letal 90 (CL90) de temefos (1 ppm), 10 % de larvas sobrevivientes a las 24 h (SANtem [24 h]) se transfirieron a agua limpia y sin exposición a insecticidas por otras 24 h (SANtem [48 h]). Se caracterizó de modo parcial, en estas larvas, la actividad de esterasas a través de ensayos bioquímicos y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. Se estimó por duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE) el peso molecular de la esterasa (Est. A4). Resultados: la actividad de esterasas en la cepa SANtemF11 resultó significativamente mayor que en Rockefeller. Se observó una disminución significativa de la actividad de esterasas en las larvas sobrevivientes (SANtemF11 [24 h]), la cual se recuperó 24 h después sin exposición a temefos. En el zimograma se observó que en 10 % de las larvas sobrevivientes a temefos, solo apareció incrementada la banda de esterasa A4, en comparación con las observadas en SANtemF11. El peso molecular estimado de la esterasa A4 fue de 58 kDa. Conclusiones: la presencia de una banda específica de esterasa (58 kDa), en las larvas sobrevivientes a la selección con temefos, confirma su papel en la resistencia a este insecticida. Diagnosticar la función de las esterasas en la resistencia a temefos, a través de ensayos bioquímicos, no debe realizarse en larvas expuestas a dosis subletales de este insecticida, para evitar falsos negativos.


Introduction: the esterase enzymes have been defined as the mechanism of resistance to temephos in Aeges aegypti in Cuba, which is the most used larvacide worldwide. Objective: to partially characterize the activity of esterases in exposed and non-exposed larvae at sublethal doses of temephos in an Aedes aegypti strain that is resistant to this product. Methods: a susceptible reference Aedes aegypti strain (Rockefeller) and another temephos-resistant strain (SANtemFII) were used. The larvae from SANtemF11 strain were exposed to lethal concentration 90 (LC90) of temephos (1 ppm); 10 % of the surviving larvae after 24 hours (SANtem[24 h] was moved to clean water, with no exposure to insecticide for 24 hours (SANtem [48 h]). The activity of esterases was partially characterized in these larvae through biochemical assays and gel-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The molecular weight of esterase A 4 (ESt. A4) was estimated with the support of sodium duodecyl sulophate (SDS-PAGE). Results: the activity of esterases in SANtemF11 was significantly higher than in Rockefeller strain. Significant reduction of the activity of esterases in surviving larvae was observed (SANtemF11 [24 h], but it increased 24 h later without exposure to temephos. The zymogram showed that 10% of larvae that survived from temephos action, just the esterase A4 band increased if compared with those of SAntemF11. The estimated molecular weight of esterase A4 was 58 kDa. Conclusions: the presence of a specific band of esterase (58 kDa) in surviving larvae confirmed the role of these enzymes in insecticidal resistance. The diagnosis of the function of the esterases in resistance to temephos through biochemical tests should not be made in larvae exposed to sublethal doses of this insecticide, in order to avoid false negatives.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Aedes/enzimología , Esterasas/fisiología , Insecticidas , Temefós , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/fisiología
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 64(3): 256-267, jul.-sept. 2012.
Artículo en Español | CUMED | ID: cum-55699

RESUMEN

Introducción: las enzimas esterasas han sido identificadas como mecanismo de resistencia a temefos en Aedes aegypti de Cuba, larvicida más utilizado en el mundo. Objetivo: caracterizar parcialmente la actividad de esterasas en larvas expuestas y no expuestas a dosis subletales de temefos en una cepa de Aedes aegypti resistente a este insecticida. Métodos: se utilizó una cepa de Aedes aegypti de referencia susceptible (Rockefeller) y otra resistente a temefos (SANtemF11). Se expusieron las larvas de la cepa SANtemF11 a la concentración letal 90 (CL90) de temefos (1 ppm), 10 por ciento de larvas sobrevivientes a las 24 h (SANtem [24 h]) se transfirieron a agua limpia y sin exposición a insecticidas por otras 24 h (SANtem [48 h]). Se caracterizó de modo parcial, en estas larvas, la actividad de esterasas a través de ensayos bioquímicos y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. Se estimó por duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE) el peso molecular de la esterasa (Est. A4). Resultados: la actividad de esterasas en la cepa SANtemF11 resultó significativamente mayor que en Rockefeller. Se observó una disminución significativa de la actividad de esterasas en las larvas sobrevivientes (SANtemF11 [24 h]), la cual se recuperó 24 h después sin exposición a temefos. En el zimograma se observó que en 10 % de las larvas sobrevivientes a temefos, solo apareció incrementada la banda de esterasa A4, en comparación con las observadas en SANtemF11. El peso molecular estimado de la esterasa A4 fue de 58 kDa. Conclusiones: la presencia de una banda específica de esterasa (58 kDa), en las larvas sobrevivientes a la selección con temefos, confirma su papel en la resistencia a este insecticida. Diagnosticar la función de las esterasas en la resistencia a temefos, a través de ensayos bioquímicos, no debe realizarse en larvas expuestas a dosis subletales de este insecticida, para evitar falsos negativos(AU)


Introduction: the esterase enzymes have been defined as the mechanism of resistance to temephos in Aeges aegypti in Cuba, which is the most used larvacide worldwide. Objective: to partially characterize the activity of esterases in exposed and non-exposed larvae at sublethal doses of temephos in an Aedes aegypti strain that is resistant to this product. Methods: a susceptible reference Aedes aegypti strain (Rockefeller) and another temephos-resistant strain (SANtemFII) were used. The larvae from SANtemF11 strain were exposed to lethal concentration 90 (LC90) of temephos (1 ppm); 10 % of the surviving larvae after 24 hours (SANtem[24 h] was moved to clean water, with no exposure to insecticide for 24 hours (SANtem [48 h]). The activity of esterases was partially characterized in these larvae through biochemical assays and gel-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The molecular weight of esterase A 4 (ESt. A4) was estimated with the support of sodium duodecyl sulophate (SDS-PAGE). Results: the activity of esterases in SANtemF11 was significantly higher than in Rockefeller strain. Significant reduction of the activity of esterases in surviving larvae was observed (SANtemF11 [24 h], but it increased 24 h later without exposure to temephos. The zymogram showed that 10% of larvae that survived from temephos action, just the esterase A4 band increased if compared with those of SAntemF11. The estimated molecular weight of esterase A4 was 58 kDa. Conclusions: the presence of a specific band of esterase (58 kDa) in surviving larvae confirmed the role of these enzymes in insecticidal resistance. The diagnosis of the function of the esterases in resistance to temephos through biochemical tests should not be made in larvae exposed to sublethal doses of this insecticide, in order to avoid false negatives(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Aedes/enzimología , Esterasas/fisiología , Insecticidas , Temefós , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/fisiología
12.
Enferm. univ ; 7(2): 38-44, Abr-Jun.2010.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1028541

RESUMEN

Introducción: Los pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de salud mental tienen el riesgo potencial de enfrentar factores de riesgo. Con la intensión de prevenir caídas en los usuarios hospitalizados Ruelas y Sarabia (10, 11), han elaborado, un modelo de valoración de los factores de riesgo como son: falta iluminación adecuada, desorden del mobiliario, falta de limpieza del área física, desconocimiento de las medidas de seguridad dentro de las instalaciones de la unidad, así como factores inherentes al paciente y su condición como son: sexo, edad, estilo de vida, movilidad, factores relacionados con el estado físico, sensoriales, estado neurológico y emocional alterados, tratamiento farmacológico y los relacionados con los dispositivos para deambular. Material y Método: Se realizó una investigación de tipo transversal y descriptiva, de Mayo del 2008 a Mayo del 2009, la muestra la conformaron 285 pacientes hospitalizados a los cuales se les aplicó una cédula de evaluación de riesgo de caídas al ingreso y cada 7 días hasta su egreso. Resultados: Durante el tiempo de hospitalización 5% de los pacientes presentaron caída, entre las características de estos tenemos el ser mujer 76%, recibir tratamiento con benzodiacepinas (clonazepan) 100%, con diagnóstico de ingreso episodios depresivos graves con pensamiento o intento suicida 53%, con conducta disruptiva, por episodio maniaco o trastorno psicótico 38%, con reporte de resonancia magnética de pérdida de volumen de parénquima cerebral 61% y factores extrínsecos 28%. Conclusión: Se identificó que los factores de riesgo predominantes en nuestros pacientes son la combinación de psicofármacos, y la enfermedad mental, la falta de identificación del riesgo en pacientes, familiares, cuidadores y equipo de salud. En menor porcentaje influyen los factores estructurales.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención de Accidentes , Enfermería
13.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 62(3): 217-223, sep.-dic. 2010.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-584955

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: la resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados en Santiago de Cuba fue diagnosticada en Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) en 1997, y alguno de ellos se han continuado utilizando hasta la fecha, de ahí la necesidad de conocer cómo ha variado la resistencia desde entonces, hasta fechas más recientes, año 2009. OBJETIVO: evaluar la resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados en larvas de Santiago de Cuba, colectadas en 2009 y su variación con respecto a 1997. Determinar la frecuencia en que aparece el mecanismo de resistencia, basado en la alta actividad de esterasas y su clasificación. MÉTODOS: se evaluó la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados, malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion, fention, temefos y clorpirifos en larvas mediante la metodología recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El mecanismo de esterasas se determinó a través de ensayos bioquímicos y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. RESULTADOS: las larvas de la cepa de Santiago de Cuba resultaron susceptibles a malation, pirimifos metil y fenitrotion y no hubo variación con los resultados obtenidos en una cepa de Santiago de Cuba de 1997, se observó moderada resistencia a fention y alta a temefos y clorpirifos. Al comparar estos resultados con los obtenidos en 1997, se observó un incremento de la resistencia a los tres insecticidas en el período 1997-2009. En la cepa de Santiago de Cuba de 2009 se demostró que las esterasas se encontraron con una alta actividad a una frecuencia de 0,7. Se observó la presencia de una esterasa tipo B amplificada, con un valor de movilidad relativa de 0,95 cm, la cual no se encontró en la cepa susceptible de referencia. CONCLUSIONES: la resistencia a insecticidas y sus mecanismos es un fenómeno sumamente variable, aun en la misma especie sometida a distintas intensidades de aplicación de insecticidas, de ahí que su monitoreo constante de forma local y en el tiempo sea una necesidad para un programa de control de vectores.


INTRODUCTION: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was diagnosed in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Santiago de Cuba in 1997 and some of them are still used up to date; hence the need of ascertaining how the insecticidal resistance has changed in recent times, particularly in 2009. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to organophosporus insecticides in larvae from Santiago de Cuba collected in 2009, and its variation in comparison with that observed in 1997; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of resistance mechanisms on the basis of high esterase activity and its classification. METHODS: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides such as malathion, pirimiphos, methyl, phenitrotion, phention, temephos and clorpiriphos in larvae by using the WHO recommended methodology. The esterase mechanism was identified through biochemical assays and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: larvae from the Santiago de Cuba strain were susceptible to malathion, pirimiphos, methyl and phenitrothion; there was no variation with the results achieved in a Santiago de Cuba strain in 1997, moderate resistance to phenthion and high resistance to temephos and chlorpiriphos were observed. When comparing these results with those of 1997, it was noted that resistance to the three insecticides increased in the 1997-2009 period. In the Santiago de Cuba strain 2009, it was shown that esterase activity was very high at a rate of 0,7. The presence of an amplified type B esterase with relative mobility of 0.95 cm was detected, which did not exist in the reference strain. CONCLUSIONS: resistance to insecticides and its mechanisms are highly variable, even in the same species subjected to various intensities in the insecticidal use, therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor both aspects at local level in the course of time, with a view to an effective vector control program.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Aedes , Insecticidas , Compuestos Organofosforados , Cuba , Resistencia a los Insecticidas
14.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 62(3): 217-223, sep.-dic. 2010. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | CUMED | ID: cum-47667

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: la resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados en Santiago de Cuba fue diagnosticada en Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) en 1997, y alguno de ellos se han continuado utilizando hasta la fecha, de ahí la necesidad de conocer cómo ha variado la resistencia desde entonces, hasta fechas más recientes, año 2009. OBJETIVO: evaluar la resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados en larvas de Santiago de Cuba, colectadas en 2009 y su variación con respecto a 1997. Determinar la frecuencia en que aparece el mecanismo de resistencia, basado en la alta actividad de esterasas y su clasificación. MÉTODOS: se evaluó la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados, malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion, fention, temefos y clorpirifos en larvas mediante la metodología recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El mecanismo de esterasas se determinó a través de ensayos bioquímicos y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. RESULTADOS: las larvas de la cepa de Santiago de Cuba resultaron susceptibles a malation, pirimifos metil y fenitrotion y no hubo variación con los resultados obtenidos en una cepa de Santiago de Cuba de 1997, se observó moderada resistencia a fention y alta a temefos y clorpirifos. Al comparar estos resultados con los obtenidos en 1997, se observó un incremento de la resistencia a los tres insecticidas en el período 1997-2009. En la cepa de Santiago de Cuba de 2009 se demostró que las esterasas se encontraron con una alta actividad a una frecuencia de 0,7. Se observó la presencia de una esterasa tipo B amplificada, con un valor de movilidad relativa de 0,95 cm, la cual no se encontró en la cepa susceptible de referencia. CONCLUSIONES: la resistencia a insecticidas y sus mecanismos es un fenómeno sumamente variable, aun en la misma especie sometida a distintas intensidades de aplicación de insecticidas, de ahí que su monitoreo constante de forma local y en el tiempo sea una necesidad para un programa de control de vectores (AU)


INTRODUCTION: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was diagnosed in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Santiago de Cuba in 1997 and some of them are still used up to date; hence the need of ascertaining how the insecticidal resistance has changed in recent times, particularly in 2009. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to organophosporus insecticides in larvae from Santiago de Cuba collected in 2009, and its variation in comparison with that observed in 1997; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of resistance mechanisms on the basis of high esterase activity and its classification. METHODS: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides such as malathion, pirimiphos, methyl, phenitrotion, phention, temephos and clorpiriphos in larvae by using the WHO recommended methodology. The esterase mechanism was identified through biochemical assays and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: larvae from the Santiago de Cuba strain were susceptible to malathion, pirimiphos, methyl and phenitrothion; there was no variation with the results achieved in a Santiago de Cuba strain in 1997, moderate resistance to phenthion and high resistance to temephos and chlorpiriphos were observed. When comparing these results with those of 1997, it was noted that resistance to the three insecticides increased in the 1997-2009 period. In the Santiago de Cuba strain 2009, it was shown that esterase activity was very high at a rate of 0,7. The presence of an amplified type B esterase with relative mobility of 0.95 cm was detected, which did not exist in the reference strain. CONCLUSIONS: resistance to insecticides and its mechanisms are highly variable, even in the same species subjected to various intensities in the insecticidal use, therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor both aspects at local level in the course of time, with a view to an effective vector control program (AU)

15.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 62(3)sep.-dic. 2010. graf
Artículo en Español | CUMED | ID: cum-53046

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: la resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados en Santiago de Cuba fue diagnosticada en Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) en 1997, y alguno de ellos se han continuado utilizando hasta la fecha, de ahí la necesidad de conocer cómo ha variado la resistencia desde entonces, hasta fechas más recientes, año 2009. OBJETIVO: evaluar la resistencia a insecticidas organofosforados en larvas de Santiago de Cuba, colectadas en 2009 y su variación con respecto a 1997. Determinar la frecuencia en que aparece el mecanismo de resistencia, basado en la alta actividad de esterasas y su clasificación. MÉTODOS: se evaluó la resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados, malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion, fention, temefos y clorpirifos en larvas mediante la metodología recomendada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El mecanismo de esterasas se determinó a través de ensayos bioquímicos y electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. RESULTADOS: las larvas de la cepa de Santiago de Cuba resultaron susceptibles a malation, pirimifos metil y fenitrotion y no hubo variación con los resultados obtenidos en una cepa de Santiago de Cuba de 1997, se observó moderada resistencia a fention y alta a temefos y clorpirifos. Al comparar estos resultados con los obtenidos en 1997, se observó un incremento de la resistencia a los tres insecticidas en el período 1997-2009. En la cepa de Santiago de Cuba de 2009 se demostró que las esterasas se encontraron con una alta actividad a una frecuencia de 0,7. Se observó la presencia de una esterasa tipo B amplificada, con un valor de movilidad relativa de 0,95 cm, la cual no se encontró en la cepa susceptible de referencia. CONCLUSIONES: la resistencia a insecticidas y sus mecanismos es un fenómeno sumamente variable, aun en la misma especie sometida a distintas intensidades de aplicación de insecticidas, de ahí que su monitoreo constante de forma local y en el tiempo sea una necesidad para un programa de control de vectores (AU)


INTRODUCTION: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was diagnosed in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Santiago de Cuba in 1997 and some of them are still used up to date; hence the need of ascertaining how the insecticidal resistance has changed in recent times, particularly in 2009. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to organophosporus insecticides in larvae from Santiago de Cuba collected in 2009, and its variation in comparison with that observed in 1997; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of resistance mechanisms on the basis of high esterase activity and its classification. METHODS: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides such as malathion, pirimiphos, methyl, phenitrotion, phention, temephos and clorpiriphos in larvae by using the WHO recommended methodology. The esterase mechanism was identified through biochemical assays and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: larvae from the Santiago de Cuba strain were susceptible to malathion, pirimiphos, methyl and phenitrothion; there was no variation with the results achieved in a Santiago de Cuba strain in 1997, moderate resistance to phenthion and high resistance to temephos and chlorpiriphos were observed. When comparing these results with those of 1997, it was noted that resistance to the three insecticides increased in the 1997-2009 period. In the Santiago de Cuba strain 2009, it was shown that esterase activity was very high at a rate of 0,7. The presence of an amplified type B esterase with relative mobility of 0.95 cm was detected, which did not exist in the reference strain. CONCLUSIONS: resistance to insecticides and its mechanisms are highly variable, even in the same species subjected to various intensities in the insecticidal use, therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor both aspects at local level in the course of time, with a view to an effective vector control program (AU)


Asunto(s)
Control de Vectores , Aedes , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Insecticidas Organofosforados
16.
Rev Cubana Med Trop ; 62(3): 217-23, 2010.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23437552

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was diagnosed in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Santiago de Cuba in 1997 and some of them are still used up to date; hence the need of ascertaining how the insecticidal resistance has changed in recent times, particularly in 2009. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to organophosporus insecticides in larvae from Santiago de Cuba collected in 2009, and its variation in comparison with that observed in 1997; and to determine the frequency of occurrence of resistance mechanisms on the basis of high esterase activity and its classification. METHODS: resistance to organophosphorus insecticides such as malathion, pirimiphos, methyl, phenitrotion, phention, temephos and clorpiriphos in larvae by using the WHO recommended methodology. The esterase mechanism was identified through biochemical assays and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: larvae from the Santiago de Cuba strain were susceptible to malathion, pirimiphos, methyl and phenitrothion; there was no variation with the results achieved in a Santiago de Cuba strain in 1997, moderate resistance to phenthion and high resistance to temephos and chlorpiriphos were observed. When comparing these results with those of 1997, it was noted that resistance to the three insecticides increased in the 1997-2009 period. In the Santiago de Cuba strain 2009, it was shown that esterase activity was very high at a rate of 0.7. The presence of an amplified type B esterase with relative mobility of 0.95 cm was detected, which did not exist in the reference strain. CONCLUSIONS: resistance to insecticides and its mechanisms are highly variable, even in the same species subjected to various intensities in the insecticidal use, therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor both aspects at local level in the course of time, with a view to an effective vector control program.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Insecticidas , Compuestos Organofosforados , Animales , Cuba , Resistencia a los Insecticidas
17.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 61(2)May-Aug. 2009.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-584915

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: el control de Aedes aegypti continúa siendo la única medida disponible para poder disminuir la transmisión de dengue. Desafortunadamente Ae. aegypti ha demostrado la habilidad de desarrollar resistencia a una gran variedad de tóxicos. OBJETIVO: evaluar la resistencia a insecticidas químicos en larvas y adultos del municipio Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, así como los mecanismos que contribuyeron a esta. MÉTODOS: se evaluó la resistencia a insecticidas químicos en larvas y adultos a través de metodologías de la OMS. Los mecanismos de resistencia se determinaron a través de sinergistas y pruebas bioquímicas. Se realizó electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida para la visualización de enzimas esterasas. RESULTADOS: en larvas se observó susceptibilidad a los insecticidas organofosforados evaluados. Resistencia se observó a los piretroides cipermetrina y deltametrina. Los bioensayos en larvas con el producto comercial de temefos mostraron 100 por ciento de mortalidad con recambio diario de agua hasta 10 d. Se demostró que ni las esterasas, ni la enzima glutatión transferasa, desempeñaron un papel importante en la resistencia a insecticidas en larvas. Se observó la presencia de la esterasa A4 amplificada a baja frecuencia en las muestras estudiadas. En el estado adulto, la cepa Boyeros resultó resistente a los piretroides ciflutrina y lambdacialotrina, en verificación a deltametrina, y resultó susceptible a cipermetrina; también resultó ser resistente al organofosforado clorpirifos y al organoclorado DDT. CONCLUSIONES: estos resultados corroboran que aun el piretroide cipermetrina, a pesar de su uso en el municipio Boyeros, continúa siendo efectivo para el control de Ae. aegypti.


INTRODUCTION: the control of Aedes aegypti remains the only available measure to reduce dengue transmission. Unfortunately, this vector has proved that it is capable of developing resistance to a great variety of toxic substances. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to chemical insecticides in larvae and adult vectors in Boyeros municipality, City of Havana as well as those mechanisms supporting it. METHODS: insecticide resistance of mosquito larvae and adults was evaluated with the WHO methodologies. The resistance mechanisms were determined through synergy and biochemical tests. Polyacrylamid gel electropheresis was applied to visualize esterases. RESULTS: larvae were susceptible to the evaluated organophosphate insecticides whereas resistance to pyrethroids, cypermethrin and deltamethrin was observed. Bioassays performed in larvae with temephos-made commercial product showed 100 percent mortality up to 10 days, with daily change of water. It was proved that neither esterases nor glutathione transferase played an important role in larval insecticide resistance. Low frequency amplified esterase A4 was present in the studied samples. In adult stage, Boyeros strain was resistant to pyrethroids ciflutrhine and Lambdacyalothrine, in verification to deltamethrine and susceptible to cypermethrine; it was also resistant to organophosphate chlorpiriphos and organochlorate DDT. CONCLUSIONS: these results confirm that although the pyrethroid cipermethrine has been widely used in Boyeros municipality, it continues being effective for Ae. aegypti control.

18.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 61(2)mayo-ago. 2009.
Artículo en Español | CUMED | ID: cum-52893

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: el control de Aedes aegypti continúa siendo la única medida disponible para poder disminuir la transmisión de dengue. Desafortunadamente Ae. aegypti ha demostrado la habilidad de desarrollar resistencia a una gran variedad de tóxicos. OBJETIVO: evaluar la resistencia a insecticidas químicos en larvas y adultos del municipio Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, así como los mecanismos que contribuyeron a esta. MÉTODOS: se evaluó la resistencia a insecticidas químicos en larvas y adultos a través de metodologías de la OMS. Los mecanismos de resistencia se determinaron a través de sinergistas y pruebas bioquímicas. Se realizó electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida para la visualización de enzimas esterasas. RESULTADOS: en larvas se observó susceptibilidad a los insecticidas organofosforados evaluados. Resistencia se observó a los piretroides cipermetrina y deltametrina. Los bioensayos en larvas con el producto comercial de temefos mostraron 100 por ciento de mortalidad con recambio diario de agua hasta 10 d. Se demostró que ni las esterasas, ni la enzima glutatión transferasa, desempeñaron un papel importante en la resistencia a insecticidas en larvas. Se observó la presencia de la esterasa A4 amplificada a baja frecuencia en las muestras estudiadas. En el estado adulto, la cepa Boyeros resultó resistente a los piretroides ciflutrina y lambdacialotrina, en verificación a deltametrina, y resultó susceptible a cipermetrina; también resultó ser resistente al organofosforado clorpirifos y al organoclorado DDT. CONCLUSIONES: estos resultados corroboran que aun el piretroide cipermetrina, a pesar de su uso en el municipio Boyeros, continúa siendo efectivo para el control de Ae. aegypti(AU)


INTRODUCTION: the control of Aedes aegypti remains the only available measure to reduce dengue transmission. Unfortunately, this vector has proved that it is capable of developing resistance to a great variety of toxic substances. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the resistance to chemical insecticides in larvae and adult vectors in Boyeros municipality, City of Havana as well as those mechanisms supporting it. METHODS: insecticide resistance of mosquito larvae and adults was evaluated with the WHO methodologies. The resistance mechanisms were determined through synergy and biochemical tests. Polyacrylamid gel electropheresis was applied to visualize esterases. RESULTS: larvae were susceptible to the evaluated organophosphate insecticides whereas resistance to pyrethroids, cypermethrin and deltamethrin was observed. Bioassays performed in larvae with temephos-made commercial product showed 100 percent mortality up to 10 days, with daily change of water. It was proved that neither esterases nor glutathione transferase played an important role in larval insecticide resistance. Low frequency amplified esterase A4 was present in the studied samples. In adult stage, Boyeros strain was resistant to pyrethroids ciflutrhine and Lambdacyalothrine, in verification to deltamethrine and susceptible to cypermethrine; it was also resistant to organophosphate chlorpiriphos and organochlorate DDT. CONCLUSIONS: these results confirm that although the pyrethroid cipermethrine has been widely used in Boyeros municipality, it continues being effective for Ae. aegypti control(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Aedes , Control Biológico de Vectores
19.
Rev Cubana Med Trop ; 59(3): 209-12, 2007.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23427458

RESUMEN

An in vivo study of two synergists, that is, Triphenil phosphate -specific esterase inhibitor- and ethacrynic acid -specific gluthation transferase inhibitor- was performed to determine if these enzymes were responsible for pyrethroid resistance of Aedes aegypti. To this end, two insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti strains were used, one strain selected with temephos by six selection generations (SAN-F6) and the other strain with delmamethrin by 12 selection generations (SAN-F12), being both strains resistant to pyrethroid insecticices. Through the use of TPP and EA synergists, it was proved that esterase and gluthation-s-transferase (GST) enzymes were responsible for pryrethroid resistance of these strains. These results showed the existence of cross-resistance and multidrug resistance, which should be taken into account for insecticide use strategies aimed at vector control.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/fisiología , Esterasas/fisiología , Glutatión Transferasa/fisiología , Proteínas de Insectos/fisiología , Insectos Vectores/fisiología , Insecticidas/farmacocinética , Piretrinas/farmacocinética , Aedes/efectos de los fármacos , Aedes/enzimología , Aedes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Resistencia a Múltiples Medicamentos/fisiología , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Esterasas/análisis , Esterasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ácido Etacrínico/farmacología , Femenino , Glutatión Transferasa/análisis , Glutatión Transferasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Inactivación Metabólica , Proteínas de Insectos/análisis , Insectos Vectores/efectos de los fármacos , Insectos Vectores/enzimología , Insectos Vectores/genética , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/fisiología , Insecticidas/farmacología , Larva , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Nitrilos/farmacocinética , Organofosfatos/farmacología , Especificidad de la Especie , Temefós/farmacocinética , Temefós/farmacología
20.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 19(6): 379-84, 2006 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16968592

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify local ecological factors that might have had an impact on the higher infestation rates by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti seen in four urban health districts of Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, and to determine the type of containers with the highest number of larvae. METHODS: This is a descriptive study that was carried out in four health areas (Docente, 28 de Enero, 26 de Julio, and 1. degrees de Enero) within Playa, a municipality belonging to Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. These areas were chosen because of the persistent presence of the dengue vector throughout 2003. All buildings on the selected blocks were inspected between April 2004 and March 2005, and note was taken of existing water deposits (type, number, and location) and of surrounding ecological factors (existence of a patio and shade, the way tanks were covered, the presence of organic matter inside them, and the overall cleanliness of the dwelling). Using filtration, the mosquito larvae and pupae in each deposit were counted. Pupae were typified as to their taxonomic species under a stereoscopic microscope. RESULTS: The types of deposits where larvae and pupae of A. aegypti were most often found in all areas were low tanks and small artificial containers. In three of the study areas the greatest numbers of pupae were found in low tanks (88.6%, 100%, and 56.6%), 90.9% of which were uncovered or only partially covered. On the other hand, in the fourth study area small artificial deposits were the most commonly infested (85.7%). A correlation was noted between the number of deposits in infested houses and the presence of a patio (chi(2) = 29.59; P = 0.0001), partial shade (chi(2) = 4.108; P = 0.0001), shrubbery (chi(2) = 43.59; P = 0.0001) and trees (chi(2) = 101.459; P = 0.0001), as well as poor hygiene (chi(2) = 53.76; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Artificial deposits, especially low tanks and small containers, are the most frequent breeding sites for A. aegypti and are therefore risk factors for infestation with this vector species. Uncovered tanks containing organic matter and located in the shade on the outside of homes were found to present the highest risk in this respect.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Ecosistema , Animales , Cuba , Larva , Densidad de Población , Salud Urbana
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