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3.
Adv Simul (Lond) ; 6(1): 30, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488895

RESUMEN

Face-to-face clinical simulation has been a powerful methodology for teaching, learning, and research, and has positioned itself in health science education. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing has forced universities to abandon simulation centers and make use of alternatives that allow the continuation of educational programs safely for students and teachers through virtual environments such as distance simulation. In Latin America, before the pandemic, the use of non-presential simulation was very limited and anecdotal. This article has three main objectives: to establish the efficacy of online-synchronized clinical simulation in the learning and performance of medical students on the management of patients with COVID-19 in simulation centers of three Latin American countries, to determine the quality of the online debriefing from the students' perspective, and to deepen the understanding of how learning is generated with this methodology.

6.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 250-267, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406913

RESUMEN

COVID-19 pandemic is essentially a zoonotic disease. In this context, early in 2020, transmission from humans to certain animals began reporting; the number of studies has grown since. To estimate the pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in animals and to determine differences in prevalence between countries, years, animal types and diagnostic methods (RT-PCR or serological tests). A systematic literature review with meta-analysis using eight databases. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for prevalence studies and case series. After the screening, 65 reports were selected for full-text assessment and included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 24 reports assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR, combining a total of 321,785 animals, yielding a pooled prevalence of 12.3% (95% CI 11.6%-13.0%). Also, a total of 17 studies additionally assessed serological response against SARS-CoV-2, including nine by ELISA, four by PRTN, one by MIA, one by immunochromatography (rest, two studies, the method was not specified), combining a total of 5319 animals, yielding a pooled prevalence of 29.4% (95% CI 22.9%-35.9%). A considerable proportion of animals resulted infected by SARS-CoV-2, ranking minks among the highest value, followed by dogs and cats. Further studies in other animals are required to define the extent and importance of natural infection due to SARS-CoV-2. These findings have multiple implications for public human and animal health. One Health approach in this context is critical for prevention and control.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19/veterinaria , COVID-19/veterinaria , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonosis Virales/diagnóstico , Zoonosis Virales/epidemiología , Animales , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , Prevalencia
7.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(4): 370-375, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351889

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: La toxoplasmosis congénita continúa siendo un problema de salud pública. Aun cuando existen guías plenamente divulgadas y conocidas, se observa poca implementación de ellas en algunas instituciones de salud y una inadecuada interpretación de las pruebas serológicas en las gestantes. Esto puede generar falta de captación y tratamiento en embarazadas con primoinfección por Toxoplasma gondii. CASOS CLÍNICOS: Se reportan dos casos de toxoplasmosis congénita, uno de ellos con desenlace fatal. En ambos no se siguieron las guías de práctica clínica, lo cual conllevó un diagnóstico tardío y, en consecuencia, un manejo en condiciones inapropiadas con daños graves. CONCLUSIONES: La toxoplasmosis es una infección congénita aún prevalente en algunos países, con secuelas graves, discapacidad neurológica y riesgo de daño ocular, incluso tardío. Además, existen algunas variedades de cepas de T. gondii con un comportamiento más agresivo en Latinoamérica, lo cual empeora la presentación de los casos e incluye mayor riesgo de muerte. BACKGROUND: Congenital toxoplasmosis continues to be a public health problem. Although clinical guidelines have been divulgated and are well known, they are not implemented in some health institutions, in addition of an inappropriate interpretation of the serological tests in pregnant women. This situation can lead to lack of screening and treatment in pregnant women with primary Toxoplasma gondii infection. CASE REPORTS: We report two cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, one with a fatal outcome. In both cases, the clinical guidelines were not initially followed, leading to a delayed diagnosis and, consequently, an inappropriate management in conditions with severe damage. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasmosis is a congenital infection still prevalent in some countries, with severe sequelae, neurological disability, and even late risk of ocular damage. ­Additionally, some varieties of the T. gondii strains have a more aggressive pattern in Latin America, worsening the clinical presentation of cases and including a high risk of death.

9.
Drugs Ther Perspect ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366660

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new species of ß-coronavirus genus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in late 2019 and continues as at mid-2021, has caused enormous damage to health and lives globally. The urgent public health need has led to the development of vaccines against COVID-19 in record-breaking time. The COVID-19 vaccines have been widely rolled out for the masses by many countries following approval for emergency use by the World Health Organization and regulatory agencies in many countries. In addition, several COVID-19 vaccine candidates are undergoing clinical trials. However, myths, fears, rumors, and misconceptions persist, particularly in regard to adverse events. In this commentary, we describe the adverse events associated with COVID-19 vaccines and discuss why it is essential to have a functional adverse event monitoring system in this context.

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-2, 2021 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357851

RESUMEN

India is executing a mass vaccination program to restrict the predicted third wave of COVID-19. However, fake COVID-19 vaccines have emerged as a major challenge amid the vaccination drive in India. This article highlights the loopholes and measures to restrict the fake COVID-19 vaccination scams. Such activities have put the genuinity of vaccination certificates under scanner besides putting public health at risk and instigating vaccine hesitancy. Hence, the Government of India needs to take stringent actions such as complete take-over of COVID-19 vaccine procurement and free immunization. Furthermore, the public needs to remain vigilant and check vaccination certificates immediately after being vaccinated. Such efforts on the part of the government and public can completely restrict fake vaccinations.

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

12.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436792

RESUMEN

Dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 coexist in dengue-endemic countries; therefore, the adoption of preventive measures is essential to control the spread of both viruses. We conducted an ecological study to compare the temporal patterns of the incidence of dengue before and during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Peru. A time-series analysis comparing the incidence of dengue using a Student's t test with variance correction was performed. Poisson regression was applied to determine the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of dengue before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The incidence of dengue was found to be increased in all endemic regions of Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the highest incidences registered in Ica (IRR = 90.14), Huánuco (IRR = 38.6), and Ucayali (IRR = 23.78), with the exception of Piura (IRR = 0.83). The highest increases in the number of dengue cases per million inhabitants were in Ucayali (393.38), Tumbes (233.19), Ica (166.08), and Loreto (129.93). The gradient of dengue cases was positive in all endemic regions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of dengue cases per million increased during the COVID-19 pandemic throughout Peru and in several endemic regions, with the exception of Piura.

14.
Telemed J E Health ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382821

RESUMEN

Background: There is currently little scientific evidence on the usefulness of implementing strategies against COVID-19 remotely with the help of telemedicine. Objective: Evaluate whether teleconsultation is helpful as an instrument of mediated care in the monitoring and follow-up of individuals with high suspicion of COVID-19 through early detection by the Call Center COVID-19 of the Ministry of Health and Sports, Bolivia. Methodology: Descriptive and cross-sectional observational study of patients captured by the Call Center-COVID-19, who were monitored and followed up in their homes through teleconsultations carried out by the National TeleHealth Program, remotely through information and communication technologies throughout the Bolivian territory during the first 100 days of its implementation. Results: A total of 3,278 patients were studied, recruited between March 16 and June 23, 2020; 49.4% were women, with an overall mean age of 37.5 years (standard deviation [SD] 15.2). The mean detection time was 7.6 days (SD 6.92); 93.8% required home isolation, and only 6.2% were transferred for hospitalization. The mean follow-up time for all patients was 6.7 days (SD 4.87; range 2-38). A total of 75.6% were discharged as recovered patients, and 1.9% died. Conclusions: Early detection of individuals with suspected COVID-19 was achieved, knowing their clinical evolution until their recovery or death. Teleconsultations showed good outcomes at discharge and low fatal outcomes. From these results, it can be inferred that teleconsultation is a valuable tool in the monitoring, evaluation, and follow-up of patients. The Ministry of Health and Sports through Call Center-COVID-19 reinforced the Epidemiological Surveillance System as a passive search tool for possible suspected cases at the national level and decongesting other services in charge of this task.

15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439009

RESUMEN

Overuse of antibiotics during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could increase the selection of extensively resistant bacteria (XDR). However, it is unknown what impact they could have on the evolution of patients, particularly critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics and impact of ICU-acquired infections in patients with COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, evaluating all patients with critical COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in Southern Peru from 28 March 2020 to 1 March 2021. Of the 124 patients evaluated, 50 (40.32%) developed a healthcare-associated infection (HAI), which occurred at a median of 8 days (IQR 6-17) after ICU admission. The proportion of patients with HAI that required ceftriaxone was significantly higher; the same was true for the use of dexamethasone. Forty bacteria isolations (80%) were classified as XDR to antibiotics, with the most common organisms being Acinetobacter baumannii (54%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%); 33% (41/124) died at the ICU during the follow-up. In the adjusted analysis, healthcare-associated infection was associated with an increased risk of mortality (aHR= 2.7; 95% CI: 1.33-5.60) and of developing acute renal failure (aRR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.42-6.72). The incidence of healthcare infection mainly by XDR pathogens is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with an increased risk of complications or death.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 244-246, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260956

RESUMEN

Herd immunity is considered to be a relevant aspect of COVID-19 epidemiology. In this regard, seroprevalence studies are essential for understanding how far countries and regions are from that potential point. This study analyzed seroprevalence data in nine studies from South America, which is a region that has been badly affected by COVID-19. Seroprevalence values ​​were high, with percentages up to 70.0% (95% CI 67.0-73.4%) in Iquitos, Peru. A meta-analysis of such data enabled a pooled seroprevalence to be obtained, estimated at 33.6% (95% CI 28.6-38.5%). Despite this, the COVID-19 pandemic in South America continues to significantly affect countries such as Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Brasil , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Pandemias , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
19.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 374-380, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216131

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of Blastocystis sp. in gastrointestinal symptoms reported by adult patients in a Peruvian hospital. A case-control 3:1 study was performed at the outpatient clinic. Direct stool examinations were done. One hundred sixty patients were included, 40 cases and 120 controls. Positivity to Blastocystis sp. was associated with dyspepsia (P <0.001), bloating (P <0.001) and abdominal pain (P = 0.03) in patients attending our hospital outpatient clinic.

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