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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 476, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360605

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated many employees to work from home with immediate effect for several months, regardless of their workplace preference or situation at home. Against this backdrop, this study explores perceived job demands and resources as well as the role of leadership and coping strategies of employees and managers with little or no prior experience with working from home in the altered work environment. METHODS: Based on the job demands-resources model, we developed an interview guide and conducted thirty-four semi-structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed deductively-inductively using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Experienced job demands include, e.g., challenging, insufficient digital communication, and lack of social exchange, while greater flexibility and work-life balance were identified as valuable resources. Regarding the role of leadership, signaling trust, keeping regular contact, and supporting employees are important. To cope with the unforeseen yet persistent work situation, participants applied creative strategies by setting up offices at home with what they had at disposal. Differences were observed between employee and managerial perceptions as well as over time during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The results expand our knowledge about healthy remote work by adding specific demands, resources, and coping strategies employees and managers experienced during the extreme situation of the COVID-19 pandemic to the picture as well as specifying the role of leadership. Moreover, our findings provide a foundation for guidelines for healthy remote work design and collaboration in times of abrupt change and crises.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estrés Laboral , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Teletrabajo , Pandemias , Liderazgo
2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 960955, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389561

RESUMEN

Background: The significant increase of digital collaboration, driven by the current COVID-19 pandemic, is resulting in changes in working conditions and associated changes in the stress-strain perception of employees. Due to the evident leadership influence on employees' health and well-being in traditional work settings, there is a need to investigate leadership in virtual remote work contexts as well. The objective of this scoping review was to assess the extent and type of evidence concerning virtual leadership in relation to employees' mental health, job satisfaction and perceptions of isolation. Method: A search was undertaken in five databases, PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Web of Science, as well as reference lists of included articles on 9th February 2021 and an update on 28th September 2021. The search strategy was limited to English, German and French language, peer reviewed journal articles published from January 2000 onwards. This scoping review was conducted in accordance with the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the JBI critical appraisal tools. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: Nineteen studies met the eligibility criteria for this review. Overarching review findings suggested a positive link between virtual leadership and well-being, job satisfaction, and a negative link to psychological strain, stress and perceptions of isolation of digitally collaborating employees. Conclusions: By mapping the available evidence on virtual leadership in relation to health and work-related employee outcomes, the review identified many research gaps in terms of content and methodology. Due to limited data, causal relationships were not derived. Future research is needed to examine the complex cause-and-effect relationships of virtual leadership in more detail.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1670, 2022 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056324

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There exists a great diversity of schedules concerning the way shift work is organized and implemented with ample agreement regarding recommendable features of a shift system. In order to adapt the shift schedule of a metropolitan police department to current recommendations, a remodelled shift schedule was introduced in 2015. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential associations between the remodelled shift schedule and work ability, quality of life and self-rated health after one and five years. METHODS: A controlled before-and- after study was conducted during the piloting phase (2015-2016) as well as a 5-year follow-up using paper questionnaires. Outcome parameters included work ability, quality of life and self-rated health. RESULTS: Work ability, quality of life and self-rated health improved after the first year of the newly implemented shift schedule among police officers working in the piloting police stations compared to those working according to the former schedule. In 5-year follow-up differences between indicators diminished. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a remodelled shift schedule including more 12-h shifts accompanied by more days off and a coherent weekend off duty was not associated with detrimental effects to work ability, quality of life or self-reported health among police officers.


Asunto(s)
Policia , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063302, 2022 09 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127115

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate mental health-related outcomes of police officers 5.5 years after implementing a new alternating shift schedule which was supposed to improve their health and work-life balance. DESIGN: Pre-post study design with a baseline survey at the beginning of the piloting of the new shift schedule in 2015 and another survey 5.5 years later in 2020. SETTING: Police departments of a German metropolitan police force piloting the new shift schedule. PARTICIPANTS: 116 shift-working police officers out of a population of 1673 police officers at the follow-up date. INTERVENTIONS: New shift schedule based on occupational health recommendations. OUTCOMES MEASURES: Work-life balance, job satisfaction and quality of life. METHODS: Mixed analyses of variances were used to test the hypotheses of within-subject and between-subject differences regarding time and gender. RESULTS: We found partly significant differences between the baseline and follow-up survey for work-life balance (F(1, 114) = 6.168, p=0.014, ηp² = 0.051), job satisfaction (F(1, 114) = 9.921, p=0.002, ηp² = 0.080) and quality of life (F(1, 114) = 0.593, p=0.443, ηp² = 0.005). Neither significant differences between male and female police officers nor interaction effects of time and gender were found. CONCLUSION: An increase was found for each of the three outcomes 5.5 years after implementing the new shift schedule. The results contribute to the current state of research on mental health-related outcomes of working conditions in shift work. On this basis, recommendations for designing shift schedules can be deduced to promote mental health and job satisfaction for employees in shift work.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Policia , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral
5.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742199

RESUMEN

Due to ongoing demographic changes, the need for care is increasing in Germany. The number of outpatient care services is also rising, and with it, the number of employees in outpatient care, who are also continuously becoming older. Workplace health promotion (WHP) becomes relevant in this context, as it can reduce negative strain reactions and promote employees' health. The aim of this study was (1) to reveal implemented WHP interventions in German outpatient care services; (2) to examine the potential challenges regarding a successful implementation of WHP measures; and (3) to illuminate further requests and needs experienced by outpatient careworkers. In qualitative field research, 30 semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with German caregivers, using the problem-centered interview method. The collected data were deductively and inductively evaluated and interpreted, using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Outpatient caregivers reported various WHP measures known from their workplaces, such as the provision of fruit baskets, programmes to increase physical activity, or a subsidy for a personal gym. They further reported WHP, such as back training, known from other care services. However, the respondents spoke of the challenges regarding the implementation or the use of WHP interventions in general. The most frequently named barriers were a lack of time after work and interventions that were only offered in their leisure time. In the same course, the participants still needed offers to increase physical activity, joint activities, or relaxation techniques. However, respondents highlighted that they preferred the interventions to take place during working hours. This way, they would also be more likely to take advantage of the interventions. The results of this study provide an insight into various WHP measures that already exist, or that are desirable for implementation with regard to caregivers' needs. Subjectively perceived challenges for a successful implementation of WHP measures represent the importance of adjustments in the work organization of caregivers. It becomes clear that WHP is not yet established in the ambulant care sector, although it appears to be imperative for keeping caregivers healthy. Considering the different needs of employees, the results can provide a basis for the development of needs-based health promotion measures for caregivers.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329312

RESUMEN

In the course of the digitalisation of work, the phenomenon of technostress is increasingly being examined. While there is a plethora of research on its causes and consequences, a growing body of research on mitigating work-related technostress is emerging. In order to identify opportunities to overcome this "dark side" of technology, this scoping review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of research on how to prevent and cope with work-related technostress. The databases PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, PSYNDEX, and Web of Science were searched in the time period between 2008 and 2021. The studies were screened independently by two authors and selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sixty-two studies were included and their methodological quality was assessed using standardised checklists. Resources were identified at the technical, organisational, social and personal level, including, e.g., leadership, organisational and technical support as well as self-efficacy and IT mindfulness. Problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies were, e.g., seeking support or distancing from IT. None of the included studies investigated prevention measures, emphasising a dearth of research that needs to be addressed in the future. Nevertheless, the identified resources and coping strategies provide starting points to address adverse work- and health-related consequences and reduce work-related technostress.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Tecnología , Adaptación Psicológica
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831875

RESUMEN

Working conditions in the care sector, especially under the increased strain during COVID-19, make it difficult for outpatient caregivers to adhere to health-promoting behaviours. Research on workplace health promotion (WHP) and COVID-19 support measures in outpatient care services is limited. The aim of this pilot study was to characterise the current situation of WHP and COVID-19 support measures in outpatient care services and to explore how to offer WHP support measures targeted for a specific group. A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with outpatient caregivers (N = 171) in northern Germany. The results showed that 60.2% of the study participants were offered WHP support measures, with significantly higher work engagement when WHP support measures were available (Z = 4279.50, p < 0.01) and that 77.2% received specific support from their employer during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although spending a break in a break room was significantly associated with longer breaks as compared with being in a car (Z = 39.10, padj. = 0.01), a break room was neither available in all outpatient care services, nor did it appear to be feasible. Overall, WHP in outpatient care services is insufficiently covered. In order to be able to offer WHP support measures that are targeted to outpatient caregivers, cooperation among local care services, feasibility, and digital measures should be examined.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Laboral , Atención Ambulatoria , Estudios Transversales , Alemania , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Proyectos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2 , Lugar de Trabajo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831499

RESUMEN

Health literacy became an important competence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite outpatient caregivers being a particularly vulnerable occupational group, their health literacy has hardly been examined yet, especially during the pandemic. Hence, this study aimed to explore this field and provide first empirical insights. Data were collected based on a cross-sectional online survey among 155 outpatient caregivers. In particular, health literacy (HLS-EU-Q16), diet and physical activity, pandemic-related worries, perceived information sufficiency and stress perception were examined. Descriptive and ordinal logistic regression analyses were run to test explorative assumptions. The majority of outpatient caregivers reported high values of health literacy (69% on a sufficient level). Although no significant associations between health literacy and health behaviours or perceived information sufficiency were found, perceived information sufficiency and perceived stress (OR = 3.194; 95% CI: 1.542-6.614), and pandemic-related worries (OR = 3.073; 95% CI: 1.471-6.421; OR = 4.243; 95% CI: 2.027-8.884) seem to be related. Therefore, dissemination of reliable information and resource-building measures to reduce worries may be important parameters for improving outpatient caregivers' health. Our results provide first explorative insights, representing a starting point for further research. Considering outpatient caregivers' mobile work setting, they need to be provided with adequate equipment and comprehensible information to ensure physically and mentally healthy working conditions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Alfabetización en Salud , Cuidadores , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360505

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected outpatient caregivers in a particular way. While the German population becomes increasingly older, the number of people in need of care has also increased. The health and, thus, the health behaviour of employees in the outpatient care become relevant to maintain working capacity and performance in the long term. The aims of the study were (1) to examine the health behaviour and (2) to explore pandemic-related perceived change of health behaviour among outpatient caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a mixed-methods study, 15 problem-centred interviews and a web-based cross-sectional survey (N = 171) were conducted with outpatient caregivers working in Northern Germany. Interviewees reported partially poorer eating behaviour, higher coffee consumption, lower physical activity, skipping breaks more often and less sleep duration and quality during the pandemic. Some quantitative findings indicate the same tendencies. A majority of participants were smokers and reported higher stress perception due to the pandemic. Preventive behaviour, such as wearing PPE or hand hygiene, was increased among interviewees compared to the pre-pandemic period. Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect outpatient caregivers' health behaviour, e.g., eating/drinking behaviour and physical activity. Therefore, employers in outpatient care should develop workplace health promotion measures to support their employees in conducting more health-promoting behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Cuidadores , Estudios Transversales , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatorios , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205961

RESUMEN

Ongoing demographic change is leading to an increasingly older society and a rising proportion of people in need of care in the German population. Therefore, the professional group of outpatient caregivers is highly relevant. Their work is characterised not only by interacting with patients in a mobile setting but also by working in shifts. Health behaviour under these specific working conditions is crucial for ensuring long-term work ability and performance. Little is known about the health behaviour of German outpatient caregivers and its potential impact on their work. The aims of the study were (1) to examine health behavioural patterns (nutrition, exercise, smoking, regeneration) of outpatient caregivers, (2) to illuminate their personal health-promoting behaviours, and (3) to identify potential work-related factors influencing their health behaviour. Fifteen problem-centred interviews were conducted with outpatient caregivers working in Northern Germany in the period January-April 2020. Interviews were analysed by using qualitative content analysis. Outpatient caregivers reported improvable nutrition and hydration, with simultaneous high coffee consumption, low physical activity, poor regeneration (breaks and sleep quality), and good personal health-promoting behaviour (e.g., back-friendly habits), although the majority were smokers. Barriers to the implementation of health-promoting behaviours were a high perception of stress due to increased workload and time pressure, while aids to better health-promoting behaviour were described as being social support and personal resources. The respondents perceived their working conditions as potentially influencing their health behaviour. On the basis of their descriptions, various practice-relevant strategies were derived. The data explore a potential need for outpatient care services to develop interventions on behavioural and structural levels that can help create healthier working conditions for their employees so these caregivers can adopt better health behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Alemania , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437133

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The contact restrictions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have led many companies to allow their employees to work from home for infection control reasons. OBJECTIVE: This literature review explores the question in what way health-promoting work from home can be excercised. RESULTS: Working from home requires consideration of the same guidelines just like those for office and computer workstations. To prevent negative mental and physical stress reactions, an ergonomic workstation design is recommended. Furthermore, the organization of working time (structuring the working day, adhering to breaks and regeneration units, and avoiding disturbances and interruptions) is of great importance for a health-promoting work design at home. CONCLUSION: Important components of a health-promoting work design are temporal, spatial and mental separation of work and private life. Employees and their individual needs must be taken into account when designing a health-promoting workplace at home; however, the responsibility for implementing health-promoting work design mostly lies solely with the employees due to the ad hoc change of workplace.

12.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132537

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the peak times of the COVID-19 pandemic, which were characterized by contact restrictions, many companies initiated telework for their employees due to infection prevention. OBJECTIVE: In this literature review working from home and therefore digital cooperation in a virtual team was investigated, focusing on the organization of occupational health promotion aspects in the context of prevention of social isolation. RESULTS: The current occupational health psychology research identified appropriate and enriched information and communication media accompanied by sufficient and understandable technical support as basic prerequisites for the collaboration of location-independent teams. Also, a continuous socially supporting communication within the team and with the supervisor as well as health-promoting leadership have a positive impact on the employees' mental health. Additionally, individual (digital) health promotion interventions and flexible working hours are recommended. CONCLUSION: These multifactorial approaches to measures derived from the literature are suggested for companies with employees working predominantly from home to reduce work-related adverse health effects from the crisis, especially with respect to social isolation and to promote their employees' health.

13.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 15: 30, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042208

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the course of globalisation and digitalisation, new ways of work are becoming increasingly prevalent. To remain competitive as an organisation, cooperation across time, place, and organisational boundaries is becoming necessary. Virtual teamwork offers these advantages, but can also be both, an opportunity and a burden, for employees. This pilot study aims to gain first insights into job demands and resources in virtual teamwork to provide a basis for further research from which appropriate health promotion and prevention measures can be derived. METHODS: In this pilot study, an online questionnaire was used to examine the relationship between boundarylessness as a job demand, psychological detachment as a personal resource, as well as perceived stress and sleep quality as health outcomes among 46 virtual team members from Germany. Data collection lasted from October 2019 to January 2020. Validated scales were used for the questionnaire, except for virtuality. Due to insufficient operationalisation to date, a virtuality scale was developed based on the current state of research. The data were analysed with ordinal logistic regression analyses and median split t-tests. RESULTS: The results indicate that perceived stress impaired sleep quality of virtual team members in this sample. In contrast, successful psychological detachment from work was positively related to sleep quality. A higher degree of virtuality coincided with higher levels of boundarylessness. Virtual team members with leadership responsibility showed higher levels of psychological detachment. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study breaks ground and provides initial insights into the relationship between virtual teamwork and employee health in the German context. Further research, particularly on job demands in virtual teamwork, is needed to derive concrete health promotion and prevention measures.

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