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Environ Res ; : 112354, 2021 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767824


Contamination with current-use pesticides is frequently mentioned as a key factor in global amphibian declines although a limited number of studies have examined the mixture of pesticides accumulated by free-living frogs. This study examined the presence of 46 different pesticide residues in the muscle and kidney tissues of two frog species living in close association with row crops in the Pampa region of Argentina: The terrestrial Leptodactylus latinasus and the semi-aquatic Leptodactylus latrans. A total of 20 different pesticides were identified in frog tissues; chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl and acetochlor being the most frequently detected molecules. Overall, one or more pesticide residues (up to 12 in a single frog) were detected in 40-57 % of L. latrans. L. latinasus was found to present more pesticide detections than L. latrans. Interestingly, frog sampled in a natural reserve where no pesticides are applied presented an equivalent frequency of detections as frogs living near a crop. In L. latrans, the calculation of a pesticide toxicity index (PTI) permitted to highlight the existence of a strong positive correlation between PTI and liver GSH contents of females whereas, in males, PTI was negatively correlated with the perimeter of testicular seminiferous tubules. Males also presented near significant negative correlations between PTI and both body condition and the scaled fat index. These results indicate that frogs inhabiting agricultural regions are exposed to a complex and diffuse contamination by pesticide mixtures which is likely responsible for a number of biological effects that may be relevant at the population level.

Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 689, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601623


The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in surface and groundwater of agricultural areas of the Pampas region of Argentina and to develop an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems. Eight agricultural sites from south Santa Fe province, in the north of the Pampas region, were sampled seven times between 2016 and 2018. Pesticides were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-LC/MS). Twenty compounds among herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in 84% and 79% of groundwater and surface water samples, respectively, were detected. Atrazine was the most ubiquitous pesticide, following by metolachlor, acetochlor and glyphosate, with maximum concentrations of 28, 24, 77 and 111 µg/L, respectively. An ERA was performed by employing the risk quotient (RQ) method. Atrazine, azoxystrobin, pirimiphos-methyl, acetochlor and epoxiconazole posed a high and very high risk for aquatic organisms (RQ > 1) and glyphosate, metolachlor and 2,4-D exhibited negligible to medium risk. The herbicides were the major contributors to risk. This study is the first contribution on the presence and concentration of pesticides in surface and groundwater from agricultural areas of south Santa Fe province, north Pampas region, Argentina, and a starting point for pesticide ecological risk assessment.

Agua Subterránea , Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argentina , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
Chemosphere ; 185: 36-46, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28683335


The aim of this study was to characterize the level and nature of the pesticide contamination received by one-sided livebearer fish (Jenynsia multidentata) from a watercourse situated within the main agricultural region of Argentina, and to assess the effects of this contamination on fish health. Juvenile one-sided livebearer fish (Jenynsia multidentata) were collected in December 2011 and March 2012 from three sites along the Pergamino River. Pesticide contamination was characterized by extracting whole fish and analytically determining thirty different pesticide molecules. The biomarkers catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and cholinesterases were assessed. Body condition was calculated as an estimate of the amount of energy reserves possessed by the fish. Seventeen different pesticides were detected in fish tissues with 81% of captured animals containing at least one pesticide molecule. The pyrethroid insecticides fenvalerate and bifenthrin were most frequently detected, being respectively found in 41.8 and 36.4% of samples tested. Highly toxic dichlorvos and pirimiphos-methyl were detected. Differential levels of contamination could not be established amongst sites but were observed within sites amongst the two sampling dates. The months when pesticide residues were most abundant from in Site A and B corresponded to the months when body condition was at its lowest in the two sites. The inhibition of Che activity in March when body condition was reduced also points to a role of insecticide contamination in the reduction of body condition. These findings provide strong new evidence that current-used agricultural pesticides can accumulate in wild fish and impact their health and energetics.

Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/metabolismo , Colinesterasas/metabolismo , Ciprinodontiformes/metabolismo , Plaguicidas/metabolismo , Agricultura , Animales , Argentina , Biomarcadores , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/toxicidad , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Nitrilos , Residuos de Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidad , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis