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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(2): 637-650, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605340

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of school food by Brazilian adolescents, taking individual and school context determinants into consideration. A total of 10,262 adolescents in public schools of the 2015 Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE 2015) were assessed. Multilevel regression was used to estimate the effect of variables of the individual context and the school environment on low acceptance of school food by adolescents. The prevalence of low acceptance (consumption of school meals ≤ 2 days/week) was 64.2% in this group. The explanatory model showed less acceptance of this practice among female adolescents (PR=1.09; CI: 1.03-1.14), among those aged 15 years or older (PR=1.08; CI: 1.02-1.14), those who regularly consumed soft drinks (PR=1.09; CI: 1.03-1.15), those who did not regularly have lunch and dinner with parents and guardians (PR=1.08; CI: 1.02-1.14), and those who lived in households with less than 4 people (PR=1.07; CI: 1.02-1.13). Concerning the school environment, studying in schools with more than 1,000 students (PR=1.22; CI: 1.12-1.33) and the presence of a cafeteria (PR=1.15; CI: 1.08-1.22) led to low acceptance. The results revealed the importance of the school context in determining the consumption of school meals by adolescents.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009085, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544722

RESUMEN

Acquired syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that affects the general population and has been growing in recent years in many countries. A study was developed aiming to analyze the trends of acquired syphilis associated with sociodemographic aspects and primary health care in Brazil, in the period from 2011 to 2019. This study used secondary data from the national notification systems of the 5570 Brazilian cities and a database of 37,350 primary health care teams, as well as socioeconomic and municipal demographic indicators. The trends of acquired syphilis at the municipal level were calculated from the log-linear regression, crossing them with variables of primary health care and sociodemographic indicators. Finally, a multiple model was built from logistic regression. 724,310 cases of acquired syphilis have been reported. In primary care units, 47.8% had partial coverage and 74.1% had health teams with poor or regular scores. 52.6% had rapid test for syphilis partially available. Male and female condoms are available in 85.9% and 62.9% respectively and 54.4% had penicillin available in the health facility. The increase in trends of acquired syphilis was associated with better availability of the rapid test; lower availability of male condoms; lower availability of female condoms; lower availability of benzathine penicillin; partial coverage of the teams in primary health care; limited application of penicillin in primary health care; higher proportion of teams classified as Poor/Regular in primary health care; higher proportion of women aged 10 to 17 years who had children; higher HDI; higher proportion of people aged 15 to 24 years who do not study, do not work and are vulnerable; and population size with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The following variables remained in the multiple model: not all primary health care teams apply penicillin; higher proportion of primary health care teams with poor/regular scores; population size >100000 inhabitants; partially available female condom. Thus, the weakness of primary health care linked to population size may have favored the growth of the acquired syphilis epidemic in Brazilian cities.

3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(1): e00184119, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440412

RESUMEN

The study aimed to analyze factors associated with the availability of specialized dental services in Brazilian municipalities. This was an ecological study with a sample of 776 municipalities that participated in the first cycle of the Program to Improve Access and Quality of Dental Specialization Centers (PMAQ-CEO, in Portuguese) survey held in 2014. The study's dependent variables consisted of a coefficient created with variables on the number of professionals and the workweek of dentists in the minimum set of specialties, per 10,000 inhabitants. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to create a score for the municipalities' performance with the availability of specialized dental services. Factors associated with the municipalities' performance were assessed with Pearson's chi-square test, with the following municipal indicators as independent variables, categorized in tertiles: per capita income, Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M), resident population, total health spending per inhabitant, and Oral Health Teams per 10,000 inhabitants. Higher performance with the availability of specialized oral health services was associated with municipalities having smaller populations (67.3%; CI: 61.6-73.0; p < 0.001), lower HDI-M (41.9%; CI: 35.8-48.0; p < 0.001), lower per capita income (41.2%; CI: 35.2-47.3; p < 0.001), and higher mean number of oral health teams per 10,000 inhabitants (50.6%; CI: 46.0-58.4; p < 0.001). The results show positive impacts from the implementation of the National Oral Health Policy in Brazil, meeting the goal of expanding the supply of secondary care services according to the principle of equity in care.

4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200106, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439939

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To perform a survival analysis of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 identified by health information systems, analyzing the factors associated with the highest risk of death. METHODS: Survival analysis of individuals notified with COVID-19 in Rio Grande do Norte State using data from the Health Information Systems for the surveillance of cases of and deaths from COVID-19. The dependent variable was the period until the outcome occurrence. The independent variables were sex, self-reported skin color, age group, residence in the capital, and the presence of comorbidities. For data analysis the Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox-time-dependent Regression Model for multivariate analysis were used, with the covariable "period since the event notification recorded in days". RESULTS: Highest risk of death were observed in individuals aged 80 or older (HR = 8.06; p < 0.001), male (HR = 1.45, p < 0.001), non-white skin color (HR = 1.13; p < 0.033) or with no information (HR = 1.29; p < 0.001), with comorbidities (HR = 10.44; p < 0.001) or presence of comorbidities not reported (HR = 10.87; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The highest risk of occurrence of deaths from COVID-19 was observed in older adults, especially those over 80, patients who have comorbidities, men, and of non-white skin color. From the identification of the profile of patients with a higher risk of death with the identification by the health system, specific strategies of health care must be taken to prevent the evolution to death in these cases.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Grupos de Población Continentales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
5.
Preprint en Portugués | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-1175

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To perform a survival analysis of individuals diagnosed with covid-19 identified by health information systems, analyzing the factors associated with the highest risk of death. METHODS: Survival analysis of individuals notified with covid-19 in the state of Rio Grande do Norte using data from the Health Information Systems for the surveillance of cases of and deaths by covid-19. The dependent variable was the time to the outcome occurrence. The independent variables were sex, self-reported skin color, age group, living in the capital and the presence of comorbidities. For data analysis was used the Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox-time-dependent Regression Model for multivariate analysis, by the covariable "time since the event notification recorded in days". RESULTS: Highest risk of death were observed  in individuals aged 80 years or older (HR = 8.06; p <0.001), male (HR = 1.45, p <0.001), non-white skin color (HR = 1.13; p <0.033) or without information (HR = 1.29; p <0.001), who have comorbidities (HR = 10.44; p <0.001) or that the presence of comorbidities was not reported (HR = 10.87; p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: From the identification of the profile of patients with a higher risk of death through the identification by the health system, specific strategies of health care must be taken to prevent the evolution to death in these cases. These variables are recommended to organize the supply and availability of health care services.


OBJETIVO: Realizar uma análise de sobrevivência de indivíduos diagnosticados com covid-19 identificados pelos sistemas de informação em saúde, analisando os fatores associados ao maior risco de ocorrência de óbitos. MÉTODOS: Consistiu em uma análise de sobrevivência de indivíduos notificados por covid-19 no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, utilizando dados dos Sistemas de Informação em Saúde para a vigilância de casos e óbitos por covid-19. A variável dependente foi o tempo até a ocorrência o desfecho. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, cor da pele, faixa etária, residir na capital e presença de comorbidades. Para análise de dados foi utilizado o método de Kaplan-Meyer e, na análise multivariada, utilizou-se o Modelo de Regressão de Cox tempo-dependente, utilizando a covariável "tempo desde a notificação do evento em dias". RESULTADOS: Apresentaram maiores riscos de ocorrência de óbitos por covid-19 os indivíduos com 80 anos ou mais de idade (HR=8,06; p<0,001), do sexo masculino (HR=1,45; p<0,001), com cor de pele não branca (HR=1,13; p<0,033) ou sem informação (HR=1,29; p<0,001), que possuem comorbidades (HR=10,44; p<0,001) ou que a presença de comorbidades não foi informada (HR=10,87; p<0,001).CONCLUSÕES: A partir da identificação do perfil de pacientes com maior risco de óbito a partir da identificação pelo sistema de saúde, estratégias e linhas de cuidado específicas devem ser tomadas para prevenir a evolução ao óbito nesses casos. Recomenda-se a utilização da distribuição dessas variáveis na população com a finalidade organizar a oferta e disponibilidade de leitos de atenção à saúde.

6.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 13(3): 595-606, jul.-set. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1140455

RESUMEN

Analisar a distribuição espacial da desnutrição em crianças brasileiras de baixa renda e sua correlação com indicadores socioeconômicos e de serviços de saúde. Estudo ecológico, com dados secundários de representação nacional, tendo como variáveis a desnutrição infantil, os indicadores socioeconômicos e de serviços de saúde no Brasil. Utilizaram-se técnicas de estatística univariada e bivariada para a análise espacial. Foi observada uma dependência espacial para a desnutrição infantil (I=0,52; p=0,010), com as menores prevalências nas regiões mais desenvolvidas do país, Sul e Sudeste. Associação negativa foi obtida entre desnutrição infantil e a renda per capita (p<0,001) e o IDH (p<0,001). E associação positiva entre a desnutrição e os investimentos na atenção primária (p<0,001). Foram encontradas assimetrias espaciais, com maior prevalência de desnutrição nas regiões Norte-Nordeste e associações com os indicadores socioeconômicos e de serviços de saúde, o que reflete um processo histórico de desigualdades no país.


The spatial distribution of stunting in low-income Brazilian children and its correlation with socioeconomic and health service indicators are analyzed. Current ecological study, based on national secondary data, employed the variables child malnutrition, socioeconomic indicators and health services in Brazil. Univariate and bivariate statistical techniques were used for spatial analysis. A spatial dependence was reported for child malnutrition (I=0.52; p=0.010), with the lowest prevalence in the most developed regions of the country (South and Southeast regions). A negative association was detected between child malnutrition and per capita income (p <0.001) and Human Development Index (p <0.001), whilst there was a positive association between malnutrition and investments in primary care (p <0.001). Spatial asymmetries were found with a higher prevalence of malnutrition in the north-northeast regions and associations with socioeconomic and health service indicators, reflecting a historical process of inequalities in Brazil.

7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 937-942, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844945

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE Analyze the health actions carried out by the Cuban cooperated physicians and their relationship with socioeconomic characteristics of the municipalities, contained in the first supervision visit report, in 2015. METHODS This is a quantitative research that used secondary data from the reports of the 1st supervision visit of the "More Doctors Program". The dependent variables were the health actions, and the independent variables were the type of municipality, Human Development Index (HDI), Investment in Primary Health Care (PHC), health center coverage, rural population, and total population. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify the latent variable, related to the profile of the professional with respect to the actions/procedures carried out to which the characteristics of the municipalities were associated through frequency analysis. RESULTS Three profiles of professionals were obtained, who have their practices associated with the professional training, consolidating as a determining factor for carrying out actions compatible with the actual needs of the population. Such findings were associated with the socioeconomic variables, with emphasis on funding, health center infrastructure, and coverage. CONCLUSIONS From the observed results, we suggest strategies to expand the scope of the practices carried out in Primary Health Care, from the perspective of training and continuing education of health professionals, and the focus on the everyday life of the service being of paramount importance.


Asunto(s)
Médicos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Atención Primaria de Salud , Cuba , Educación Continua , Humanos , Población Rural , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(8): 3037-3046, 2020 Aug 05.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785540

RESUMEN

Protocols have been adopted as a strategy to improve the rates of follow-up and control of arterial hypertension (AH). The scope of this study was to verify the reproducibility of a protocol for consultation and follow-up of the user with AH in Basic Health Care (BHC) units. It involved a methodological study, carried out from January to August of 2016, with 160 users with AH. The reproducibility occurred in the dimension of indicators of health, psychosocial, signs of changes in blood pressure values, occurrence of complications and test performance. The protocol was applied by nurses at two different times, with interval according to the participant's return visit. The concordance was evaluated by the Kappa (κ) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) coefficients according to the type of variable. The κ intra-examiner ranged from 0.673 to 0.984 and inter-examiners from 0.515 to 0.985. The ICC intra-examiner scored from 0.785 to 0.998 and inter-examiner from 0.845 to 0.999. The mean of the anthropometric measures and the pressures presented a difference < 1 between the examiners at times 1 and 2. The protocol presented good reproducibility and high reliability, being able to be replicated and used in the follow up consultation of the user with AH attended in BHC units.

9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(8): 3037-3046, Ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1133125

RESUMEN

Resumo Os protocolos têm sido adotados como estratégia para melhorar os índices de acompanhamento e controle da Hipertensão Arterial (HA). Objetivou-se verificar a reprodutibilidade de um protocolo para a consulta e o acompanhamento do usuário com HA atendido na Atenção Básica à Saúde (ABS). Tratou-se de estudo metodológico, realizado de janeiro a agosto de 2016, com 160 usuários com HA. A reprodutibilidade se deu nas dimensões indicadoras de saúde, psicossociais, sinais de alterações das cifras pressóricas, ocorrência de complicações e realizações de exames. O protocolo foi aplicado por enfermeiros em dois momentos distintos, com intervalo de acordo com o retorno do participante. A concordância foi avaliada pelos coeficientes Kappa (κ) e de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI), conforme o tipo de variável. O κ intraexaminadores variou de 0,673 a 0,984 e interexaminadores de 0,515 a 0,985. O CCI intraexaminadores pontuou de 0,785 a 0,998 e interexaminadores de 0,845 a 0,999. A média das medidas antropométricas e a das pressões apresentou diferença < 1 entre os examinadores nos tempos 1 e 2. O protocolo apresentou boa reprodutibilidade e alta confiabilidade, podendo ser replicado e utilizado na consulta de acompanhamento do usuário com HA assistido na ABS.


Abstract Protocols have been adopted as a strategy to improve the rates of follow-up and control of arterial hypertension (AH). The scope of this study was to verify the reproducibility of a protocol for consultation and follow-up of the user with AH in Basic Health Care (BHC) units. It involved a methodological study, carried out from January to August of 2016, with 160 users with AH. The reproducibility occurred in the dimension of indicators of health, psychosocial, signs of changes in blood pressure values, occurrence of complications and test performance. The protocol was applied by nurses at two different times, with interval according to the participant's return visit. The concordance was evaluated by the Kappa (κ) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) coefficients according to the type of variable. The κ intra-examiner ranged from 0.673 to 0.984 and inter-examiners from 0.515 to 0.985. The ICC intra-examiner scored from 0.785 to 0.998 and inter-examiner from 0.845 to 0.999. The mean of the anthropometric measures and the pressures presented a difference < 1 between the examiners at times 1 and 2. The protocol presented good reproducibility and high reliability, being able to be replicated and used in the follow up consultation of the user with AH attended in BHC units.

10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200083, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696933

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep is a dimension of well-being and health. Non-restful sleep is related to health dysfunctions, especially in vulnerable populations, considering that related factors change contextually. Thus, the objective of the present study was to measure the magnitude of the reduction in sleep restorative function (SRF) and related biopsychosocial factors in Brazilian elderly. METHOD: Secondary data from the 2013 National Health Survey of cross-sectional design were analyzed. The sample consisted of individuals as from 60 years old. The outcome considered was the prevalence of reduced self-perceived sleep restorative function (SRF). Health and sleep characteristics, emotional behavior, lifestyle, social support, and urbanization were all investigated. The association with outcome was measured with the prevalence ratio (PR) and estimated with Cox regression, assuming α ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: SRF was reduced by 29.2% (95%CI 27.2 - 30.6%). It is related to depression (PR = 3.37; 95%CI 2.87 - 3.97), insomnia/sleepiness (PR = 2.45; 95%CI 2.14 - 2.79); behavioral oscillation (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.53 - 1.99), negative health perception (PR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.23 - 1.82), computer and internet (PR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.07) and functional difficulty (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.27). Living in urban areas (PR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.14 - 1.52) and having a chronic condition (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.11 - 2.40) were only associated to the worst situation of reduced SRF. CONCLUSION: The reduction in SRF affects one third of the elderly in Brazil and is closely related to biopsychosocial factors, requiring intersectoral public health promotion approaches.


Asunto(s)
Autoimagen , Sueño , Anciano , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicología
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(3): 321-327, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520152

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the working process of the professionals of the More Doctors Program and its relationship with socioeconomic indicators. It is a quantitative study, in which secondary data from supervision reports of PMM were used. The dependent variable was the quality of work processes in Primary Care facilities, and the independent ones were the type of municipality, education, Gini index, Primary Health Care investments, and health facilities coverage. Data were analyzed with multiple modeling based on Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS: 16,000 doctors within 3816 municipalities were analyzed. Variables related to the working process the remained significant in the final model were the investments in Primary Health Care and the health facilities coverage. The results expressed the equity principle, as those municipalities with more vulnerable conditions and with higher coverage are prone to perform more activities in their working process. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the More Doctors Program and hence the provision of doctors in deprived regions promoted the consolidation of three main aspects, namely the health working process, primary health care and equity, making it possible to carry out a health working process focused on PHC. This implies performing a greater number of activities that are inherent to PHC, which were not carried out due to the absence of doctors. The More Doctors Program fulfills its role in the combat of inequalities, particularly regarding more vulnerable municipalities.


Asunto(s)
Médicos/provisión & distribución , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Programas de Gobierno , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Humanos , Área sin Atención Médica , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Factores Socioeconómicos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231029, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271807

RESUMEN

Syphilis is a chronic infectious disease with its prevalence being described since the 15th century. Although its etiological agent and also the treatment measures are widely known, syphilis is still a great public health problem worldwide, mainly in countries with limited resources associated to low investments in health primary care. The aim of the present study was to analyze the trend and regional distribution of syphilis in Brazil between 2007 and 2017. This is an ecological study using secondary data from the Brazilian notification system. The Ministry of Health selected 100 municipalities which presented the worse outcomes related to syphilis from the 5,570 Brazilian municipalities as a target for a comprehensive project in order to tackle the prevalence of syphilis, called the "No Syphilis Project". These priority municipalities represent 57.7% of syphilis cases and about one third of the Brazilian population. They were compared with other 189 non-priority municipalities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants among the Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and Center-West). Polynomial regression methods and Joinpoint analyses were used to analyze the trend, from which the Annual Average Percent Change (AACP) for each time period was calculated. There was a significant growth trend in all regions for the main three forms of syphilis (in pregnancy, congenital and acquired), especially in the South. The ratio between syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis increased in both priority (AAPC: 8.54%; p<0.001) and non-priority municipalities (AAPC: 2.61%; p = 0.005), as well as in the regions, except the Center-West. High growth trends in syphilis prevalence were found in all municipalities, as well as all five regions between 2007 and 2017, showing that the challenge to reduce or even eliminate syphilis in Brazil is still difficult.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Análisis de Regresión , Sífilis Congénita/epidemiología
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(3): 1091-1102, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159677

RESUMEN

The study sought to identify dietary patterns and associated factors of elderly Brazilians. It involved a cross-sectional study based on data from the National Health Survey ("PNS/2013") of 11,177 elderly individuals, whose dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the analysis of associated factors. The cluster analysis produced 2 clusters of dietary patterns, one healthy (55.4%), with greater consumption of raw and cooked vegetables and legumes, chicken, fruits, natural fruit juices and milk. And an unhealthy cluster (44.6%), with greater consumption of red meat and soft drinks or artificial juices. The prevalence of the healthy dietary pattern was greater for females (PR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.25- 1.40), Caucasian (PR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15), elderly individuals with graduate or post-graduate degree (PR=1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72), living in the Southeast (PR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.33-1.79) and South (PR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.76), non-smokers (PR = 1.19, 95% CI, 1.07-1.31) and physically active (PR = 1.24, 95% CI, 1.17-1.32). These results indicated an association between better social conditions and beneficial life habits with the consumption of healthy foods, reinforcing the hypothesis of social determination and the coexistence of health behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Alimentos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 321-327, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136206

RESUMEN

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To analyze the working process of the professionals of the More Doctors Program and its relationship with socioeconomic indicators. It is a quantitative study, in which secondary data from supervision reports of PMM were used. The dependent variable was the quality of work processes in Primary Care facilities, and the independent ones were the type of municipality, education, Gini index, Primary Health Care investments, and health facilities coverage. Data were analyzed with multiple modeling based on Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS 16,000 doctors within 3816 municipalities were analyzed. Variables related to the working process the remained significant in the final model were the investments in Primary Health Care and the health facilities coverage. The results expressed the equity principle, as those municipalities with more vulnerable conditions and with higher coverage are prone to perform more activities in their working process. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of the More Doctors Program and hence the provision of doctors in deprived regions promoted the consolidation of three main aspects, namely the health working process, primary health care and equity, making it possible to carry out a health working process focused on PHC. This implies performing a greater number of activities that are inherent to PHC, which were not carried out due to the absence of doctors. The More Doctors Program fulfills its role in the combat of inequalities, particularly regarding more vulnerable municipalities.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a relação entre o processo de trabalho dos médicos do Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) no Brasil e alguns indicadores socioeconômicos no período de 2015. MÉTODO Trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa que utilizou dados secundários dos relatórios de supervisão do PMM. A variável dependente foi a qualidade do processo de trabalho e as variáveis independentes foram o tipo de município, expectativa de anos de estudo, índice de Gini, investimento em Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e cobertura de unidades de saúde. Na análise dos dados foi realizada a modelagem múltipla por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. RESULTADOS Foram analisados dados de 3.816 municípios, abrangendo 1.537 profissionais. Destacam-se como variáveis socioeconômicas estratégicas e que explicam o modelo do processo de trabalho do PMM: o investimento e a cobertura da atenção básica. Tornou-se bastante evidente o princípio da equidade, pois os municípios mais vulneráveis e de maior cobertura realizam maior número de atividades em seu processo de trabalho. CONCLUSÕES Com a implantação do PMM e o provimento de médicos em regiões desassistidas ocorreu a consolidação do tripé processo de trabalho em saúde, atenção básica e equidade, tornando possível a efetivação de um processo de trabalho focado na APS. Isso implica a realização de maior número de atividades inerentes à APS, as quais não eram realizadas em função da ausência do profissional médico. Nesse sentido, o programa cumpre o seu papel de combater as desigualdades em municípios mais vulneráveis.

15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 1091-1102, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089477

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivou-se identificar padrões alimentares de idosos brasileiros e seus fatores associados. Estudo transversal realizado a partir de dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS/2013) de 11.177 idosos, cujos padrões alimentares foram identificados a partir de análise de "cluster". Regressão de Poisson com variância robusta foi utilizada para a análise de fatores associados. A análise de "cluster" produziu 2 padrões alimentares, um saudável (55,4%), com maior consumo de verduras e legumes crus e cozidos, frango, frutas, sucos de frutas naturais e leite. E outro não saudável (44,6%), com maior consumo de carne vermelha e refrigerante ou suco artificial. As prevalências do padrão alimentar saudável foram maiores em idosos do sexo feminino (RP = 1,32; IC95% 1,25-1,40), cor/raça branca (RP = 1,09; IC95% 1,02-1,15), idosos com graduação ou pós-graduação (RP = 1,56; IC95% 1,41-1,72), residentes nas regiões Sudeste (RP = 1,54; IC95% 1,33-1,79) e Sul (RP = 1,51; IC95% 1,30-1,76), que não fumavam (RP = 1,19; IC95% 1,07-1,31) e que praticavam atividade física (RP = 1,24; IC95% 1,17-1,32). Esses resultados indicaram associação entre melhores condições sociais e hábitos de vida benéficos com o consumo de alimentos saudáveis, reforçando a hipótese da determinação social e da coexistência dos comportamentos de saúde.


Abstract The study sought to identify dietary patterns and associated factors of elderly Brazilians. It involved a cross-sectional study based on data from the National Health Survey ("PNS/2013") of 11,177 elderly individuals, whose dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the analysis of associated factors. The cluster analysis produced 2 clusters of dietary patterns, one healthy (55.4%), with greater consumption of raw and cooked vegetables and legumes, chicken, fruits, natural fruit juices and milk. And an unhealthy cluster (44.6%), with greater consumption of red meat and soft drinks or artificial juices. The prevalence of the healthy dietary pattern was greater for females (PR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.25- 1.40), Caucasian (PR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15), elderly individuals with graduate or post-graduate degree (PR=1.56, 95% CI 1.41-1.72), living in the Southeast (PR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.33-1.79) and South (PR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.76), non-smokers (PR = 1.19, 95% CI, 1.07-1.31) and physically active (PR = 1.24, 95% CI, 1.17-1.32). These results indicated an association between better social conditions and beneficial life habits with the consumption of healthy foods, reinforcing the hypothesis of social determination and the coexistence of health behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Dieta , Alimentos , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784398

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between anxiety, quality of life (QL), and sociodemographic aspects and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and to assess the predisposition to TMDs in patients with low QL and anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 120 patients (60 TMD/60 non-TMD) were screened to assess QL (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version [WHOQOL]); anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI]; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory[STAI-S and -T]; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]); and TMD (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders-RDC/TMD). Pearson's χ2 test, the Student t test, odds ratio (OR) analysis, and nonconditional logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Among patients with TMD, 60% were women (P = .002), 65.1% were single (P = .009), and 71.4% were employed (P = .008). Most of the anxious individuals had TMD, according to HADS, 75% (P < .001); STAI-S, 55.6% (P = .035); STAI-T, 54.9% (P = .011); and BAI, 63.9% (P = .002). WHOQOL showed higher QL for non-TMD participants (P < .001). Sociodemographic data showed an association with TMD: gender (OR = 3.5), professional status (OR = 3.3), and marital status (OR = 2.8). WHOQOL presented higher association strength (OR = 9.2), followed by HADS (OR = 5.0). CONCLUSIONS: A relationship exists between sociodemographic aspects, anxiety, and QL and TMD. Patients with TMD have higher anxiety levels and lower QL, and this can interfere with treatment, reinforcing the need for therapies that consider the various factors of the disorder.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular , Ansiedad , Depresión , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 937-942, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136319

RESUMEN

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Analyze the health actions carried out by the Cuban cooperated physicians and their relationship with socioeconomic characteristics of the municipalities, contained in the first supervision visit report, in 2015. METHODS This is a quantitative research that used secondary data from the reports of the 1st supervision visit of the "More Doctors Program". The dependent variables were the health actions, and the independent variables were the type of municipality, Human Development Index (HDI), Investment in Primary Health Care (PHC), health center coverage, rural population, and total population. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify the latent variable, related to the profile of the professional with respect to the actions/procedures carried out to which the characteristics of the municipalities were associated through frequency analysis. RESULTS Three profiles of professionals were obtained, who have their practices associated with the professional training, consolidating as a determining factor for carrying out actions compatible with the actual needs of the population. Such findings were associated with the socioeconomic variables, with emphasis on funding, health center infrastructure, and coverage. CONCLUSIONS From the observed results, we suggest strategies to expand the scope of the practices carried out in Primary Health Care, from the perspective of training and continuing education of health professionals, and the focus on the everyday life of the service being of paramount importance.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar as ações em saúde realizadas pelos médicos cooperados cubanos e sua relação com características socioeconômicas dos municípios, contidas no primeiro relatório de visita de supervisão, em 2015. MÉTODOS Pesquisa quantitativa que utilizou dados secundários dos relatórios da primeira visita de supervisão do Programa Mais Médicos. A variável dependente foram as ações em saúde e as variáveis independentes foram o tipo de município e infraestrutura. Utilizou-se a análise de correspondência múltipla para a identificação da variável latente, relativa ao perfil do profissional com relação às ações realizadas, a qual foi associada às características dos municípios por intermédio de análise de frequência. RESULTADOS Foram obtidos três perfis de profissionais, que possuem suas práticas associadas à formação profissional, consolidando-se como um fator determinante para efetivação de ações condizentes com as reais necessidades da população. Tais achados estiveram associados às variáveis socioeconômicas, tendo como destaques a infraestrutura das unidades e o tipo de município. CONCLUSÕES A partir dos resultados observados, sugerem-se estratégias para ampliar o escopo das práticas desenvolvidas na APS, na perspectiva de formação e educação permanente de profissionais de saúde, sendo fundamental a ênfase no cotidiano do serviço.

18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 23: e200083, 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126056

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Background: Sleep is a dimension of well-being and health. Non-restful sleep is related to health dysfunctions, especially in vulnerable populations, considering that related factors change contextually. Thus, the objective of the present study was to measure the magnitude of the reduction in sleep restorative function (SRF) and related biopsychosocial factors in Brazilian elderly. Method: Secondary data from the 2013 National Health Survey of cross-sectional design were analyzed. The sample consisted of individuals as from 60 years old. The outcome considered was the prevalence of reduced self-perceived sleep restorative function (SRF). Health and sleep characteristics, emotional behavior, lifestyle, social support, and urbanization were all investigated. The association with outcome was measured with the prevalence ratio (PR) and estimated with Cox regression, assuming α ≤ 0.05. Results: SRF was reduced by 29.2% (95%CI 27.2 - 30.6%). It is related to depression (PR = 3.37; 95%CI 2.87 - 3.97), insomnia/sleepiness (PR = 2.45; 95%CI 2.14 - 2.79); behavioral oscillation (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.53 - 1.99), negative health perception (PR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.23 - 1.82), computer and internet (PR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.01 - 2.07) and functional difficulty (PR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.27). Living in urban areas (PR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.14 - 1.52) and having a chronic condition (PR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.11 - 2.40) were only associated to the worst situation of reduced SRF. Conclusion: The reduction in SRF affects one third of the elderly in Brazil and is closely related to biopsychosocial factors, requiring intersectoral public health promotion approaches.


RESUMO: Introdução: O sono é uma dimensão do bem-estar e da saúde. Um sono não reparador relaciona-se com disfunções de saúde, principalmente em populações vulneráveis, à medida que os fatores relacionados mudam contextualmente. Assim, objetivou-se mensurar a magnitude da redução da função reparadora do sono (FRS) e os fatores biopsicossociais relacionados em idosos brasileiros. Método: Foram analisados dados secundários da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013, de delineamento transversal. A amostra constituiu-se de indivíduos a partir de 60 anos. O desfecho considerado foi a prevalência de redução da função restaurativa do sono (FRS) autorreferida. Características de saúde e sono, comportamento emocional, hábitos de vida, suporte social e urbanização tiveram suas relações investigadas. A associação com desfecho foi medida pela razão de prevalência (RP) e estimada pela regressão de Cox, assumindo α ≤ 0,05. Resultados: A FRS estava reduzida em 29,2% (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 27,2 - 30,6%). Ela está relacionada à depressão (RP = 3,37; IC95% 2,87 - 3,97), insônia/sonolência (RP = 2,45; IC95% 2,14 - 2,79); oscilação comportamental (RP = 1,75; IC95% 1,53 - 1,99), percepção negativa de saúde (RP = 1,50; IC95% 1,23 - 1,82), computador e internet (RP = 1,44; IC95% 1,01 - 2,07) e dificuldade funcional (RP = 1,13; IC95% 1,01 - 1,27). Viver em áreas urbanas (RP = 1,32; IC95% 1,14 - 1,52) e ter condição crônica (RP = 1,58; IC95% 1,11 - 2,40) associaram-se apenas à pior situação de redução da FRS. Conclusão: A redução da FRS atinge um terço dos idosos no Brasil e está intimamente relacionada a fatores biopsicossociais, exigindo abordagens de políticas públicas intersetoriais de promoção de saúde.

19.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 76, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553379

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with HIV and syphilis testing during pregnancy in Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecological study covering all Brazilian municipalities evaluated by the second cycle of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, 2013-2014. The dependent variables were based on prenatal care access: prenatal care appointments, and HIV and syphilis tests during prenatal care. The independent variables were compared with demographic and social characteristics. Bivariate analysis was performed assessing the three outcomes with the independent variables. Variables with significant associations in this bivariate analysis were fit in a Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance to obtain adjusted estimates. RESULT: Poisson regression analysis showed a statistically significant association with the variables "less than eight years of study" [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.31; 95%CI 1.19-1.45; p < 0.001] and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 0.80; 95%CI 0.72-0.88; p < 0.001) for the outcome of "having less than six prenatal care appointments" and individual variables. A statistically significant association was found for "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.43; 95%CI 1.19-1.72; p < 0.001) regarding the outcome from the comparison between HIV testing absence during prenatal care and demographic and social characteristics. The absence of syphilis testing during prenatal care, and demographic and social characteristics presented a statistically significant association for the education level variable "less than eight years of study" (PR =1.75; 95%CI 1.56-1.96; p < 0.001) and "participants of the cash transfer program" (PR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.07-1.36; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The individual factors were associated with prenatal care appointments and HIV and syphilis tests in Brazilian pregnant women. They show missed opportunities for diagnosing HIV and syphilis infection during prenatal care and indicate weaknesses in the quality of maternal health care services to eliminate mother-to-child transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Sífilis Congénita/diagnóstico , Distribución por Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribución de Poisson , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Prevalencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sífilis Congénita/epidemiología
20.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(5): 1099-1105, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419000

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peri-implant mucositis is very common and, when left untreated, can progress to the more serious condition of peri-implantitis. Therefore, early diagnosis, adequate treatment and, in particular, adherence to a peri-implant supportive therapy are extremely important for the management of peri-implant mucositis. PURPOSE: Characterize the clinical conditions of peri-implant tissues in patients diagnosed with peri-implant mucositis after undergoing peri-implant supportive therapy for 54 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (131 dental implants) who received peri-implant supportive therapy, associated with oral hygiene instructions, were assessed at baseline and at 54 months for visible plaque and gingival bleeding indexes, probing depth and bleeding on probing. Data were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test and relative risk assessment using a significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: None of the independent variables evaluated (age, gender, smoking, type of prosthesis, time using the prosthesis, keratinized mucosa, phenotype peri-implant, classification of visible plaque index and classification of gingival bleeding index) presented significant associations with "worsening" or "improvement" of clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: The implementation of peri-implant support therapy was not sufficient for the resolution of peri-implant mucositis, although reductions in clinical parameters with respect to baseline were observed and maintained during follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Mucositis , Periimplantitis , Estomatitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
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