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1.
Nature ; 539(7629): 407-410, 2016 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786173

RESUMEN

Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics that distinguish quantum from classical phenomena. In particular, in condensed matter physics, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Yet the microscopic behaviour of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the micrometre scale. Although nanoscale thermometry has gained much recent interest, existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for the study of quantum systems and are also unsuitable for the low-temperature operation that is required. Here we report a nano-thermometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device with a diameter of less than 50 nanometres that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette: it provides scanning cryogenic thermal sensing that is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous devices-below 1 µK Hz-1/2. This non-contact, non-invasive thermometry allows thermal imaging of very low intensity, nanoscale energy dissipation down to the fundamental Landauer limit of 40 femtowatts for continuous readout of a single qubit at one gigahertz at 4.2 kelvin. These advances enable the observation of changes in dissipation due to single-electron charging of individual quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. They also reveal a dissipation mechanism attributable to resonant localized states in graphene encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride, opening the door to direct thermal imaging of nanoscale dissipation processes in quantum matter.

2.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 14(3): 231-4, 2001.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11764850

RESUMEN

The paper presents the results of geochemical investigations carried out in the city of Prague. Czech Republic, between the years 1994-1997, by the Czech Geological Institute, National Institute of Public Health and Hygiene Stations of Prague. Exposure assessment for children as the most sensitive population, based on soil ingestion pathway, indicates that lead is the major pollutant of concern, especially in the central regions of the city. Direct exposure assessment was done by analyzing blood and urine samples collected from children aged 3-6 years. Blood lead levels were the only biomarker significantly higher as compared to the control group (32.1 +/- 17.4 microg/l, 25.1 +/- 15.4 microg/l). This pilot study supports the establishment of a new sub-system within the already existing System of Monitoring the Environmental Impact on Population Health of the Czech Republic.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Metales Pesados/efectos adversos , Suelo/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , República Checa , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Metales Pesados/análisis , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Medición de Riesgo , Muestreo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Población Urbana
3.
Phys Rev C Nucl Phys ; 45(2): R525-R527, 1992 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9967839
4.
Phys Rev C Nucl Phys ; 44(2): R594-R597, 1991 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9967492
5.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 2(4): 206-7, 1986.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3779683

RESUMEN

A technique for temporary ventricular drainage using a subcutaneous pouch is described for use in neonatal hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage. The advantages include continuous, valve-regulated ventricular decompression, no exposed tubing, avoidance of electrolyte imbalance and of the loss of CSF, obviation of the need for repeated tapping, and the ability to convert to a peritoneal shunt on an elective basis.


Asunto(s)
Hemorragia Cerebral/complicaciones , Derivaciones del Líquido Cefalorraquídeo/métodos , Hidrocefalia/cirugía , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiología , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Hombro , Piel , Tórax
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