Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 37
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102271

RESUMEN

In many countries, health literacy research, practice, and policy have been moving away from a focus only on medical care and health-care settings to a much broader conceptualization. In this broader perspective, health literacy can be obtained and used across many other settings (e.g., school, home, workplaces, government) towards achieving health and wellness goals across the life-course for individuals, families, and communities. The education sector is a critical domain towards these achievements and education for health literacy is a fundamental process and outcome. This can help towards important public health goals, including critical health literacy, as oriented not only towards individual actions, but also towards supporting effective social and political action. This Perspective Article describes the importance and utility of the education for health literacy perspective, which, follows a view that health literacy is a key outcome of health education from which improved population health, health promotion and disease prevention could be achieved across diverse contexts. We first describe different educational paradigms to address health literacy and clarify the education for health literacy perspective as a supportive, instructional and capacity-building global resource across the life-course. Then, using specific examples from Canada, America, and Germany, we provide a snapshot of the diverse ways in which the education for health literacy perspective can be found in national policies. These include broad national goals and standards (Germany and Canada) and major health care reform (America). We next consider the tensions and gaps that can arise in the translation and implementation of these policies relative to the ideal education for health literacy perspective, especially related to equity. These include the need for funding, goals of the educational system, and limited evaluation of policy in practice. Finally, we highlight strategic opportunities to achieve education for health literacy and equity especially offering examples from innovative practice in Canada across the lifespan.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Internacionalidad , Canadá , Educación , Alemania , Humanos
2.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 102: 134-138, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793001

RESUMEN

Health literacy plays a crucial role in chronic disease management. To comprehensively manage chronic conditions on a daily basis, individuals must be able to assess, understand, evaluate, and use health information. Several key publications emphasize that health literacy is not merely a matter of individual skills but that it is highly dependent on the accessibility of health-care systems, the communication skills of health-care professionals, and the level of complexity of the health information. However, the literature indicates that health literacy is mainly framed and measured as an individual attribute in research. Focusing health literacy research solely on the individual, rather than also including the health-care context, limits our understanding of the type of actions that should be undertaken to facilitate a person's access to and understanding, evaluation and use of health information. This commentary highlights the importance of interpreting the concept of health literacy as a dynamic construct that emerges from the interaction between patients/citizens and health-care systems, organizations, and professionals. This approach has the potential to fill a gap in our understanding of the link between health literacy and chronic disease management. Such an understanding would facilitate the development of comprehensive health literacy measurement instruments and interventions to enhance health literacy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Alfabetización en Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos
3.
Health Promot Int ; 32(4): 743-754, 2017 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26873913

RESUMEN

Understanding the nature and impact of health literacy is a priority in health promotion and chronic disease prevention and treatment. Health literacy comprises the application of a broad set of skills to access, comprehend, evaluate, communicate and act on health information for improved health and well-being. A complex concept, it involves multiple participants and is enacted across a wide variety of contexts. Health literacy's complexity has given rise to challenges achieving a standard definition and developing means to measure all its dimensions. In May 2013, a group of health literacy experts, clinicians and policymakers convened at an Expert Roundtable to review the current state of health literacy research and practice, and make recommendations about refining its definition, expanding its measurement and integrating best practices into chronic disease management. The four-day knowledge exchange concluded that the successful integration of health literacy into policy and practice depends on the development of a more substantial evidence base. A review of the successes and gaps in health literacy research, education and interventions culminated in the identification of key priorities to further the health literacy agenda. The workshop was funded by the UBC Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, Vancouver.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Alfabetización en Salud/métodos , Alfabetización en Salud/organización & administración , Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Automanejo/métodos
5.
J Asthma ; 49(5): 542-51, 2012 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22715910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Asthma tends to be less well controlled among ethnic minority groups, and its prevalence in new immigrants increases significantly the longer they are in Canada; mainly due to their lack of familiarity with English and difficulty understanding information regarding the disease, health literacy, cultural issues, housing conditions, and lack of access to appropriate care services. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of different formats of culturally relevant information and its impact on asthma patients' self-management within the Punjabi, Mandarin, and Cantonese communities. METHODS: Using a participatory approach, we developed and tested knowledge and community educational videos (with similar information, but used a different approach, i.e., scientific vs. colloquial) and a pictorial pamphlet. A total of 92 physician-diagnosed adult asthma patients (47 Chinese and 45 Punjabi) were assigned at random to three experimental groups (watched one or both videos) and one comparison group (read pictorial pamphlet) and participated in three in-person interviews and one telephone interview within a 9-month period. Patients received education on asthma self-management via videos and pamphlet and outcomes, including their knowledge of asthma triggers (environmental-related and behavioral-related triggers) and symptoms; inhaler use skills and patient-reported medication adherence were measured. RESULTS: Knowledge of asthma symptoms, inhaler use, and understanding of physician's instructions improved significantly from pretest to 3 months post-intervention follow-up among all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants performed significantly better at follow-up than they did at baseline assessment, with the most notable improvements observed in the group that watched both community and knowledge videos. The results suggest that short, simple, culturally, and linguistically appropriate interventions can promote knowledge gain about asthma and improve inhaler use that can be sustained over the short term. Such interventions that provide authentic learning materials that draw on patients' life experiences and sociocultural context can overcome certain limitations of conventional patient education approaches.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos/administración & dosificación , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/etnología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá , China/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , India/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 13(2): 315-22, 2011 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20938742

RESUMEN

The objectives of this study were to investigate how asthma patients from new immigrant groups are being informed and educated about asthma and its management, and to identify barriers to knowledge transfer. Four focus groups (n = 29) from Latino, Chinese, Iranian and Punjabi cultural communities were conducted with asthmatic patients in the Greater Vancouver Area. Our results from the focus group discussions can be summarized in four broad areas (a) perceptions of and ways of coping with asthma, (b) perceptions of whether the healthcare system is culturally competent, (c) perceptions of language barriers in regards to accessing the healthcare system, and (d) perceptions of how to access reliable asthma information. The results of this study highlight the importance of diverse cultural beliefs and practices as factors that should be taken into consideration when tailoring interventions to improve asthma outcomes in vulnerable populations, including patients from ethno-cultural communities.


Asunto(s)
Asma/etnología , Asma/terapia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Alfabetización en Salud , Lenguaje , Canadá/epidemiología , Comunicación , Competencia Cultural , Miedo , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/organización & administración , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa , Confianza
7.
J Aging Health ; 22(6): 827-54, 2010 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20595098

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to examine the role of lifelong educational and learning practices and resources in enabling health literacy. METHOD: A subsample of older adults (n = 2,979) derived from the 2003 seven country IALSS (Canadian survey) was used. An expanded Andersen-Newman model that included lifelong learning enabling factors was used to develop predictors of health literacy. RESULTS: The formal education, lifelong and lifewide learning enabling factors exhibited the most robust associations with health literacy. These included education level; self-study in the form of reading manuals, reference books and journals; computer/Internet use, use of the library; leisure reading of books; reading letters, notes and e-mails; and volunteerism. DISCUSSION: Findings are discussed in relation to the development and maintenance of health literacy over the life course. Programs and policies that encourage lifelong and lifewide educational resources and practices by older persons are needed.


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Anciano , Canadá , Computadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Autocuidado , Voluntarios
8.
Health Promot Int ; 25(4): 444-52, 2010 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20466776

RESUMEN

Health literacy has come to play a critical role in health education and promotion, yet it is poorly understood in adolescents and few measurement tools exist. Standardized instruments to measure health literacy in adults assume it to be a derivative of general literacy. This paper reports on the development and the early-stage validation of a health literacy tool for high school students that measured skills to understand and evaluate health information. A systematic process was used to develop, score and validate items. Questionnaire data were collected from 275, primarily 10th grade students in three secondary schools in Vancouver, Canada that reflected variation in demographic profile. Forty-eight percent were male, and 69.1% spoke a language other than English. Bivariate correlations between background variables and the domain and overall health literacy scores were calculated. A regression model was developed using 15 explanatory variables. The R(2) value was 0.567. Key findings were that lower scores were achieved by males, students speaking a second language other than English, those who immigrated to Canada at a later age and those who skipped school more often. Unlike in general literacy where the family factors of mother's education and family affluence both played significant roles, these two factors failed to predict the health literacy of our school-aged sample. The most significant contributions of this work include the creation of an instrument for measuring adolescent health literacy and further emphasizing the distinction between health literacy and general literacy.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Alfabetización en Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Colombia Británica , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Femenino , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Instituciones Académicas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes
9.
Can J Public Health ; 101(6): 436-8, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21370775

RESUMEN

This commentary describes the contribution of the 1985 Canadian National Health Promotion Survey to the development of public health research and policy-making in Canada and argues that on the basis of that contribution, it should be considered to be a public health research milestone. In terms of research, among its contributions which subsequently have been adopted in other survey studies were: going beyond risk factors to operationalize concepts implicit in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion; empowering users to participate in knowledge translation, sharing and transfer; ensuring sufficient sample sizes for each jurisdiction to be able to confidently generalize to its population; establishing a model as well as questions for subsequent health surveys; encouraging widespread use of data through making them available early; and developing and using an explicit social marketing strategy to reach target audiences, including the general public. With regard to policy-making, among its contributions which have been adopted were: using survey data to develop and enhance healthy public policy initiatives; encouraging researchers to work with policy-makers in developing policies; using survey data to contribute to the evaluation of public health initiatives; engaging policy-makers in the development of surveys; and encouraging the use of survey data for advocacy.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Salud Pública , Investigación Biomédica , Canadá , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Clase Social
10.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 37(5): 451-62, 2009 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19740249

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to measure the functional oral health literacy of adults. METHODS: For the generation of items different dental patient educational materials and text types were selected that had reading levels similar to materials used for the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) which was the model for our Oral Health Literacy Instrument (OHLI). The OHLI contains reading comprehension and numeracy sections. The reading comprehension section is a 38-item test with words omitted from one passage on dental caries and another on periodontal disease. The numeracy section has 19 items to test comprehension of directions for taking common prescriptions associated with dental treatment, postextraction instructions and dental appointments. We also developed a 17-item oral health knowledge test. The OHLI, the TOFHLA, the oral health knowledge test and a brief questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of 100 patients. Internal reliability of OHLI was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was examined by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Concurrent validity was tested by comparing OHLI scores across categories of education level and frequency of dental visits. Construct validity was assessed by correlating OHLI scores with TOFHLA scores and with the oral health knowledge scores using Spearman's rho (rho) and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Participants averaged 39 years (SD = 12.4); 73% were female; 64% had college/university education; 40% visited a dentist every 3-6 months. Total OHLI and TOFHLA weighted mean scores were 87.2 and 91.7, respectively (possible range 0-100). The Cronbach's alpha values were high (>0.7) for OHLI and its components. The ICC values indicated good agreement between the test and retest results for OHLI and the oral health knowledge test. Patients visiting a dentist every 3-6 months had significantly higher levels of oral health literacy than those visiting only when they felt pain. The association between OHLI and education level was not significant. OHLI scores were significantly correlated with the scores on the TOFHLA (rho = 0.613) and the test of oral health knowledge (rho = 0.573). These associations remained significant in multiple regression models. CONCLUSION: Initial testing of OHLI suggested that it is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate oral health literacy among adults, although additional work is needed to investigate the instrument's predictive validity and sensitivity to change using oral health outcomes with population groups known to be at high risk of low functional oral health literacy.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Educacional , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Bucal , Adulto , Anciano , Evaluación Educacional/normas , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Salud Bucal/normas , Análisis de Regresión , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
11.
MedGenMed ; 9(3): 40, 2007 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18092046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common inflammatory lung diseases and its prevalence and incidence have increased in many developed and developing countries. Asthma places a heavy burden on healthcare expenditures and productivity, which in turn diminishes the quality of life of the individuals involved as well as their families. The goal of improving a patient's knowledge about asthma management should include the enhancement of the individual's skills with the hopeful outcome of improving how the individual manages the condition. However, when health professionals prepare a training program, they are faced with the challenging cosmopolitan reality of individuals with different ethnic backgrounds. METHODS: In order to find links between asthma and health literacy in a cultural/ethnicity perspective, we performed a systematic review of all publications on the topic of asthma, health, and literacy among cultural groups from 1980 to 2006 using the Internet and journals: Medline (Ovid), ERIC, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google, Google Scholar, Sociological Abstracts, and Anthropology Plus. Key words included the following: "asthma," "culture," "ethnicity," "literacy," "health," "health literacy," "health beliefs," "adults," "disease management," "chronic condition," "ethnocultural groups," "minority groups," and "newcomers/immigrants." RESULTS: More than 650 articles were initially identified in our review; 65 met our inclusion criteria. From these, we examined the factors related to asthma and literacy/health literacy with a cultural lens. All of these are categorized and summarized below. We chose what we considered to be the most relevant and important articles/documents in the research literature to date. Because many of the studies were qualitative, a formal meta-analytic review was not undertaken. We found that current asthma management techniques - including patient education - are not culturally sensitive, linguistically sensitive, or relevant, which creates further difficulties for ethnocultural communities and minority groups in many Western countries. In this systematic review, several themes were identified, including: approaches to language limitation and cultural barriers; the recognition of healthcare system bias (in terms of culturally competent care); and relationship-building to facilitate participatory decision-making by both provider and patient. This review provides further understanding and considerations regarding the beliefs and perspectives of care providers and populations in relation to health and illness, literacy and health literacy, and their association with asthma among ethnocultural communities. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to better define the impact of cultural and ethnic issues in the management of asthma in Canada. Appropriately designed studies should better define the barriers in the optimal delivery of asthma care influenced by these parameters.


Asunto(s)
Asma/etnología , Asma/terapia , Características Culturales , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Canadá , Humanos
12.
MedGenMed ; 9(1): 12, 2007 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17435621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Consumer-directed health information resources hold great potential for improving public health and easing the demand on health systems. Their value, however, depends largely on the ability of their intended users to access and use them effectively. Little is known about whether British Columbia's ethnocultural communities are using the British Columbia (BC) Ministry of Health's BC HealthGuide (BCHG) program, and if so, when and for what purposes they use the services, as well as level of satisfaction with and users' perceptions of the resources. This study investigated attitudes toward and perceptions of the BCHG program, as well as use patterns and satisfaction levels, within the Iranian community of the Greater Vancouver Area (GVA)--among BC's largest and fastest-growing Middle Eastern immigrant communities--and explored a model for introducing the BCHG program to ethnic communities in the GVA and BC. METHODS: In a 2-stage quasi-experimental design, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, data obtained from structured telephone surveys, in-person interviews, and focus groups involving a randomly selected sample of the target population were analyzed before and after intervention with audiovisual health information: a series of culturally relevant informative video clips developed by direct participation of the community and aired on local television channels in the fall of 2004. KEY FINDINGS: There was low awareness and low utilization of the BCHG program among participants at the beginning of this study. Furthermore, many participants in the initial stage of this study cautioned that self-care resources in general are unsuited to Iranian culture, due to widespread distrust of health advice received via telephone or the Internet, and due to the strong value placed on health advice received directly from a professional medical doctor. Nonetheless, attitudes, perceptions, and self-reported utilization rates of the BCHG program improved substantially among the participants of this study following the screening of culturally appropriate, targeted promotional videos. Participants almost unanimously reported that watching the videos had encouraged them to use the BCHG program, and that they intended to promote the resources to others. In addition, the majority of participants who had accessed at least one of the BCHG program resources reported being satisfied with the services that they had received, and improved utilization rates were maintained at the follow-up focus group stage. At the same time, participants cautioned that gaining the confidence of the wider Iranian community in BC and increasing service utilization will require considerable time and effort. In particular, they suggested using a variety of media and communication channels, carefully selecting the health messengers, and targeting messages to specific community subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study strongly suggest that Iranians living in the GVA are open to alternatives to routine healthcare services, including the use of preventive and self-care resources. However, awareness levels and utilization rates of the BCHG program among the GVA's Iranian immigrant population have until now been low. The noticeable and sustained improvement to attitudes, perceptions, and self-reported utilization rates of the BCHG program among Iranian participants in this study after watching culturally appropriate promotional videos indicates the potential to modify cultural beliefs in regard to the delivery of preventive health information if the relevant messages are delivered appropriately. By carefully considering the demographic and cultural characteristics of the various ethnic communities living in BC, and by targeting promotional activities and services directly to these individual communities, the BCHG program could improve awareness and utilization rates within these communities.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud/etnología , Emigración e Inmigración , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Difusión de la Información , Televisión , Adulto , Colombia Británica/etnología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Irán/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grabación en Video/métodos
13.
CMAJ ; 175(6): 606, 2006 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16966665
14.
Health Promot Pract ; 7(4): 418-27, 2006 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16928989

RESUMEN

A review of the nutrition intervention literature was conducted for Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) to develop a provincial nutrition and healthy body weight strategy. Controlled trials that were conducted between 1994 and 2000 in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand were included. Fifteen interventions were included, 10 of which showed significant intervention effect and 5 reporting negative effect. Elements of effective interventions included theoretical basis, family involvement, participatory planning and implementation models, clear messages, and adequate training and ongoing support for intervenors. CCO applied these practices to design a pilot intervention. Stakeholders participated in the intervention design and tested for clear messaging. Consistent with social cognitive theory, the intervention included activities for children and parents and provided environmental supports such as transportation and child care. Training and support for implementers and evaluators was provided by CCO.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Frutas , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Desarrollo de Programa , Verduras
15.
Can J Public Health ; 97 Suppl 2: S5-9, 2006.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16805153

RESUMEN

This paper introduces the reader to the context for the papers in this journal supplement by describing the background and task assigned to the authors, a short history of the development of the field of literacy and health in Canada, some recent developments and opportunities, some information on the nature and magnitude of the issue, and an overview of the supplement. The publication results from the Second Canadian Conference on Literacy and Health. Authors were asked to summarize what was learned at the conference, what we need to know, and what we need to do to move the field forward in relation to the themes of the conference. The four themes were: Building Best Practices in Literacy and Health; Focusing on Language and Culture; Building Knowledge in Literacy and Health; and Building Healthy Public Policy.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Educación en Salud/tendencias , Prioridades en Salud , Salud Pública , Canadá , Diversidad Cultural , Grupos Étnicos/educación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública/educación , Factores Socioeconómicos
16.
Can J Public Health ; 97 Suppl 2: S43-6, 2006.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16805161

RESUMEN

This concluding article comments on what we learned from the conference, what we still need to know, and what we need to do now. It describes what participants said about the impact of the conference and the follow-up steps that have been taken so far. In terms of what we learned, there was agreement on the importance of culture in understanding literacy and health literacy; the importance of context; the integral relationship between literacy and health literacy and the concept of "empowerment;" the value of efforts to improve health through literacy and health literacy; and the need for collaboration. We need more and better information on how our various efforts are working; the cost of low literacy; the links between health, education, and lifelong learning; the needs and strengths of Aboriginal people, and the perspectives of Francophone and ethnocultural groups. Specific topics worthy of pursuit are suggested. They are followed by a list of recommendations from the conference related to focussing on language and culture, and to building best practices, knowledge, and healthy public policy. The paper presents some findings from the conference evaluation, which suggests that the conference met its goals. It concludes by reporting on actions that have been taken to implement the conference recommendations, including the establishment of a Health Literacy Expert Committee and the submission of several funding proposals.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Educación en Salud , Política de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Salud Pública , Canadá , Comunicación , Conducta Cooperativa , Diversidad Cultural , Grupos Étnicos/educación , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Salud Pública/educación , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Health Policy ; 76(1): 106-21, 2006 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15978694

RESUMEN

This study investigated the use of health-related services by low-income Canadians living in two large cities, Edmonton and Toronto. Interview data collected from low-income people, service providers and managers, advocacy group representatives, and senior-level public servants were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Findings indicate that, in addition to health care policies and programs, a broad range of policies, programs, and services relating to income security, recreation, and housing influence the ability of low-income Canadians to attain, maintain, and enhance their health. Furthermore, the manner in which health-related services are delivered plays a key role in low-income people's service-use decisions. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the health and social policy implications of the findings, which are particularly relevant within the context of recent health care reform discussions in Canada.


Asunto(s)
Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Satisfacción del Paciente , Pobreza , Alberta , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Ontario
18.
Québec; Presses de l'Université Laval; c2006. xxv,510 p. ilus.
Monografía en Francés | CidSaúde - Ciudades saludables | ID: cid-54934
19.
Can J Nurs Res ; 37(3): 104-31, 2005 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16268092

RESUMEN

Poverty influences health status, life expectancy, health behaviours, and use of health services. This study examined factors influencing the use of health-related services by people living in poverty. In the first phase, 199 impoverished users of health-related services in 2 large Canadian cities were interviewed by their peers. In the second phase, group interviews with people living in poverty (n = 52) were conducted. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Diverse health-related services were used to meet basic and health needs, to maintain human contact, and to cope with life's challenges. Use of services depended on proximity, affordability, convenience, information, and providers' attitudes and behaviours. Use was impeded by inequities based on income status. To promote the health of people living in poverty, nurses and other health professionals can enhance the accessibility and quality of services, improve their interactions with people living in poverty, provide information about available programs, offer coordinated community-based services, collaborate with other sectors, and advocate for more equitable services and policies.


Asunto(s)
Agencias Gubernamentales/economía , Pobreza , Alberta , Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Investigación en Administración de Enfermería , Ontario
20.
Can J Public Health ; 96 Suppl 2: S62-77, 2005.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16078556

RESUMEN

This article reviews current literature and research on literacy and health and identifies priorities for research on this topic in Canada. Information sources included documents found through an environmental scan, the Alpha Plus collection and a computer search of recent documents. The information was analyzed using a conceptual framework. The review found that low literacy has direct and indirect impacts on health. Families are at risk due to difficulty reading medication prescriptions, baby formula instructions and health and safety education materials. People with lower levels of literacy tend to live and work in less healthy environments. They have more difficulties obtaining employment and income security. Determinants of literacy include: education, early childhood development, aging, living and working conditions, personal capacity/genetics, gender and culture. Action is needed to improve literacy and health through a combination of health communication, education and training, community development, organizational development, and policy development. There is some evidence that such interventions can have a positive effect on health, particularly when combined with one another. Further program and policy development requires greater evidence and evaluation of existing initiatives, more cost/benefit analyses, more culturally specific studies, and greater attention to current social trends and needs.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Escolaridad , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Adolescente , Canadá , Femenino , Prioridades en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...