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1.
Environ Pollut ; 343: 123164, 2024 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103710

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrated the threat of airborne pathogenic respiratory viruses such as the airborne Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The ability to detect circulating viruses in a workplace or dormitory setting allows an early warning system that can alert occupants to implement precautions (e.g. masking) and/or trigger individual testing to allow isolation and quarantine measures to halt contagion. This work extends and validates the first successful detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in dormitory Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems and compares different air sampling methods and media types combined with optimized quantitative Reverse-Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The study was performed in two environments; large dormitories of students who underwent periodic testing for COVID-19 (unknown environment) and the HVAC air from a suite with a student who had tested positive for COVID-19 (known dorm). The air sampling methods were performed using Filter Cassettes, BioSampler, AerosolSense Sampler and Button Sampler (with four media types with different pore sizes of 5 µm, 3 µm, 3 µm (gelatin), and 1.2 µm). The SARS-CoV-2 positive air samples were compared with the positive samples collected by individual student campus track tracing methods using PCR testing on saliva and nasopharyngeal samples. The results show a detection rate of 73% in the unknown environment and a 78% detection rate in the known dorm. Our data show that the virus was detectable with all the sampling methods we employed. However, the AerosolSense sampler and BioSampler performed the best at 63% and 61% detection rates, compared to 25% for the Filter Cassettes and 23% for the Button Sampler. Despite the success rate, it is not possible to definitively conclude which method is most sensitive due to the limited number of samples. These results show that with careful sampling and optimized PCR methods, pathogenic respiratory viruses can be detected in large buildings using HVAC return air.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Virus , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Aire Acondicionado , Calefacción , Prueba de COVID-19
2.
J Gen Virol ; 104(5)2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37195882

RESUMEN

Poxviridae is a family of enveloped, brick-shaped or ovoid viruses. The genome is a linear molecule of dsDNA (128-375 kbp) with covalently closed ends. The family includes the sub-families Entomopoxvirinae, whose members have been found in four orders of insects, and Chordopoxvirinae, whose members are found in mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. Poxviruses are important pathogens in various animals, including humans, and typically result in the formation of lesions, skin nodules, or disseminated rash. Infections can be fatal. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Poxviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/poxviridae.


Asunto(s)
Poxviridae , Animales , Humanos , Poxviridae/genética , Peces , Aves , Mamíferos , Reptiles , Genoma Viral , Replicación Viral , Virión
3.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3171-3177, 2023 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37088603

RESUMEN

The widespread outbreak of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) recognized in 2022 poses new challenges for public healthcare systems worldwide. With more than 86,000 people infected, there is concern that MPXV may become endemic outside of its original geographical area leading to repeated human spillover infections or continue to be spread person-to-person. Fortunately, classical public health measures (e.g., isolation, contact tracing and quarantine) and vaccination have blunted the spread of the virus, but cases are continuing to be reported in 28 countries in March 2023. We describe here the vaccines and drugs available for the prevention and treatment of MPXV infections. However, although their efficacy against monkeypox (mpox) has been established in animal models, little is known about their efficacy in the current outbreak setting. The continuing opportunity for transmission raises concerns about the potential for evolution of the virus and for expansion beyond the current risk groups. The priorities for action are clear: 1) more data on the efficacy of vaccines and drugs in infected humans must be gathered; 2) global collaborations are necessary to ensure that government authorities work with the private sector in developed and low and middle income countries (LMICs) to provide the availability of treatments and vaccines, especially in historically endemic/enzootic areas; 3) diagnostic and surveillance capacity must be increased to identify areas and populations where the virus is present and may seed resurgence; 4) those at high risk of severe outcomes (e.g., immunocompromised, untreated HIV, pregnant women, and inflammatory skin conditions) must be informed of the risk of infection and be protected from community transmission of MPXV; 5) engagement with the hardest hit communities in a non-stigmatizing way is needed to increase the understanding and acceptance of public health measures; and 6) repositories of monkeypox clinical samples, including blood, fluids, tissues and lesion material must be established for researchers. This MPXV outbreak is a warning that pandemic preparedness plans need additional coordination and resources. We must prepare for continuing transmission, resurgence, and repeated spillovers of MPXV.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas , Embarazo , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , /prevención & control , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Vacunación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146610

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate immunity produced in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among university students over seven months. METHODS: All participants were attending a public university and resided in Pitt County, North Carolina. University students enrolled weekly for 10 weeks between 26 August 2020 and 28 October 2020, resulting in 136 young adults completing at least one study visit by 17 November 2020. Enrolled students completed an online survey and nasal swab collection at two-week intervals and monthly blood collection between 26 August 2020 and 31 March 2021. RESULTS: Amongst 695 serum samples tested during follow-up, the prevalence of a positive result for anti-nucleocapsid antibodies (N-IgG) was 9.78%. In 22 students with more than one positive N-IgG serum sample, 68.1% of the group lost persistence of N-IgG below the positive threshold over 140 days. Anti-spike IgG antibodies were significantly higher among 11 vaccinated compared to 10 unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults, N-IgG wanes below the detectable threshold within five months. S-IgG titer remained consistently elevated months after infection, and significantly increased after vaccination.

5.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 330-335, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688726

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic affected universities and institutions and caused campus shutdowns with a transition to online teaching models. To detect infections that might spread on campus, we pursued research towards detecting SARS-CoV-2 in air samples inside student dorms. METHODS: We sampled air in 2 large dormitories for 3.5 months and a separate isolation suite containing a student who had tested positive for COVID-19. We developed novel techniques employing 4 methods to collect air samples: Filter Cassettes, Button Sampler, BioSampler, and AerosolSense sampler combined with direct qRT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 analysis. RESULTS: For the 2 large dorms with the normal student population, we detected SARS-CoV-2 in 11 samples. When compared with student nasal swab qRT-PCR testing, we detected SARS-CoV-2 in air samples when a PCR positive COVID-19 student was living on the same floor of the sampling location with a detection rate of 75%. For the isolation dorm, we had a 100% SARS-CoV-2 detection rate with AerosolSense sampler. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest air sampling may be an important SARS-CoV-2 surveillance technique, especially for buildings with congregant living settings (dorms, correctional facilities, barracks). Future building designs and public health policies should consider implementation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning surveillance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aire Acondicionado , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Calefacción , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudiantes
7.
Infect Dis Clin Pract (Baltim Md) ; 29(5): e287-e293, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539163

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The decision of when it is safe to discontinue transmission-based precautions for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients has been controversial. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offered reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic test- or symptom-based guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of Vidant Health system, Eastern North Carolina, was conducted. Length of stay, days in isolation unit, and date appropriate for discharge or isolation discontinuation based on the symptom-based strategy were recorded. RESULTS: Of 196 COVID hospitalized patients, 34 had repeated COVID PCR tests 3 or more days from their first positive test result. Half of these patients experienced delays in release from transmission-based precautions because of repeated positive PCR test results and use of the test-based approach. This resulted in an additional 166 days of hospitalization, costing an estimated $415,000. Furthermore, 2 subjects had a combined 16-day delay in necessary medical procedures. Most of the COVID PCR platforms yield quantitative results in the form of cycle threshold (Ct) values, the number of cycles needed to detect the genome. These values have also been used to assess whether patients are likely to remain contagious. None of our patients who met the criteria for symptom-based strategy for transmission-based precaution discontinuation had positive PCR test results with Ct values lower than 25, but 4 had Ct values lower than 30. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns surround immunocompromised patients and those treated with steroids who might be delayed or incapable of stopping viral replication and thus remain contagious. Our results suggest that clinicians use all available data including Ct values to evaluate the safety of discontinuation of transmission precautions.

8.
J Med Virol ; 93(6): 3362-3373, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219544

RESUMEN

The primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) is Aedes aegypti. The mosquito-infecting virus, Espirito Santo virus (ESV), does not infect Vero (mammalian) cells and grows in mosquito (C6/36) cells without cytopathic effects. Effects of ESV infection on replication of DENV were explored in vitro and in vivo, analyzing protein, RNA genome expression, and plaque formation. ESV and DENV simultaneous coinfection did not block protein synthesis from either virus but did result in inhibition of DENV replication in mosquito cells. Furthermore, ESV superinfected with DENV resulted in inhibition of DENV replication and spread in A. aegypti, thus reducing vector competence. Tissue culture experiments on viral kinetics of ESV and DENV coinfection showed that neither virus significantly affects the replication of the other in Vero, HeLa, or HEK cells. Hence, ESV blocks DENV replication in insect cells, but not the mammalian cells evaluated here. Our study provides new insights into ESV-induced suppression of DENV, a globally important pathogen impacting public health.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Birnaviridae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Virus del Dengue/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dengue/prevención & control , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Replicación Viral , Animales , Birnaviridae/clasificación , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coinfección , Dengue/virología , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células Vero
9.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev ; 83(3)2019 08 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315903

RESUMEN

The percentage of women employed in professional scientific positions has been low but is increasing over time. The U.S. National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation have both implemented programs to improve women's participation in science, and many universities and companies have diversity and equity programs. While most faculty and scientists believe that they are fair and unbiased, numerous well-designed studies published in leading peer-reviewed journals show that gender bias in sciences and medicine is widespread and persistent today in both faculty and students. Recent studies show that gender bias affects student grading, professional hiring, mentoring, tenure, promotion, respect, grant proposal success, and pay. In addition, sexual harassment remains a significant barrier. Fortunately, several studies provide evidence that programs that raise conscious awareness of gender bias can improve equity in science, and there are a number of recommendations and strategies for improving the participation of women.


Asunto(s)
Docentes/normas , Ciencia/normas , Sexismo , Femenino , Humanos , Personal de Laboratorio/normas , Masculino , Estados Unidos
10.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 05 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146446

RESUMEN

The vaccinia virus (VACV) A27 protein and its homologs, which are found in a large number of members of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPXV), are targets of viral neutralization by host antibodies. We have mapped six binding sites (epitopes #1A: aa 32-39, #1B: aa 28-33, #1C: aa 26-31, #1D: 28-34, #4: aa 9-14, and #5: aa 68-71) of A27 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using peptide arrays. MAbs recognizing epitopes #1A-D and #4 neutralized VACV Elstree in a complement dependent way (50% plaque-reduction: 12.5-200 µg/mL). Fusion of VACV at low pH was blocked through inhibition of epitope #1A. To determine the sequence variability of the six antigenic sites, 391 sequences of A27 protein homologs available were compared. Epitopes #4 and #5 were conserved among most of the OPXVs, while the sequential epitope complex #1A-D was more variable and, therefore, responsible for species-specific epitope characteristics. The accurate and reliable mapping of defined epitopes on immuno-protective proteins such as the A27 of VACV enables phylogenetic studies and insights into OPXV evolution as well as to pave the way to the development of safer vaccines and chemical or biological antivirals.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/genética , Epítopos/inmunología , Proteínas de la Membrana/genética , Virus Vaccinia/genética , Vaccinia/virología , Proteínas Virales de Fusión/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Sitios de Unión de Anticuerpos , Reacciones Cruzadas , Mapeo Epitopo , Epítopos/genética , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Proteínas de la Membrana/inmunología , Mutación , Pruebas de Neutralización , Filogenia , Especificidad de la Especie , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología , Proteínas Virales de Fusión/inmunología
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2023: 63-71, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240670

RESUMEN

This chapter describes the simple, rapid, and inexpensive preparation of template DNA from poxvirus-infected cells, plaques, or crude virus stocks for PCR amplification. This technique is reliable and robust and only requires centrifugation, detergent, and protease treatment. The resulting DNA template preparation is suitable for PCR amplification for screening viruses, cloning, transfection, and DNA sequencing.


Asunto(s)
Clonación Molecular/métodos , ADN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Poxviridae/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193131, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474384

RESUMEN

Pancreatic cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer deaths, and there are no effective treatments. We developed a poxvirus platform vaccine with improved immunogenicity and inserted the mesothelin gene to create an anti-mesothelin cancer vaccine. Mesothelin expression is mostly restricted to tumors in adult mammals and thus may be a good target for cancer treatment. We show here that the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) virus expressing mesothelin and the enhanced MVA virus missing the immunosuppressive A35 gene and expressing mesothelin were both safe in mice and were able to induce IFN-gamma secreting T cells in response to mesothelin expressing tumor cells. In addition, the MVA virus has oncolytic properties in vitro as it can replicate in and kill Panc02 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line tumor cells, even though it is unable to replicate in most mammalian cells. Deletion of the A35 gene in MVA improved T cell responses as expected. However, we were unable to demonstrate inhibition of Panc02 tumor growth in immunocompetent mice with pre-vaccination of mice, boosts, or even intratumoral injections of the recombinant viruses. Vaccine efficacy may be limited by shedding of mesothelin from tumor cells thus creating a protective screen from the immune system.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/inmunología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Vacunas contra el Cáncer/inmunología , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/inmunología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Eliminación de Secuencia , Transducción Genética , Virus Vaccinia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Animales , Vacunas contra el Cáncer/genética , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/genética , Mesotelina , Ratones , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/inmunología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15999, 2017 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167527

RESUMEN

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, n-3 fatty acids), the key components of fish and flaxseed oils, are increasingly consumed by the public because of their potential health benefits and are available by prescription for hypertriglyceridemia. However, numerous studies have shown that these compounds are immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive and thus may increase susceptibility to infection. In this study, we tested the effects of the amount of fat and the types of fatty acid in the diet on infection by vaccinia virus, an acute infection that begins in the respiratory tract and spreads by viremia to internal organs. Male C57Bl6 mice (~5 week old) were fed for 3 weeks prior to infection and continuing during infection and recovery one of the following: 1) a normal low fat (13% kcal) diet, 2) a low fat diet containing n-3 PUFAs, 3) a high fat (41% kcal) diet rich in n-3 PUFAs, 4) a high fat n-6 PUFA diet, or 5) a high fat monounsaturated diet. We found no statistically significant differences in the susceptibility of mice to viral infection, morbidity, viral organ titers, recovery time, or mortality with these diets, indicating that, over this approximately 6-week time period, dietary fats did not substantially affect responses to poxviral infection.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/uso terapéutico , Ácidos Grasos Omega-6/uso terapéutico , Vaccinia/dietoterapia , Animales , Grasas de la Dieta , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Virus Vaccinia/patogenicidad , Viremia/dietoterapia
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1581: 121-129, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374246

RESUMEN

Poxviruses cause many diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is a need for vaccines with improved safety and good efficacy. In addition, poxvirus vectors are widely used as recombinant vaccines for various infectious diseases and as recombinant and oncolytic vaccines for cancer. One concern with poxvirus vaccine vectors is that some poxviruses can infect a developing fetus and cause fetal loss or congenital disease. This can be an issue both for patients receiving a vaccine and for pregnant health care providers, including doctors, nurses, and veterinarians, who might receive accidental exposure to the poxvirus by injection or during patient care. We describe here a method for analyzing the safety of virus exposure in pregnant mammals using a mouse model testing vaccinia, canarypox, and raccoonpox virus vectors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Poxviridae/diagnóstico , Poxviridae/patogenicidad , Animales , Chlorocebus aethiops , Femenino , Ratones , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Orthopoxvirus/patogenicidad , Orthopoxvirus/fisiología , Poxviridae/genética , Poxviridae/fisiología , Embarazo , Vaccinia/diagnóstico , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Vacunas Virales/genética , Replicación Viral
15.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 35: 39, 2016 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931187

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mesothelin has attracted much interest as a tumor specific antigen; it has been reported to promote tumor development and to be a good target for cancer treatment. Most studies to date have used human mesothelin in immunocompromised mice. Since these models do not allow for study of the natural immune response to mesothelin expressing tumors, we have undertaken the characterization of mouse mesothelin so the effects of this protein can be assessed in immunocompetent mouse strains. METHODS: We analyzed mouse mesothelin expression, tissue distribution, shedding and biochemistry. In addition we constructed stable mesothelin overexpressing lines of the pancreatic cancer line Panc02 by two methods and tested them for growth and tumorigencity in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: We show here that mouse mesothelin is similar to human mesothelin in biochemical characteristics, tumor expression and tissue distribution, suggesting the mouse may be a suitable model for study of mesothelin. Stable overexpression of mesothelin in a pancreatic cancer cell line did not increase cell proliferation or anchorage-independent growth in vitro, suggesting that mesothelin is not necessarily a tumor progression factor. Surprisingly overexpression of mesothelin inhibited tumor formation in vivo in immunocompetent mice. CONCLUSION: The mouse may be a good model for studying mesothelin in the context of an intact immune response. Mesothelin is not necessarily a tumor progression factor, and indeed mesothelin overexpression inhibited tumor growth in immunocompetent mice.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular , Secuencia Conservada , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Mesotelina , Ratones , Neoplasias Experimentales , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética
16.
J Gen Virol ; 96(9): 2806-2821, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26023150

RESUMEN

We report here the complete genome sequence of raccoonpox virus (RCNV), a naturally occurring North American poxvirus. This is the first such North American sequence to the best of our knowledge, and the data showed that RCNV forms a new phylogenetic branch between orthopoxviruses and Yoka poxvirus. RCNV shared overall similarity in genome organization with orthopoxviruses, and the proteins in the central conserved region shared approximately 90  % amino acid identity with orthopoxviruses. RCNV proteins shared approximately 81  % amino acid identity with Yokapox virus proteins. RCNV is missing 10 genes normally conserved in orthopoxviruses, most of which are implicated in virulence. These gene deletions may explain the attenuated phenotype of RCNV in mammals. RCNV contained one unique genome region containing approximately 1 kb of DNA sequence that is not present in any reported poxvirus. It contained a unique ORF predicted to encode a protein with a transmembrane domain. RCNV replicates well in mammalian cells, is naturally attenuated and has been shown to be effective as a vaccine vector platform, so we further tested its safety. We showed here that RCNV is substantially more attenuated than even the highly attenuated VACV-A35Del mutant virus in pregnant, nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse models. RCNV was much safer in pregnant mice and was cleared rapidly from tissues, even in immunocompromised animals, whereas the VACV-A35Del mutant retains virulence and persists in tissues. Thus, RCNV is expected to be a superior vaccine vector for infectious diseases and cancer due to its excellent safety profile, reported vaccine efficacy and ability to replicate in mammalian cells.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Viral , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Orthopoxvirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Poxviridae/virología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos , Ratones SCID , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , América del Norte , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta , Orthopoxvirus/clasificación , Orthopoxvirus/inmunología , Filogenia , Infecciones por Poxviridae/inmunología , Embarazo , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Linfocitos T/virología , Virus Vaccinia/genética , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Virulencia
17.
Vaccine ; 32(31): 3977-81, 2014 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24837508

RESUMEN

Numerous poxviruses infect humans and animal hosts, and a poxvirus vaccine with an improved safety profile is needed as the current vaccinia virus vaccine is contraindicated in individuals that have a history of eczema or heart disease, or are immunocompromised or pregnant. In addition, poxviruses make excellent vaccine vectors for other infectious diseases and cancer. Raccoonpoxvirus is a naturally occurring attenuated North American poxvirus, and thus it is of interest as a vaccine vector platform. This study explores the effects of raccoonpoxvirus in SCID and Nude immunocompromised and pregnant mouse models to assess its virulence and probable safety for human and animal populations. We also analyzed the safety of recombinant raccoonpox carrying a gene expressing a foreign antigen, rabies virus glycoprotein, designed for heterologous vaccine protection. Our data show that recombinant raccoonpoxviruses are avirulent in many cases and are much safer than vaccinia virus (strain WR). Raccoonpoxviruses also have the advantage of being able to replicate in mammalian cells. This allows increased immunogenicity and production efficiency, giving an advantage over non replicating vectors such as Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA or canarypoxvirus.


Asunto(s)
Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Poxviridae , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Femenino , Glicoproteínas/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos , Ratones SCID , Embarazo , Virus Vaccinia , Proteínas del Envoltorio Viral/inmunología , Virulencia
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 890: 259-71, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22688772

RESUMEN

Antigen presentation to T lymphocytes is the seminal triggering event of the specific immune response, and poxviruses encode immunomodulatory genes that disrupt this process. Discovery of viral proteins that interfere with steps in the antigen presentation process requires a robust, easily manipulated antigen-presenting and T lymphocyte response system. Use of fresh primary antigen-presenting cells (APC) is preferable because cell lines that can present antigen in vitro are often not representative of APC in vivo and are typically weak stimulators. To study immunomodulatory poxvirus genes, we have used infected primary rat macrophages to present a model antigen, the myelin basic protein peptide, to a cognate CD4+ RsL11 T cell clone. Using this system, viruses can be assessed for difference in immunomodulation, and viral gene functions may also be assayed by comparing effects of wild type virus and mutant viruses (e.g., a deletion in the putative immunomodulatory gene). While antigen presentation can be thought of as a single event, it can also be considered as a larger process comprising multiple steps including: antigen acquisition, antigen processing, peptide loading onto MHC molecules, transport to the surface, MHC binding to T cell receptor, interaction of costimulatory molecules, cell signaling, cytokine synthesis by both cells, and proliferation of antigen specific T lymphocytes. This system allows for the initial determination of whether there is a phenotype and then also allows the stepwise deconstruction of the system to analyze this process at several points to focus in on the mechanism of immunomodulation. We have used this model system to elucidate the function of a highly conserved but previously uncharacterized poxvirus gene that we showed was important for virulence in rodents. The experimental system developed should be broadly applicable to analyzing viral effects on immunity.


Asunto(s)
Presentación de Antígeno , Células Presentadoras de Antígenos/virología , Genes Virales , Inmunomodulación/genética , Poxviridae/genética , Animales , Células Presentadoras de Antígenos/inmunología , Células Presentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Antígenos Virales , Línea Celular , Proliferación Celular , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Evasión Inmune/genética , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneales/inmunología , Macrófagos Peritoneales/virología , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Poxviridae/inmunología , Poxviridae/fisiología , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas Lew , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Linfocitos T/virología
19.
Vaccine ; 29(17): 3276-83, 2011 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21352940

RESUMEN

We show here that the immunogenicity of the Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA vaccine strain can be improved by deletion of the A35 gene, without diminishing the ability of the virus to replicate. Deletion of the A35 gene resulted in increased virus-specific immunoglobulin production, class switching to IgG isotypes, and virus-specific IFNγ-secreting splenocytes. The MVA35 deletion virus provided excellent protective efficacy against virulent virus challenge. These results suggest that A35 deletion mutant strains will have superior vaccine performance for poxvirus vaccines as well as platform vaccines for other infectious diseases and cancer.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Eliminación de Gen , Vacuna contra Viruela/genética , Vacuna contra Viruela/inmunología , Virus Vaccinia/genética , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Animales , Embrión de Pollo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Cambio de Clase de Inmunoglobulina , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Viruela/prevención & control , Bazo/inmunología
20.
Virology ; 397(1): 176-86, 2010 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19954808

RESUMEN

The Vaccinia virus gene A35R (Copenhagen designation) is highly conserved in mammalian-tropic poxviruses and is an important virulence factor, but its function was unknown. We show herein that A35 does not affect viral infectivity, apoptosis induction, or replication; however, we found that A35 significantly inhibited MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation, immune priming of T lymphocytes, and subsequent chemokine and cytokine synthesis. A35 localized to endosomes and reduced the amount of a model antigenic peptide displayed in the cleft of class II MHC. In addition, A35 decreased VV specific T cell responses in vivo. Thus, this is the first report identifying a function for the A35 protein in virulence as well as the first report identifying a VV gene that inhibits peptide antigen presentation.


Asunto(s)
Presentación de Antígeno/inmunología , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase II/inmunología , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Factores de Virulencia/inmunología , Animales , Endosomas/química , Ratas , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/análisis , Factores de Virulencia/análisis
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