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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 157, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660072

RESUMEN

The protection of wetlands is essential for sustainable development. The particular hydrology of wetlands creates conditions for the formation of hydric soils. Hydric soils are formed in oxide-reducing environments and perform important removal and re-oxidation of Fe and Mn oxides and hydroxides. They are also characterized by the formation of a superficial horizon enriched by the accumulation of organic matter. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and toxic (Al, Cd, Pb) elements in the soil solution in a wetland, surrounded by an intense agricultural activity area. The concentrations of the elements were evaluated according to the level of hydromorphy (border to the center) and the depth of the soil. The physical fractionation of these elements was also assessed (total and < 30 kDa), and the results were compared with the chemical speciation of these elements. Despite the high total concentrations of Al and Fe, the concentration of these elements was very low in the < 30 kDa fraction, which suggests that these elements are complexed with organic matter, in the form of hydroxides. Evidence of removal of Fe and Mn from the surface horizon was observed at the center of the wetland, where the highest level of hydromorphy is found. The results showed that the concentration of metals in the fraction < 30 kDa is insignificant, suggesting that the mechanisms of precipitation and/or adsorption to soil colloids play an important role in the regulation of this ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Brasil , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Humedales
2.
Dent Mater ; 37(3): 496-507, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441249

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Viruses on environmental surfaces, in saliva and other body fluids represent risk of contamination for general population and healthcare professionals. The development of vaccines and medicines is costly and time consuming. Thus, the development of novel materials and technologies to decrease viral availability, viability, infectivity, and to improve therapeutic outcomes can positively impact the prevention and treatment of viral diseases. METHODS: Herein, we discuss (a) interaction mechanisms between viruses and materials, (b) novel strategies to develop materials with antiviral properties and oral antiviral delivery systems, and (c) the potential of artificial intelligence to design and optimize preventive measures and therapeutic regimen. RESULTS: The mechanisms of viral adsorption on surfaces are well characterized but no major breakthrough has become clinically available. Materials with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties have the potential to compromise viral availability and stability. Emerging strategies using oral antiviral delivery systems and artificial intelligence can decrease infectivity and improve antiviral therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: Emerging viral infections are concerning due to risk of mortality, as well as psychological and economic impacts. Materials science emerges for the development of novel materials and technologies to diminish viral availability, infectivity, and to enable enhanced preventive and therapeutic strategies, for the safety and well-being of humankind.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ciencia de los Materiales
3.
Dent Mater ; 37(2): 370-377, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358443

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Candida albicanscolonizes biomaterial surfaces and are highly resistant to therapeutics. Graphene nanocoating on titanium compromises initial biofilm formation. However, its sustained antibiofilm potential is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of graphene nanocoating to decrease long-term fungal biofilm development and hyphae growth on titanium. METHODS: Graphene nanocoating was deposited twice (TiGD) or five times (TiGV) on grade 4 titanium with vacuum assisted technique and characterized with Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope. The biofilm formation and hyphae growth of C. albicans was monitored for seven days by CFU, XTT, confocal, mean cell density and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Uncoated titanium was the Control. All tests had three independent biological samples and were performed in independent triplicates. Data was analyzed with one- or two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (α = 0.05). RESULTS: Both TiGD and TiGV presented less biofilms at all times points compared with Control. The confocal and SEM images revealed few adhered cells on graphene coated samples, absence of hyphae and no features of a mature biofilm architecture. The increase in number of layers of graphene nanocoating did not improve its antibiofilm potential. SIGNIFICANCE: The graphene nanocoating exerted a long-term persistent inhibitory effect on the biofilm formation on titanium. The fewer cells that were able to attach on graphene coated titanium were scattered and unable to form a mature biofilm with hyphae elements. The findings open opportunities to prevent microbial attachment and proliferation on implantable materials without the use of antibiotics.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21867, 2020 12 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318537

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate how carbohydrates (glucose or sucrose) affect the characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) planktonic and biofilm in vitro. For this study, E. faecalis was cultured in tryptone-yeast extract broth with 0% glucose + 0% sucrose, 0.5% glucose, 1% glucose, 0.5% sucrose, or 1% sucrose. Viability of E. faecalis was examined by colony forming unit counting assays. Biofilm formation was assessed by measuring extracellular DNA (eDNA), a component of the biofilm matrix. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to investigate the expression of virulence-associated genes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis, and crystal violet colorimetric assay were conducted to study E. faecalis biofilms. E. faecalis showed the highest viability and eDNA levels in 1% sucrose medium in biofilms. The result of qRT-PCR showed that the virulence-associated genes expressed highest in 1% sucrose-grown biofilms and in 1% glucose-grown planktonic cultures. E. faecalis showed highly aggregated biofilms and higher bacteria and exopolysaccharide (EPS) bio-volume in sucrose than in 0% glucose + 0% sucrose or glucose. The results indicate that the production of eDNA and EPS and expression of virulence-associated genes in E. faecalis are affected by the concentration of carbohydrates in biofilm or planktonic culture.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(19)2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019753

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different obturation techniques on the main and accessory canal filling quality of a premixed calcium silicate endodontic sealer (Endoseal TCS). We also highlighted the validity of the methods used for evaluating the canal filling quality. Thirty single-rooted premolars were used for the main canal filling and 75 were used for accessory canal filling. The canals were instrumented and randomly divided into three groups according to the filling techniques: (1) single-cone technique (SC), (2) single-cone with ultrasonic activation (SU), and (3) warm vertical compaction (WV). Voids in relation to the root canal fillings were assessed using cross-section images from microcomputed tomography (µCT) scans or transversely sectioned tooth specimens (n = 10). After demineralization and clearing of the teeth, the incidence, number, and completeness of the accessory canal fillings were evaluated (n = 25). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test was used for the evaluation of the voids in the main root canal and the incidence and number of filled accessory canals. Pearson's chi-squared (χ2) test was used for the evaluation of the filling completeness (α = 0.05). In the stereomicroscopic evaluation of the sectioned specimen, the SC group had significantly higher void occurrence than the other groups (p < 0.05), although there was no difference between groups in the µCT evaluation. However, there was no difference between the SU and WV. There was no difference between all the groups regarding the incidence, number, and completeness of the accessory canal fillings. When the premixed calcium silicate sealer is used with SC, the ultrasonic activation is recommended to obtain a better main canal filling quality. In contrast, the obturation techniques did not affect the accessory canal filling. We also recommend using the sectioning method when the void formation in the root canal filling materials is evaluated.

6.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(5): 392-398, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087225

RESUMEN

Purpose: he purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the bond strength of resin sealant to hypomineralized enamel. Methods: Sound (S) and hypomineralized (H) enamel specimens were subjected to three different treatments: (1) etch only (E); (2) 5.25 percent NaOCl treatment (60 seconds) after (Post) etching; and (3) 5.25 percent NaOCl treatment (60 seconds) before (Pre) etching. A sealant rod was bonded for microshear bond strength (µSBS) testing. DIAGNOdent™ and spectrophotometry were used to detect changes in surface organic content and verify the amount of organic material removed. Results: Ninety S and 90 H specimens were randomly grouped into SE, SPost, SPre, HE, HPost, HPre groups. The average µSBS of hypomineralized enamel in etch only (HE) and NaOCl pre-etch (HPre) were significantly lower (9.2 MPa). NaOCl after etching significantly increased the µSBS of hypominineralized enamel (HPost) to 14.5 MPa, similar to sound enamel. DIAGNOdent™ readings were significantly lower in NaOCl Post versus E and NaOCl Pre, suggesting lower surface organic content. Spectrophotometry confirmed that NaOCI significantly removed more organic material in hypomineralized enamel. Conclusion: Applying 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite for 60 seconds after etching (32 percent phosphoric acid) increased the bond strength of resin sealant to hypomineralized enamel comparable to that of sound enamel, as a result of surface organic content removal.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Dentales , Hipoclorito de Sodio , Esmalte Dental , Humanos
7.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118718

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to report recent data on the infection and detection of Zika virus in infertile couples and to discuss the need to make disease surveillance compulsory in this population in order to decrease the burden on the healthcare system and expedite treatment onset. METHODS: We collected and analyzed the results of Zika virus infection screening tests of infertile couples in a private clinic in the low-incidence region of Curitiba - Brazil. RESULTS: Among the 1189 serologies performed, 98.5% were negative for Zika virus, 0.75% were positive, and 0.75% were inconclusive. The twenty-one reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests performed for confirmation of infection were negative. CONCLUSION: Zika virus infection screening for asymptomatic patients may lead to delayed fertility treatment initiation in addition to excessive expenses for the patients. Based on our results, we challenge the validity of mandatory screening, especially in low-incidence regions.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(17)2020 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847080

RESUMEN

Biofilm communities are tolerant to antimicrobials and difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to investigate the effect of melittin, an antimicrobial peptide, either alone or in combination with deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms, and biofilm susceptibility to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Biofilms of E. faecalis were developed in root canals of bovine teeth. The biofilms were treated with distilled water (control), melittin, DNase, or DNase+melittin. The antibiofilm effects of the treatments were analyzed using colony forming unit (CFU) assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The susceptibility of DNase+melittin-treated biofilms to NaOCl (0%, 2.5% and 5%) was investigated by the CFU assay. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Specimens treated with DNase+melittin showed a more significant decrease in the CFUs, eDNA level, and biofilm formation rate than those treated only with melittin or DNase (p < 0.05). CLSM analysis showed DNase+melittin treatment significantly reduced the volume of biofilms and extracellular polymeric substance compared to either treatment alone (p < 0.05). FE-SEM images showed a high degree of biofilm disruption in specimens that received DNase+melittin. 2.5% NaOCl in specimens pretreated with DNase+melittin showed higher antibacterial activity than those treated only with 5% NaOCl (p < 0.05). This study highlighted that DNase improved the antibiofilm effects of melittin. Moreover, DNase+melittin treatment increased the susceptibility of biofilms to NaOCl. Thus, the complex could be a clinical strategy for safer use of NaOCl by reducing the concentration.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849277

RESUMEN

Signaling lipid mediators released from 5 lipoxygenase (5LO) pathways influence both bone and muscle cells, interfering in their proliferation and differentiation capacities. A major limitation to studying inflammatory signaling pathways in bone and muscle healing is the inadequacy of available animal models. We developed a surgical injury model in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and femur in 129/SvEv littermates mice to study simultaneous musculoskeletal (MSK) healing in male and female, young (3 months) and aged (18 months) WT mice compared to mice lacking 5LO (5LOKO). MSK defects were surgically created using a 1-mm punch device in the VA muscle followed by a 0.5-mm round defect in the femur. After days 7 and 14 post-surgery, the specimens were removed for microtomography (microCT), histopathology, and immunohistochemistry analyses. In addition, non-injured control skeletal muscles along with femur and L5 vertebrae were analyzed. Bones were microCT phenotyped, revealing that aged female WT mice presented reduced BV/TV and trabecular parameters compared to aged males and aged female 5LOKO mice. Skeletal muscles underwent a customized targeted lipidomics investigation for profiling and quantification of lipid signaling mediators (LMs), evidencing age, and gender related-differences in aged female 5LOKO mice compared to matched WT. Histological analysis revealed a suitable bone-healing process with osteoid deposition at day 7 post-surgery, followed by woven bone at day 14 post-surgery, observed in all young mice. Aged WT females displayed increased inflammatory response at day 7 post-surgery, delayed bone matrix maturation, and increased TRAP immunolabeling at day 14 post-surgery compared to 5LOKO females. Skeletal muscles of aged animals showed higher levels of inflammation in comparison to young controls at day 14 post-surgery; however, inflammatory process was attenuated in aged 5LOKO mice compared to aged WT. In conclusion, this new model shows that MSK healing is influenced by age, gender, and the 5LO pathway, which might serve as a potential target to investigate therapeutic interventions and age-related MSK diseases. Our new model is suitable for bone-muscle crosstalk studies.

10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236357

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). METHODOLOGY: Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. CONCLUSIONS: CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Hidróxido de Calcio/farmacología , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacología , Irrigantes del Conducto Radicular/farmacología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Cloruro de Calcio/química , Cloruro de Calcio/farmacología , Hidróxido de Calcio/química , Bovinos , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Combinación de Medicamentos , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Confocal , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Cloruro de Potasio/química , Cloruro de Potasio/farmacología , Pirrolidinonas/química , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Irrigantes del Conducto Radicular/química , Bicarbonato de Sodio/química , Bicarbonato de Sodio/farmacología , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 103: 103548, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783282

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mandibular endoprostheses have been explored extensively as potential methods of alloplastic reconstruction. Studies, however, have demonstrated that for segmental mandibular defects, there are challenges associated with loosening. Another method recently introduced in clinical settings is popular as a design for patient-specific implants for segmental mandibular defect and involves a tray (filled with bone) over the defect with wings on both sides secured with screws. Our aim was to investigate which design better withstands the forces of function since studies have presented favourable results with regard to the wing design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two designs, an endoprosthesis with stems and wings were modelled. Finite element analysis was performed, and geometric data obtained from a human-sized mandible. A continuity defect of 20 mm was created digitally at the right mandibular molar region and the modelled segments combined with the endoprosthesis. Boundary conditions were set, and 300-N vertical loads applied in the incisor region. The stress concentrations and displacements were evaluated for the titanium alloy (Group 1-Stem) (Group 2-Wing) and the polycaprolactone (PCL) (Group 3 with stem, Group 4 wing design). RESULTS: For the titanium stem (Group 1), the stress values were in the 557-803 MPa range. The titanium wing (Group 2) design showed markedly reduced stress values in the 20-68 MPa range. The stresses observed for the PCL(Group 3) were in the 66-110 MPa range, and the stress concentration in the PCL wing (Group 4) was observed in the wing and body regions of the scaffolds in the 8-42 MPa range. CONCLUSION: The wing design decreased the areas of stress concentrations significantly compared to an endoprosthesis. PCL alone did not have adequate strength to withstand forces applied even in a design that reduced stress concentrations significantly.

12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104572, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600663

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare three different xeno-free protocols for neural differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). METHODS: DPSC were treated with three different media to induce neural differentiation namely N1 (DMEM for 5 days), N2 (PSC neural induction media for 7 days) and N3 (neural media with B27 supplement, 40 ng/ml bFGF and 20 ng/ml EGF for 21 days). Cell proliferation (MTS assay), morphology, gene (qPCR for NESTIN, VIMENTIN, TUB-3, ENO2, NF-M and NF-H) and protein expression (flow cytometry) of neurogenic markers were assessed at different time points and compared to untreated cells (DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS). Statistical analysis was performed with global significance level of 5%. RESULTS: N1 and N2 formulations increased the genetic expression of two out of six genes TUB-3, NF-M and TUB-3, NF-H, respectively, whereas N3 elevated the expression of all genes by the late stage. N3 also stimulated protein expression for NESTIN, TUB-3 and NF-H. Cells treated with both N2 and N3 presented neuron-like morphology, decreased proliferation and expression of stemness genes at protocol end point. CONCLUSION: N3 was the most effective formulation in promoting a neurogenic shift in gene and protein expression. Cells provided with the N3 formulation exhibited neuron-like morphology, elaborating axonal-like projections concomitant with cell cycle withdrawal and reduced expression of stemness genes indicating greater commitment to a neurogenic lineage.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Diferenciación Celular , Pulpa Dental/citología , Neurogénesis , Células Madre/citología , Células Cultivadas , Medios de Cultivo , Humanos , Neuronas/citología
13.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 108(3): 629-637, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112004

RESUMEN

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) can provide bioactivity to poly-caprolactone (PCL), which is an inert polymer used to print scaffolds. However, testing all combinations of scaffold characteristics (e.g., composition, pore size, and distribution) to optimize properties of scaffolds is time-consuming and costly. The Taguchi's methods can identify characteristics that have major influences on the properties of complex designs, hence decreasing the number of combinations to be tested. The objective was to assess the potential of Taguchi's methods as a predictive tool for the optimization of bioactive scaffold printed using electro-hydro dynamic jetting. A three-level approach assessed the influence of PCL/MTA proportion, pore size, fiber dimension and number of layers in pH, degradation rate, porosity, yield strength, and Young's modulus. Data were analyzed using Tukey's honest significant difference test, analysis of mean and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) test. Cytocompatibility and differentiation potential were assessed for 5 and 30 days using dental pulp stem cells and analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (proliferation) or Mann-Whitney (qPCR). The S/N ratio and analysis of mean showed that fiber diameter and composition were the most influential characteristics in all properties. The experimental data confirmed that the addition of MTA to PCL increased the pH and scaffold degradation. Only PCL and PCL with 4% MTA allowed cell proliferation. The latter increased the genetic expression of ALP, COL-1, OCN, and MSX-1. The theoretical predictions were confirmed by the experiments. The Taguchi's identified the inputs that can be disregarded to optimize 3D printed meshed bioactive scaffolds.

14.
RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 68: e20200031, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1136022

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: The preoperative evaluation is essential to prevent postoperative surgical complications. The present study aimed to establish quantitative and qualitative profiles of systemic disorders and relate them to postoperative surgical complications in patients subjected to dental extraction Methods: Data were collected from the medical records of 992 patients subjected to dental extractions from 2010 to 2015 through a detailed analysis of anamnesis files. The data collected were tabulated and converted to percentages to facilitate the discussion and comparison with reports in the literature Results: From all the medical records analyzed, 559 presented systemic changes, which corresponds to 56.3%. Among them, there was a higher prevalence of patients with hypertension (24%), smoking habits (20%), and diabetes (11%). The most frequent complications were pain (34%), inflammation (19.8%), and hemorrhage (13.2%). The prevalence of diseases related to age shows patients under the age of 20 (4.7%), 20 to 29 (11.3%), 30 to 39 (16.8%), 40 to 44 (10%), 45 to 49 (10.9%), 50 to 54 (12.3%), 55 to 59 (12.9%), 60 to 64 (10.4%), 65 to 69 (4.8%), and older than 70 years old (5.9%). As for systemic changes with complications, hypertensive patients with complications (n=11) showed higher prevalence of pain (45.4%), the most common complication in smokers (n=15) was exacerbated inflammation (33.3%), and 50% of diabetic patients with complications (n=8) were diagnosed with alveolitis Conclusion: The method studied allowed concluding there was a relationship between postoperative complications and systemic changes, and the main ones were pain-hypertension, inflammation-smoking, and alveolitis-diabetes.


RESUMO Objetivo: A avaliação pré-operatória é de fundamental importância para a prevenção das complicações cirúrgicas pós-operatórias. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer um perfil quantitativo e qualitativo das enfermidades sistêmicas e relaciona-las com complicações cirúrgicas pós-operatórias em pacientes submetidos exodontia. Métodos: Para isso foram coletados dados de 992 prontuários de paciente submetidos a exodontias no período de 2010 a 2015, por meio da análise minuciosa da ficha de anamnese. Os dados obtidos foram tabulados e transformados em porcentagem, para facilitar a discussão e comparação com os relatos da literatura. Resultados: No total de prontuários analisados, 559 apresentaram alterações sistêmicas, o que corresponde a 56,3%. Dentre elas, houve uma maior prevalência de pacientes com hipertensão (24%), tabagismo (20%) e diabetes (11%). As complicações mais frequentes foram dor (34%), inflamação (19,8%) e hemorragia (13,2%). Considerando-se a prevalência de doenças relacionadas à idade, a faixa etária de menor de 20 anos (4.7%), 20 a 29 (11.3%), 30 a 39 (16.8%), 40 a 44 (10%), 45 a 49 (10.9%), 50 a 54 (12.3%), 55 a 59 (12.9%), 60 a 64 (10.4%), 65 a 69 (4.8%), e maiores de 70 anos (5.9%). Relacionando as alterações sistêmicas com as complicações, dentre os pacientes hipertensos que apresentaram complicações (n=11), a dor foi a mais prevalente (45,4%). Já nos fumantes (n=15) a complicação mais comum foi a inflamação exacerbada (33,3%). Nos diabéticos com presença de complicações (n=8), 50% foram diagnosticados com alveolite. Conclusão: Com base na metodologia estudada foi possível concluir que houve relação das complicações pós-operatórias e alterações sistêmicas, sendo as principais dor-hipertensão, inflamação-tabagismo e alveolite-diabetes.

15.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1090775

RESUMEN

Abstract This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). Methodology Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. Conclusions CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bovinos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacología , Irrigantes del Conducto Radicular/farmacología , Hidróxido de Calcio/farmacología , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Cloruro de Potasio/farmacología , Cloruro de Potasio/química , Pirrolidinonas/química , Irrigantes del Conducto Radicular/química , Ensayo de Materiales , Cloruro de Calcio/farmacología , Cloruro de Calcio/química , Hidróxido de Calcio/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis de Varianza , Bicarbonato de Sodio/farmacología , Bicarbonato de Sodio/química , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Microscopía Confocal , Combinación de Medicamentos
16.
J Endod ; 45(11): 1349-1356, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543273

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole are antibiotics used in regenerative endodontic therapy (RET). Although their antimicrobial properties are well-documented, there is a lack of information on the effects of these antibiotics on the immune response by host macrophages and periapical healing. Thus, this study had 2 objectives: (1) to determine the immune response of macrophages to bacterial infection in response to the combination of ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin and metronidazole and (2) using conditioned media produced by these macrophages to simulate the periapical microenvironment, to determine the impact on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by periodontal fibroblasts. METHODS: Macrophages were treated with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole or amoxicillin and metronidazole at 10-1000 µg/mL. The treated macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide, and the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontal fibroblasts were treated with conditioned media from these treated macrophages, and the expression of ECM genes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharides elicited the production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha by macrophages, but this was suppressed by ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Moreover, only conditioned media from macrophages treated with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole rescued microbial-induced down-regulation of ECM genes by periodontal fibroblasts. Specifically, ciprofloxacin was the antibiotic responsible for these observations. In contrast, these effects were not observed with amoxicillin and metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from disinfection of the root canal system, the combination of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole also exerts an immunomodulatory effect, which may aid in periapical healing.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Infecciones Bacterianas , Macrófagos , Endodoncia Regenerativa , Amoxicilina/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/inmunología , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Metronidazol/uso terapéutico
17.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180699, 2019 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411265

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) on Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) biofilm and the susceptibility of E. faecalis to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). METHODOLOGY: E. faecalis biofilm was formed in bovine tooth specimens and the biofilm was cultured with or without deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of eDNA. Then, the role of eDNA in E. faecalis growth and biofilm formation was investigated using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting, eDNA level assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility of E. faecalis biofilm to low (0.5%) or high (5%) NaOCl concentrations was also analyzed by CFU counting. RESULTS: CFUs and biofilm formation decreased significantly with DNase treatment (p<0.05). The microstructure of DNase-treated biofilms exhibited less structured features when compared to the control. The volume of exopolysaccharides in the DNase-treated biofilm was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Moreover, the CFUs, eDNA level, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharides volume were lower when the biofilm was treated with DNase de novo when compared to when DNase was applied to matured biofilm (p<0.05). E. faecalis in the biofilm was more susceptible to NaOCl when it was cultured with DNase (p<0.05). Furthermore, 0.5% NaOCl combined with DNase treatment was as efficient as 5% NaOCl alone regarding susceptibility (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of eDNA leads to decrease of E. faecalis biofilm formation and increase of susceptibility of E. faecalis to NaOCl even at low concentrations. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of eDNA would be beneficial in facilitating the efficacy of NaOCl and reducing its concentration.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , ADN Bacteriano/farmacología , Desoxirribonucleasas/farmacología , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hipoclorito de Sodio/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Cavidad Pulpar/microbiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microscopía Confocal , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo
18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 100: 103388, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419750

RESUMEN

CAD/CAM restorations can be produced from several ceramic and hybrid materials. The moderate mechanical properties of PMMA based resin have hindered its use for permanent restorations. Recently, a graphene reinforced PMMA namely G-CAM has been introduced for permanent CAD/CAM restorations. Although graphene family materials have been successfully used as a reinforcement phase in a variety of polymers, the properties and mechanical behavior of PMMA resin containing graphene-like materials remain unknown. Herein, we have evaluated the translucency, hardness and strength parameters (flexural strength, Weibull modulus and characteristic strength) of G-CAM A1 (GA1) and G-CAM B2 (GB2) and benchmarked it against a unmodified PMMA resin (PM), two polymer/ceramic hybrid materials [Vita Enamic (VE) and Lava Ultimate (LU)] and one ceramic (e.max, EX) for CAD/CAM restorations. The trends for the translucency parameter were similar for all materials at all thickness tested. The hardness for GA1, GB2 and PM were significantly lower than VE, LU and EX. The biaxial flexural strengths of GA1, GB2, PM and VE were approximately 150 MPa but significantly lower than LU and EX (201 and 313 MPa). All materials presented Weibull modulus higher than 10, except EX (m = 8) The stresses required to fracture 5% and 63.2% of specimens (σ5% and σ0) were similar for GA1, GB2, PM and VE but significantly lower than LU and EX. Overall, the PMMA modified by graphene-like materials presented properties comparable with unmodified PM and VE.


Asunto(s)
Reparación de Restauración Dental , Grafito/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Resinas Sintéticas , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Cerámica/química , Resinas Compuestas , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Resistencia Flexional , Dureza , Ensayo de Materiales , Polímeros/química , Presión , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Espectrometría Raman , Estrés Mecánico , Propiedades de Superficie
19.
JBRA Assist Reprod ; 23(4): 328-332, 2019 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050962

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify which parameters positively affect the clinical pregnancy rates of IUI cycles and find which couples should opt for IUI. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 261 patients submitted to 381 IUI cycles with fresh or cryopreserved partner semen (IU-H) from January 2012 to February 2017 in a private center in Curitiba-PR, Brazil. RESULTS: Idiopathic infertility was the most frequent finding (35.9%). Patients younger than 40 years accounted for 87.9% of the IUI cycles (n=335) and 16.1% of the clinical pregnancies (n=54). The pregnancy rate was three times higher in patients with an endometrium thickness ≥8 mm compared to patients with endometrium thickness <8mm. Sperm motility >55% was linked to higher pregnancy rates (p=0.002). Concerning gonadotropins, 159 (48.4%) took rFSH, 127 (38.7%) hMG, and 42 (12.8%) uFSH, with pregnancy rates of 21.3%, 10.4% and 10.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients under 40 years of age with endometrium thickness ≥8 mm, sperm motility >55%, and on rFSH had significantly higher pregnancy rates (p<0.05).


Asunto(s)
Hormona Folículo Estimulante/sangre , Infertilidad , Inseminación Artificial/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Inducción de la Ovulación , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Motilidad Espermática
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699966

RESUMEN

Graphene is capable of promoting osteogenesis without chemical induction. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. The objectives here were: (i) to assess whether graphene scaffolds are capable of supporting osteogenesis in vivo and; (ii) to ascertain the participation of the integrin/FAK mechanotransduction axis during the osteogenic differentiation induced by graphene. MSC-impregnated graphene scaffolds (n = 6) were implanted into immunocompromised mice (28 days). Alternatively, MSCs were seeded onto PDMS substrates (modulus of elasticity = 130, 830 and 1300 kPa) coated with a single monomolecular layer of graphene and cultured in basal medium (10 days). The ensuing expressions of FAK-p397, integrin, ROCK1, F-actin, Smad p1/5, RUNX2, OCN and OPN were evaluated by Western blot (n = 3). As controls, MSCs were plated onto uncoated PDMS in the presence of mechanotransduction inhibitors (echistatin, Y27632 and DMH1). MSC-impregnated graphene scaffolds exhibited positive immunoexpression of bone-related markers (RUNX2 and OPN) without the assistance of osteogenic inducers. In vitro, regardless of the stiffness of the underlying PDMS substrate, MSCs seeded onto graphene-coated PDMS substrates demonstrated higher expressions of all tested osteogenic and integrin/FAK proteins tested compared to MSCs seeded onto PDMS alone. Hence, graphene promotes osteogenesis via the activation of the mechanosensitive integrin/FAK axis.


Asunto(s)
Proteína-Tirosina Quinasas de Adhesión Focal/metabolismo , Grafito/química , Integrinas/metabolismo , Osteogénesis/fisiología , Amidas , Animales , Mecanotransducción Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones SCID , Osteogénesis/genética , Pirazoles/farmacología , Piridinas , Quinolinas/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Andamios del Tejido/química
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