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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 293, 2019 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366383

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Providing appropriate levels of autonomy to resident physicians is an important facet of graduate medical education, allowing learners to progress toward the ultimate goal of independent practice. While studies have identified the importance of autonomy to the development of resident physicians, less is known about resident perspectives on their "lived experiences" with autonomy and ways in which clinical educators either promote or undermine it. The current study aims to provide an empirically based practical framework based on resident perspectives through which supervising physicians can attempt to more adequately foster resident physician autonomy. METHODS: Residents completed open ended surveys followed by facilitated group discussions of their perspectives on autonomy. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key themes in resident definitions of autonomy and how clinical educators either promote or undermine resident autonomy during supervision. Fifty-nine resident physicians representing six different specialties from two institutions participated. RESULTS: Learners felt that autonomy was critical to their development as independent physicians. Leading the approach to care, a sense of ownership for patients, and receiving appropriate levels of supervision were identified as key components of autonomy. Attending physicians who promoted this active involvement with patient care were felt to have a strong positive influence on resident autonomy. Autonomy was undermined when decisions were micromanaged and resident input in decision-making process was minimized. CONCLUSIONS: Fostering autonomy is a critical aspect of medical education. Allowing residents to take the lead in the delivery of patient care while supporting them as important members of the health care team can help to promote resident autonomy in the clinical setting.

2.
Acad Med ; 94(6): 885-892, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720530

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of a unique curriculum combining learning of surface anatomy and massage therapy for medical and physician assistant students. METHOD: The authors conducted a randomized controlled trial in 2014 at University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine with 20 first-year students who viewed 4 hours of educational videos and participated in 11 hours of hands-on massage practice and 20 first-year students who only viewed the educational videos. Participants completed pre- and postcourse assessments of knowledge, attitudes, and personal wellness and completed a validated assessment of four dimensions of personal wellness. RESULTS: Hands-on group participants outscored the online-only group in postcourse knowledge assessments of surface anatomy and massage therapy principles (P < .05). Students in the hands-on group reported higher agreement with statements about perceived knowledge and beliefs about referrals and advising patients regarding massage therapy (P < .05). Students also frequently reported greater comfort administering physical examinations. Hands-on group participants had statistically significant improvements in psychological wellness during the study (P = .03), whereas online-only participants had a slight decrease (P = .09). Physical wellness was also slightly improved in the hands-on group (P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that integrating surface anatomy and massage therapy in an experiential course resulted in significant gains in knowledge of anatomy, understanding about interprofessional health care roles, increased confidence in clinical practice, and improved wellness. Accordingly, further development of learning experiences that incorporate basic science, interprofessional education, and techniques that promote student wellness should be encouraged.

3.
Med Educ ; 53(7): 677-686, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761598

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Oral case presentations following resident-patient interactions provide the primary mechanism by which faculty supervisors assess resident competence. However, the extent to which these presentations capture the content and quality of resident-patient communication during the encounter remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether: (i) the resident-patient encounter content matched information conveyed in the case presentation; (ii) the quality of resident-patient communication was accurately conveyed, and (iii) supervisors addressed effective and ineffective communication processes. METHODS: A total of 22 pairs of resident-patient encounters and family medicine resident case presentations were video- or audiorecorded, transcribed and compared for content. Resident-patient communication was assessed using adapted versions of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to the Medical Interview and Explanation and Planning Scale. RESULTS: Interviews and presentations contained largely congruent content, but social history and the patient's perspective were consistently excluded from case presentations. Although six of 19 specific communication skills were used in over 80% of resident encounters, the effective use of communication skills was widely variable. In most presentations, the quality of resident-patient communication was not explicitly conveyed to the supervisor. Although resident presentations provided 'cues' about communication issues, supervisors rarely responded. CONCLUSIONS: This study lends support to direct observation in workplace-based learning of communication skills. When content areas such as the patient's perspective and education are excluded, supervisors cannot address them. In addition, presentations provided minimal insight about the quality of resident-patient encounters and limited the ability to address communication skills. These skills could be enhanced by attending to communication cues during case presentations, making increased use of direct observation and feedback, and promoting faculty development to address these missed teaching opportunities.

4.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(6): 1217-1221, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661729

RESUMEN

In 2017, EACH celebrated its change of name from European Association for Communication in Healthcare to EACH: International Association for Communication in Healthcare. This paper aims to present the developments and achievements of EACH over the past five years with a focus on its mission in promoting and advancing the field of communication in healthcare. Specifically, the paper focuses on how EACH, first, promotes research in the field of health communication, second, provides support, resources and sharing for healthcare communication teachers and, third, aims at influencing policy through dissemination of evidence. This paper also explores future challenges and directions for EACH to further strengthen its impact by designing activities in knowledge transfer and knowledge dissemination, engaging with patients and truly benefitting from their expertise, fostering active participation and networking among its members, targeting interventions to the needs of different countries around the world and refining knowledge-sharing and cooperation both within the membership of EACH and outside the association to as wide an audience as possible. Scholars, educators and practitioners active in the field of healthcare communication are invited to comment on this paper and to actively contribute towards the goals of EACH.

5.
Urology ; 116: 233-234, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567017

Asunto(s)
Urología
6.
Urology ; 114: 40, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426736
7.
Urology ; 114: 33-40, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288789

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the current state of published literature on communication skills teaching in urology to inform future directions for research and teaching. Excellent patient-physician communication skills increase understanding of medical conditions, facilitate shared decision-making regarding treatment planning, improve clinical outcomes, and decrease lawsuits. Surgical and procedure-based subspecialties, including urology, have generally been slow to incorporate formal communication skills teaching into curricula for postgraduate trainees. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a PubMed literature search using multiple keywords, selecting and reviewing articles published in English, and addressing 1 of 3 domains (curriculum development, teaching methods, and assessment methods) of communication skills teaching. The distribution of articles within the urology-specific literature was compared with that of procedure-based specialties as a whole. RESULT: Eight articles were found in the urology literature, and 24 articles were found in other procedure-based specialties. Within the urology-specific literature, all 8 articles (100%) acknowledged the need for communication curriculum development, 1 article (12.5%) described how communication skills were taught, and 1 article (12.5%) discussed how communication skills were assessed. Fewer articles in other procedure-based specialties acknowledged the need to develop curricula (29.2%, P = .0007) but were equally likely to discuss communication skills teaching (37.5%, P = .63) and assessment (33.3%, P = .73). Orthopedic surgery is the only surgical subspecialty with ongoing, adaptable, formal training for physicians. CONCLUSION: Most current publications addressing communication skills in procedure-based specialties are specialty specific and focus on only 1 of the 3 communication domains. Opportunities exist to share information and to create more integrated models to teach communication skills in urology.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Urología/educación , Comunicación , Humanos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Enseñanza
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 17(1): 124, 2017 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720087

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The institution of duty hour reforms by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in 2003 has created a learning environment where residents are consistently looking for input from attending physicians with regards to balancing duty hour regulations and providing quality patient care. There is a paucity of literature regarding resident perceptions of attending physician actions or attitudes towards work hour restrictions. The purpose of this study was to identify attending physician behaviors that residents perceived as supportive or unsupportive of their compliance with duty hour regulations. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted with residents exploring their perceptions of how duty hour regulations impact their interactions with attending physicians. Qualitative analysis identified key themes in residents' experiences interacting with faculty in regard to duty hour regulations. Forty residents from five departments in two hospital systems participated. RESULTS: Discussion of these interactions highlighted that attending physicians demonstrate behaviors that explicitly or implicitly either lend their support and understanding of residents' need to comply with these regulations or imply a lack of support and understanding. Three major themes that contributed to the ease or difficulty in addressing duty hour regulations included attending physicians' explicit communication of expectations, implicit non-verbal and verbal cues and the program's organizational culture. CONCLUSIONS: Resident physicians' perception of attending physicians' explicit and implicit communication and residency programs organization culture has an impact on residents' experience with duty hour restrictions. Residency faculty and programs could benefit from explicitly addressing and supporting the challenges that residents perceive in complying with duty hour restrictions.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/psicología , Admisión y Programación de Personal/organización & administración , Médicos/psicología , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/normas , Carga de Trabajo , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Internado y Residencia/organización & administración , Cultura Organizacional , Admisión y Programación de Personal/normas , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado/psicología , Carga de Trabajo/psicología
10.
Patient Educ Couns ; 100(11): 2054-2061, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602566

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper, based on a 2016 Heidelberg International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) plenary presentation, is to examine a key problem in communication skills training for health professional learners. Studies have pointed to a decline in medical students' communication skills and attitudes as they proceed through their education, particularly during their clinical workplace training experiences. This paper explores some of the key factors in this disintegration, drawing on selected literature and highlighting some curriculum efforts and research conducted at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine as a case study of these issues. Five key factors contributing to the disintegration of communication skills and attitudes are presented including: 1) lack of formal communication skills training during clinical clerkships; 2) informal workplace teaching failing to explicitly address learner clinical communication skills; 3) emphasizing content over process in relation to clinician-patient interactions; 4) the relationship between ideal communication models and the realities of clinical practice; and 5) clinical teachers' lack of knowledge and skills to effectively teach about communication in the clinical workplace. Within this discussion, potential practical responses by individual clinical teachers and broader curricular and faculty development efforts to address each of these factors are presented.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Clínicas , Comunicación , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Capacitación en Servicio , Aprendizaje , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Humanos
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 8(3): 169-175, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606031

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Clinician perceptions of patients with low socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to affect clinical decision making and health care delivery in this group. However, it is unknown how and if low SES patients perceive clinician bias might affect their health care. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 80 enrollees in a state Medicaid program were analyzed to identify recurrent themes in their perceptions of care. RESULTS: Most subjects perceived that their SES affected their health care. Common themes included treatment provided, access to care, and patient-provider interaction. DISCUSSION: This study highlights complex perceptions patients have around how SES affects their health care. These results offer opportunities to reduce health care disparities through better understanding of their impact on the individual patient-provider relationship. This work may inform interventions that promote health equity via a multifaceted approach, which targets both providers and the health care system as a whole.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto Joven
12.
Patient Educ Couns ; 100(11): 2071-2073, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28427889

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide a platform for learners' voices at an international conference on communication in healthcare. METHODS: A group of medical students were invited to explore their experiences with communication skills learning at a symposium at the 2016 International Conference on Communication in Healthcare in Heidelberg, DE. RESULTS: Students from the US, Denmark, Germany, and Russia discussed their experiences with communication skills curriculum at their institutions. We identified divides that have challenged our ability to develop and maintain strong communication skills: 1) valuation of communication skills vs. other topics, 2) curricular theory vs. practice, 3) evaluation vs. feedback, 4) preclinical vs. clinical learning, and 5) the medical student vs. practicing clinician role. CONCLUSION: The points of transition we identified on the road of communication skills teaching highlight opportunities to strengthen the educational experience for students. Without an effort to address these divides, however, our communication skills may be lost in translation. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Students value communication skills teaching during their medical education and there are opportunities to translate this to countries that currently lack robust curricula and to the real-life post-graduate setting. Support is necessary from students, teachers, and administrators, and focus on translation of skills during role transitions is needed.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Características Culturales , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Congresos como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
13.
Patient Educ Couns ; 100(9): 1762-1768, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28396057

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Assessment of clinical communication helps teachers in healthcare education determine whether their learners have acquired sufficient skills to meet the demands of clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to give input to educators when planning how to incorporate assessment into clinical communication teaching by building on the authors' experience and current literature. METHODS: A summary of the relevant literature within healthcare education is discussed, focusing on what and where to assess, how to implement assessment and how to choose appropriate methodology. RESULTS: Establishing a coherent approach to teaching, training, and assessment, including assessing communication in the clinical context, is discussed. Key features of how to implement assessment are presented including: establishing a system with both formative and summative approaches, providing feedback that enhances learning and establishing a multi-source and longitudinal assessment program. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a reliable, valid, credible, feasible assessment method with specific educational relevance is essential for clinical communication teaching. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: All assessment methods have strengths and limitations. Since assessment drives learning, assessment should be aligned with the purpose of the teaching program. Combining the use of different assessment formats, multiple observations, and independent measurements in different settings is advised.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Educación Basada en Competencias/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Retroalimentación , Docentes Médicos , Aprendizaje , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina , Enseñanza
14.
Fam Med ; 49(2): 97-105, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218934

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many medical student-patient encounters occur in the outpatient setting. Conference room staffing (CRS) of student presentations has been the norm in the United States in recent decades. However, this method may not be suitable for outpatient precepting, being inefficient and reducing valuable direct face time between physician and patient. Precepting in the Presence of the Patient (PIPP) has previously been found to be an effective educational model in the outpatient setting but has never been studied in family medicine clinics, nor with non-English speaking patients, nor patients from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with low literacy. METHODS: We used a randomized controlled trial of educational models comparing time spent using PIPP with CRS in two family medicine clinics. Patient, student, and physician satisfaction were also measured using a 5-point Likert scale; total encounter time and time spent precepting were also recorded. RESULTS: PIPP is strongly preferred by attending physicians while patients and students were equally satisfied with either precepting method. PIPP provides an additional 3 minutes of physician-patient face time (17.39 versus 14.08 minutes) in an encounter that is overall shortened by 2 minutes (17.39 versus 19.71 minutes). CONCLUSIONS: PIPP is an effective method for precepting medical students in family medicine clinics, even with non-English speaking patients and those with low literacy. Given the time constraints of family physicians, PIPP should be considered as a preferred, time-efficient method for training medical students that is well received by patients, students, and particularly by physicians.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/educación , Preceptoría/métodos , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Atención Ambulatoria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Médicos de Familia/psicología , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 16(1): 286, 2016 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27829411

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Experts suggest observation and feedback is a useful tool for teaching and evaluating medical student communication skills during the clinical years. Failing to do this effectively risks contributing to deterioration of students' communication skills during the very educational period in which they are most important. While educators have been queried about their thoughts on this issue, little is known about what this process is like for learners and if they feel they get educational value from being observed. This study explored student perspectives regarding their experiences with clinical observation and feedback on communication skills. METHODS: A total of 125 senior medical students at a U.S. medical school were interviewed about their experiences with observation and feedback. Thematic analysis of interview data identified common themes among student responses. RESULTS: The majority of students reported rarely being observed interviewing, and they reported receiving feedback even less frequently. Students valued having communication skills observed and became more comfortable with observation the more it occurred. Student-identified challenges included supervisor time constraints and grading based on observation. Most feedback focused on information gathering and was commonly delayed until well after the observed encounter. CONCLUSIONS: Eliciting students' perspectives on the effect of observation and feedback on the development of their communication skills is a unique way to look at this topic, and brings to light many student-identified obstacles and opportunities to maximize the educational value of observation and feedback for teaching communication, including increasing the number of observations, disassociating observation from numerically scored evaluation, training faculty to give meaningful feedback, and timing the observation/feedback earlier in clerkships.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Comunicación , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Retroalimentación , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Humanos , Enseñanza
17.
J Surg Educ ; 73(6): 1072-1076, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27316383

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical preparation methods of medical students, residents, and faculty with special attention to video usage. DESIGN: Following Institutional Review Board approval, anonymous surveys were distributed to participants. Information collected included demographics and surgical preparation methods, focusing on video usage. Participants were questioned regarding frequency and helpfulness of videos, video sources used, and preferred methods between videos, reading, and peer consultation. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS. SETTING: Surveys were distributed to participants in the Department of Surgery at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care center in Iowa City, Iowa. PARTICIPANTS: Survey participants included fourth-year medical students pursuing general surgery, general surgery residents, and faculty surgeons in the Department of Surgery. A total of 86 surveys were distributed, and 78 surveys were completed. This included 42 learners (33 residents, 9 fourth-year medical students) and 36 faculty. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 91%; 90% of respondents reported using videos for surgical preparation (learners = 95%, faculty = 83%, p = NS). Regarding surgical preparation methods overall, most learners and faculty selected reading (90% versus 78%, p = NS), and fewer respondents reported preferring videos (64% versus 44%, p = NS). Faculty more often use peer consultation (31% versus 50%, p < 0.02). Among respondents who use videos (N = 70), the most used source was YouTube (86%). Learners and faculty use different video sources. Learners use YouTube and Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) Portal more than faculty (YouTube: 95% versus 73%, p < 0.02; SCORE: 25% versus 7%, p < 0.05). Faculty more often use society web pages and commercial videos (society: 67% versus 38%, p < 0.03; commercial: 27% versus 5%, p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Most respondents reported using videos to prepare for surgery. YouTube was the preferred source. Posting surgical videos to YouTube may allow for maximal access to learners who are preparing for surgical cases.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Cirugía General/educación , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grabación en Video/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Estudios Transversales , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Internado y Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Iowa , Masculino , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Fam Med ; 48(6): 445-51, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272421

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Communication skills are essential to medical training and have lasting effects on patient satisfaction and adherence rates. However, relatively little is reported in the literature identifying how communication is taught in the context of residency education. Our goal was to determine current practices in communication curricula across family medicine residency programs. METHODS: Behavioral scientists and program directors in US family medicine residencies were surveyed via email and professional organization listservs. Questions included whether programs use a standardized communication model, methods used for teaching communication, hours devoted to teaching communication, as well as strengths and areas for improvement in their program. Analysis identified response frequencies and ranges complemented by analysis of narrative comments. RESULTS: A total of 204 programs out of 458 family medicine residency training sites responded (45%), with 48 out of 50 US states represented. The majority of respondents were behavioral scientists. Seventy-five percent of programs identified using a standard communication model; Mauksch's patient-centered observation model (34%) was most often used. Training programs generally dedicated more time to experiential teaching methods (video review, work with simulated patients, role plays, small groups, and direct observation of patient encounters) than to lectures (62% of time and 24% of time, respectively). The amount of time dedicated to communication education varied across programs (average of 25 hours per year). Respondent comments suggest that time dedicated to communication education and having a formal curriculum in place are most valued by educators. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a picture of how communication skills teaching is conducted in US family medicine residency programs. These findings can provide a comparative reference and rationale for residency programs seeking to evaluate their current approaches to communication skills teaching and develop new or enhanced curricula.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Curriculum , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/educación , Internado y Residencia , Ciencias de la Conducta/métodos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina , Humanos , Internet , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
19.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2015 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215571

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated how physicians and patients perceive the impact of computer use on clinical communication, and how a patient-centered orientation can influence this impact. METHODS: The study followed a descriptive cross-sectional design and included 106 family physicians and 392 patients. An original questionnaire assessed computer use, participants' perspective of its impact, and patient centered strategies. RESULTS: Physicians reported spending 42% of consultation time in contact with the computer. A negative impact of computer in patient-physician communication regarding the consultation length, confidentiality, maintaining eye contact, active listening to the patient, and ability to understand the patient was reported by physicians, while patients reported a positive effect for all the items. Physicians considered that the usual computer placement in their consultation room was significantly unfavorable to patient-physician communication. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians perceive the impact of computer use on patient-physician communication as negative, while patients have a positive perception of computer use on patient-physician communication. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Consultation support can represent a challenge to physicians who recognize its negative impact in patient centered orientation. Medical education programs aiming to enhance specific communication skills and to better integrate computer use in primary care settings are needed.

20.
Acad Med ; 90(1): 94-9, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25099242

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate what criteria medical students would value and use in assessing teaching skills. METHOD: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine enrolled in a teaching elective course are required to design and use an evaluation instrument to assess effective teaching. Each class uses a similar process in developing their instruments. Since the first class in spring 2007, 193 medical students have created 36 different instruments. Three faculty evaluation experts conducted a thematic analysis of the instruments and coded the information according to what was being evaluated and what types of ratings were indicated. The data were submitted to a fourth faculty reviewer, who synthesized the information and adjusted the codes to better capture the data. Common themes and categories were detected. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: content (instructor knowledgeable, teaches at level of learner, practical information), learning environment, teacher personal attributes, and teaching methods. Thirty-two descriptors were distinguished across the 36 instruments. Thirteen descriptors were present in 50% or more of the instruments. The most common rating systems were Likert scales and open comments. CONCLUSIONS: Fourth-year medical students can offer an eclectic resource for evaluating teaching in the classroom and the clinic. Using the descriptors that were identified in greater than 50% of the evaluation instruments will provide effective measures that can be incorporated into medical teacher evaluation instruments.


Asunto(s)
Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto , Docentes Médicos/normas , Estudiantes de Medicina , Enseñanza/normas , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Humanos , Iowa
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