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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
2.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

4.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(12): 1032-1041, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779925

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the potential role of differential diuretic drugs in preventing incident acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) study. BACKGROUND: SPRINT showed that intensive blood pressure reduction in older patients (50 to 97 years of age) resulted in 36% fewer incident cases of ADHF. However, some investigators have questioned whether this was due merely to intergroup differences in diuretic medications. METHODS: Detailed use of medication data prospectively collected throughout the trial were examined. RESULTS: ADHF events occurred in 173 of 9,361 participants. Diuretic medication increased in both arms from screening to baseline visit (from 45% to 50% in the standard arm; and from 43% to 63% in the intensive arm) and then remained steady. The lowest use of diuretic agents was among participants in the standard arm who never had an ADHF event. Withdrawal of diuretic agents at the baseline visit occurred in 6.1% (n = 284) of participants in the standard arm and 2.3% (n = 107) of participants in the intensive arm. Of these, only 11 developed ADHF during the trial (10 in the standard arm, 1 in the intensive arm), and only 1 occurred ≤1 month after diuretic withdrawal. The benefit of ADHF reduction remained significant even after excluding those 11 participants (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5 to 0.94; p = 0.02). Most ADHF events occurred in participants who were taking prescribed diuretic therapy at the last visit, prior to the ADHF event. There was limited use of loop (<6%) and potassium-sparing diuretic agents (2%). Diuretic use was not a predictor of ADHF (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.66 to 1.40; p = 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found to suggest that the reduction in new ADHF events in SPRINT was due to differential diuretic use. (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial [SPRINT]; NCT01206062).

5.
Am J Med ; 132(7): 875-883.e7, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vegan diets are increasing in popularity and have beneficial effects on glycemia and blood lipids, but the evidence is inconclusive regarding their effect on blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to review the effect of vegan diets on blood pressure in adults. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov for records that compared a vegan diet with any less restrictive diet and reported pre- and postintervention systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts for randomized, controlled clinical trials in individuals ≥18 years of age and older. We used the PRISMA guidelines to select 11 clinical trials from 1673 records. Data synthesis was performed through a random-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled data included 983 participants. Compared with less restrictive diets, a vegan diet did not result in a significant change in systolic (-1.33 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.50-0.84; P = .230) or diastolic (-1.21 mm Hg; 95% CI, -3.06-0.65; P = .203) blood pressure. A prespecified subgroup analysis of studies with baseline systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg revealed that a vegan diet resulted in a mean decrease in the systolic (-4.10 mm Hg; 95% CI, -8.14 to -0.06; P = .047) and diastolic (-4.01 mm Hg; 95% CI, -5.97 to -2.05; P = 0.000) blood pressures. CONCLUSION: The changes in blood pressure induced by a vegan diet without caloric restrictions are comparable with those induced by dietary approaches recommended by medical societies and portion-controlled diets.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Dieta Vegana , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
6.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(6): 895-899, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719960

RESUMEN

ABSTRACTAssociations between high body mass index (BMI) and subsequent cognitive decline, reported in elderly averaging below age 75, become less consistent at older ages. We compared the associations of BMI with cognition in moderately old (ages 75-84, N = 154) and oldest-old (85+, N = 93) samples. BMI and cognition were assessed cross-sectionally in cognitively intact elderly (mean age = 84.5, SD = 4.4) male veterans. Regression analyses of three cognitive domains - executive functions/language, attention, and memory-compared relationship with BMI between the moderately old and oldest-old. Higher BMI was associated with relatively poorer executive functions/language performance in the moderately old, while the opposite relationship, higher BMI associated with relatively better performance, was found in the oldest-old. Associations for the other two cognitive domains did not differ significantly between age groups. The reversal of association direction for executive functions/language performance with higher BMI is consistent with the protected survivor model. This model posits a minority subpopulation with a protective factor-genetic or otherwise-against both mortality and cognitive decline associated with risk factor status. The very old who remain cognitively intact despite the presence of risk factors are more likely to possess protection.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Veteranos/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Atención , Estudios Transversales , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Memoria , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Hypertension ; 71(6): 1064-1074, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712745

RESUMEN

Intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) control improved outcomes in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). Our objective was to expand on reported findings by analysis of baseline characteristics, primary outcomes, adverse events, follow-up blood pressure, and medication use differences by baseline SBP (tertile 1 [T1], <132; tertile 2 [T2], 132-145; and tertile 3 [T3], >145 mm Hg). Participants with higher baseline SBP tertile were more often women and older, had higher cardiovascular risk, and lower utilization of antihypertensive medications, statins, and aspirin. Achieved SBP in both treatment arms was slightly higher in T2 and T3 compared with T1 and fewer in the T3 groups achieved SBP targets compared with T1 and T2 groups. The primary composite outcome with intensive versus standard SBP treatment was reduced by 30% in T1, 23% in T2, and 17% in T3 with no evidence of an interaction (P=0.77). Event rates were lower in the intensive arm, and there was no evidence that this benefit differed by SBP tertile. There was no difference in the hazard for serious adverse events in any of the 3 tertiles. Medication utilization differed across the SBP tertiles at baseline with a lesser percentage of diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker drugs in the higher tertiles-a finding that reversed during the trial. The beneficial effects of intensive SBP lowering were not modified by the level of baseline SBP. Within the parameters of this population, these findings add support for clinicians to treat blood pressure to goal irrespective of baseline SBP.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/uso terapéutico , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Diuréticos/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Sístole , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Circulation ; 137(2): 134-143, 2018 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. METHODS: SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target <120 mm Hg) and standard (target <140 mm Hg) SBP control in 9361 older adults with high blood pressure at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular disease events. All-cause death and incident chronic kidney disease were secondary outcomes. This post hoc analysis examined whether the effects of the SBP intervention differed by baseline DBP. RESULTS: Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level (P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. CONCLUSIONS: Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Diástole/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/mortalidad , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Puerto Rico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 70(17): 2171-2185, 2017 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050566

RESUMEN

Diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are modifiable risk factors that predict cardiovascular disease events. The effect of these risk factors on incident cardiovascular disease increases with progressively higher levels of glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure. The thresholds for initiating treatment of these modifiable risk factors and the optimal goals of risk factor modification are a focus of primary prevention research. Although an aggressive approach is appealing, adverse events may occur, and potential physiological barriers may exist. This paper discusses primary prevention of coronary heart disease that may be achieved through modification of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension by summarizing current guidelines and pertinent clinical trial data from intervention trials that included a primary prevention cohort.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/análisis , Presión Sanguínea , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Colesterol/sangre , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/prevención & control , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
11.
J Hypertens ; 35(9): 1768-1777, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650912

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Not only is there a limited number of studies on the effects of vasodilator ß-blocker (VBB) therapy on kidney function - specifically, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum creatinine (sCr) and proteinuria - but of those that have been reported, the results are mixed. This meta-analysis seeks to assess the efficacy of VBBs on selected renal parameters in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of any prospective trial that provided both baseline and follow-up of at least 4 weeks of VBB therapy - carvedilol, labetalol, dilevalol, nebivolol and celiprolol in patients with hypertension. We used Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed, all without date restrictions. We included 39 studies totaling 3987 patients. RESULTS: Although VBBs did not significantly change GFR or sCr levels after at least 4 weeks of therapy, they did significantly decrease protein excretion by -0.12 SD units [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.19 to -0.04; P < 0.01]. VBBs did not alter renal blood or plasma flow, but renal vascular resistance (RVR) decreased by -20.03 mmHg min/l (95% CI -28.92 to -11.15; P < 0.01). In the analysis which compared VBBs with non-VBBs, the only significant difference was the greater decrease in RVR in the VBB group by -38.44 mmHg min/l (95% CI -60.57 to -16.31; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: VBBs do not affect GFR or sCr levels, but decrease protein excretion. This class of ß-blockers, however, is not superior to non-VBBs in reducing proteinuria. VBBs decrease RVR significantly more than non-VBBs.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta , Hipertensión , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Vasodilatadores , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efectos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapéutico , Creatinina/sangre , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Pruebas de Función Renal , Vasodilatadores/efectos adversos , Vasodilatadores/uso terapéutico
12.
Circulation ; 134(23): e535-e578, 2016 12 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799274
14.
Neurology ; 86(13): 1208-16, 2016 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920359

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between markers of kidney disease-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR)-with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and white matter volume (WMV) in hypertensive adults. METHODS: We used baseline data collected from 665 nondiabetic hypertensive adults aged ≥50 years participating in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). We used arterial spin labeling to measure CBF and structural 3T images to segment tissue into normal and abnormal WMV. We used quantile regression to estimate the association between eGFR and UACR with CBF and abnormal WMV, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: There were 218 participants (33%) with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 146 participants (22%) with UACR ≥30 mg/g. Reduced eGFR was independently associated with higher adjusted median CBF, but not with abnormal WMV. Conversely, in adjusted analyses, there was a linear independent association between UACR and larger abnormal WMV, but not with CBF. Compared to participants with neither marker of CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR <30 mg/g), median CBF was 5.03 mL/100 g/min higher (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78, 9.29) and abnormal WMV was 0.63 cm(3) larger (95% CI 0.08, 1.17) among participants with both markers of CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and UACR ≥30 mg/g). CONCLUSIONS: Among nondiabetic hypertensive adults, reduced eGFR was associated with higher CBF and higher UACR was associated with larger abnormal WMV.


Asunto(s)
Circulación Cerebrovascular/fisiología , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Sustancia Blanca/patología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular/fisiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/fisiopatología
15.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 10(1): 22-33, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26612106

RESUMEN

A number of devices are available which noninvasively estimate central aortic blood pressure using a variety of approaches such as tonometry or oscillometry. In this position paper, we discuss how the central pressure waveform is generated and measured, how central pressure waveforms appear in health and disease, the predictive value of central blood pressure measurements, the effects of interventions on waveforms, and areas of future need in this field of clinical and research endeavor.


Asunto(s)
Presión Arterial/fisiología , Hipertensión , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/métodos , Factores de Edad , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/instrumentación , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Factores Sexuales
16.
Am J Med ; 129(4): 372-8, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26655222

RESUMEN

The 2015 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/American Society of Hypertension Scientific Statement "Treatment of Hypertension in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease" is summarized in the context of a clinical case. The Statement deals with target blood pressures, and the optimal agents for the treatment of hypertension in patients with stable angina, in acute coronary syndromes, and in patients with ischemic heart failure. In all cases, the recommended blood pressure target is <140/90 mm Hg, but <130/80 mm Hg may be appropriate, especially in those with a history of a previous myocardial infarction or stroke, or at high risk for developing either. These numbers may need to be revised after the publication of the SPRINT data. Appropriate management should include beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and in the case of heart failure, aldosterone antagonists. Thiazide or thiazide-like (chlorthalidone) diuretics and calcium channel blockers can be used for the management of hypertension, but the evidence for improved outcomes compared with other agents in hypertension with coronary artery disease is meager. Loop diuretics should be reserved for patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV heart failure or with a glomerular filtration rate of <30 mL/min.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/administración & dosificación , Cardiopatías/complicaciones , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
17.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 17(10): 79, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26298567

RESUMEN

Increasing life expectancy has made old age-related health problems like dementia and cognitive decline more prevalent, and these are rapidly becoming important causes of disability and poor quality of life, causing significant add-ons to health-care costs worldwide. Hypertension is the most important modifiable vascular risk factor for the development and progression of both cognitive decline and dementia. In many observational and randomized studies, antihypertensive therapies have been shown to be beneficial in slowing cognitive decline. However, due to observed discrepancies by these studies, there is a lack of consensus on the best antihypertensive strategy for the prevention or slowing of cognitive decline. It is also not clear whether the beneficial effect of antihypertensive therapy is due to the use of a specific class of agents or combination therapy. Thus, we present a comprehensive review of overall antihypertensive therapies and cognition and of the individual antihypertensive therapy classes with their specific protective mechanisms and available clinical evidence behind their effect on cognitive function.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Cognición , Animales , Trastornos del Conocimiento/fisiopatología , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo
19.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 17(7): 503-13, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010834

RESUMEN

The use of pulse wave analysis may guide the provider in making choices about blood pressure treatment in prehypertensive or hypertensive patients. However, there is little clinical guidance on how to interpret and use pulse wave analysis data in the management of these patients. A panel of clinical researchers and clinicians who study and clinically use pulse wave analysis was assembled to discuss strategies for using pulse wave analysis in the clinical encounter. This manuscript presents an approach to the clinical application of pulse waveform analysis, how to interpret central pressure waveforms, and how to use existing knowledge about the pharmacodynamic effect of antihypertensive drug classes in combination with brachial and central pressure profiles in clinical practice. The discussion was supplemented by case-based examples provided by panel members, which the authors hope will provoke discussion on how to understand and incorporate pulse wave analysis into clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea , Arteria Braquial/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Flujo Pulsátil/fisiología , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/tendencias
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