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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 229(Pt B): 109127, 2021 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781181

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge about characteristics of the heaviest drinkers. This study aimed at exploring 1) socio-demographic characteristics and 2) drinking patterns and drinking contexts of heavy drinkers and other drinkers in Norway, applying various criteria for heavy drinking. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional population surveys among adults in Norway (aged 16 +) in 2015 through 2018 (current drinkers, n = 6 940) were analysed. Two measures were applied to categorize heavy drinkers: 1) AUDIT score (10 +), and 2) annual consumption volume (445 + units) (both above 90th percentile). Social contexts of drinking included location (private homes, licensed premises); social company (partner/family, work mates, friends, no one); and weekend versus weekdays. RESULTS: Heavy drinkers accounted for 10% of the sample and up to half of the total consumption. Heavy drinkers differed significantly from other drinkers with regard to age, education level and criterion; by AUDIT score, the prevalence of heavy drinkers decreased with increasing age and education level, whereas the opposite was the case for by volume. Compared to other drinkers, heavy drinkers drank relatively more often on weekdays and relatively more often alone, and more frequently at licenced premises. CONCLUSIONS: In Norway, the distribution of alcohol consumption is heavily skewed, and the heaviest drinkers differ from the rest of the population in several aspects. This group of drinkers represent an important target for public policy, and there is a need for further knowledge of this group enabling more targeted interventions in addition to policies aimed at reducing the per-capita consumption.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639847

RESUMEN

Evidence suggests that changes in alcohol consumption during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic were unevenly distributed over consumer groups. We investigated possible inter-country differences in how changes in alcohol consumption are contingent on initial consumption (before or at the start of the pandemic), and how changes in consumption translate into possible changes in the prevalence of heavy drinking. We used data from the European Survey on Alcohol use and COVID-19 (ESAC) conducted in Czechia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK (N = 31921). Past-year alcohol consumption and changes in consumption were measured by AUDIT-C. Drinking habits were compared according to percentiles of pre-pandemic consumption levels, below versus above the 90th percentile. Across countries, drinkers in the highest 10% for pre-pandemic consumption increased their drinking during the pandemic, whereas absolute changes among those initially drinking below this level were modest. The percentage of people reporting >28 alcohol units/week increased significantly in seven of eight countries. During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, alcohol consumption in the upper decile of the drinkers increased as did the prevalence of heavy drinkers, in contrast with a declining consumption in other groups in the sample.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica , COVID-19 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Addiction ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605584

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Norwegian alcohol policy measures include national restrictions on sales hours and a state monopoly on retail sales. A 1-hour extension of sales hours on Saturdays in the monopoly outlets took effect from September 2020. We aim to evaluate whether increase in sales hours results in (1) an increase in alcohol sales in the monopoly outlets and (2) an increase in total alcohol sales, including substitution effects from beer sales in grocery stores. DESIGN: The extension of Saturday sales hours is implemented within a stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial design. Block randomization of 62 of the 66 Norwegian trade districts allocated monopoly outlets to one of three sequences regarding date of implementation. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 228 of 335 in total Norwegian state monopoly outlets are eligible and included. INTERVENTION: The extension of sales hours is from 3 p.m. to 4 p.m. starting on the first Saturday in (i) September 2020, (ii) December 2020 or (iii) March 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Growth rates in monthly alcohol sales, measured in litres of pure alcohol, in eligible monopoly outlets (primary outcome) are obtained together with beverage-specific sales and alcohol sales in grocery stores (secondary outcomes). The observation period is set to 72 months prior to and 24 months after implementation. FINDINGS: Power analyses indicate that this stepped wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial has a power above 90%, even at a high significance level (α = 0.01) and with other conservative model specifications. The planned trial offers a rare opportunity to study possible causal effects of a relatively small change in a widely used alcohol policy measure.

4.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(4): e1892, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449127

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) how a rapid data collection using a convenience sample fares in estimating change in alcohol consumption when compared to more conventional data sources, and (2) how alcohol consumption changed in Finland and Norway during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Three different types of data sources were used for the 2nd quarter of 2020 and 2019: sales statistics combined with data on unrecorded consumption; the rapid European Alcohol Use and COVID-19 (ESAC) survey (Finland: n = 3800, Norway: n = 17,092); and conventional population surveys (Finland: n = 2345, Norway: n1 = 1328, n2 = 2189, n3 = 25,708). Survey measures of change were retrospective self-reports. RESULTS: The statistics indicate that alcohol consumption decreased in Finland by 9%, while little change was observed in Norway. In all surveys, reporting a decrease in alcohol use was more common than reporting an increase (ratios 2-2.6 in Finland, 1.3-2 in Norway). Compared to conventional surveys, in the ESAC survey fewer respondents reported no change and past-year alcohol consumption was higher. CONCLUSION: The rapid survey using convenience sampling gave similar results on change in drinking as conventional surveys but higher past-year drinking, suggesting self-selection effects. Aspects of the pandemic driving alcohol consumption down were equally strong or stronger than those driving it up.

5.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(4): 866-872, 2021 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293089

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2000, adolescents' alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking (HED) have declined in the Nordic countries. However, little is known about corresponding trends in alcohol-related harm and possible changes in the alcohol-harm association. The aims are to examine (i) whether the decline in HED was accompanied by a decline in alcohol-related violence (AV) and (ii) whether the strength of the HED-AV association changed concomitant with the decline. METHODS: Analysis of data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD), conducted among 15-16-year-olds in Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and 2015 (n = 17 027). Changes in proportions of AV and alcohol use past 12 months, and mean frequency of HED past 30 days were examined using Pearsons χ2-test and F-test, respectively. The HED-AV associations were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: HED and AV proportions decreased from 2007 to 2015 in all countries. Among current drinkers (n = 8927), both HED frequency and AV proportion decreased in Norway (P < 0.001) and remained stable in Iceland. In Sweden, AV decreased (P < 0.001) whereas HED remained stable. The magnitude of the HED-AV association increased in Norway (Beta2015-2007 = 0.145, 95% CI 0.054-0.236), remained the same in Iceland and decreased in Sweden (Beta2015-2007 = -0.082, 95% CI -0.158 to -0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Among youth in Iceland, Norway and Sweden, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related violence declined from 2007 to 2015. Among drinkers, the strength of the alcohol-violence association was moderated by the extent of heavy episodic drinking.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Etanol , Humanos , Países Escandinavos y Nórdicos/epidemiología , Violencia
6.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(7): 1399-1401, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189789

RESUMEN

In a recent analysis of the effect of the complete advertising ban on alcohol in Norway, I found that the ban led to a decrease in recorded alcohol sales. Jon Nelson offers comments on this study in two regards; my critical comments on his previous study of alcohol advertising bans and the time series analysis in my study. In this response to Nelson, I offer further explanation for my comments on Nelson's previous study and for the appropriateness of the analysis.

7.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1875, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951258

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This contribution provides insights into the methodology of a pan-European population-based online survey, performed without external funding during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the impact of different dissemination strategies to collect data from a non-probabilistic convenience sample and outline post-stratification weighting schemes, to provide guidance for future multi-country survey studies. METHODS: Description and comparison of dissemination strategies for five exemplary countries (Czechia, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Spain) participating in the Alcohol Use and COVID-19 Survey. Comparison of the sample distribution with the country's actual population distribution according to sociodemographics, and development of weighting schemes. RESULTS: The dissemination of online surveys through national newspapers, paid social media adverts and dissemination with the support of national health ministries turned out to be the most effective strategies. Monitoring the responses and adapting dissemination strategies to reach under-represented groups, and the application of sample weights were helpful to achieve an analytic sample matching the respective general population profiles. CONCLUSION: Reaching a large pan-European convenience sample, including most European countries, in a short time was feasible, with the support of a broad scientific network.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , República Checa/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Lituania/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923567

RESUMEN

Little is known about possible changes in alcohol consumption distribution during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated how individual changes in alcohol consumption during the pandemic translated into changes in: (i) mean consumption; (ii) dispersion of consumption distribution; and (iii) prevalence of heavy drinkers. We employed data from two independent web-surveys of Norwegian adults collected between April and July 2020 and limited to those reporting past year alcohol consumption (N1 = 15,267, N2 = 1195). Self-reports of changes in drinking behavior were quantified, assuming change being relative to baseline consumption level. During the pandemic, we found a small increase (Survey 1) or no change (Survey 2) in estimated mean alcohol consumption (which parallels to total consumption). However, in both surveys, the dispersion of the distribution increased significantly (p < 0.001). For most respondents, an average modest decline in consumption was found. However, the small fraction with the highest baseline consumption increased their consumption substantially, and in effect, the proportion of heavy drinkers increased markedly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, quantifications of reported changes in alcohol consumption during the pandemic suggest that the upper 5 to 10% of the drinkers increased their consumption and hence the prevalence of heavy drinkers increased, despite little or no change in total alcohol consumption.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(4): 257-262, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Europe, the COVID-19 pandemic triggered a range of restrictive measures, which may have impacted alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVES: We explored perceived changes in alcohol consumption, their association with sociodemographic characteristics and past year alcohol consumption, and self-reported reasons for change after CO-VID-19 restrictions in Norway. METHOD: A web-based survey was sent to Norwegians aged 18 years and older in June-July 2020. Respondents reporting any past year alcohol use (n = 1,200) were asked whether they drank less, approximately the same, or more after the COVID-19 restrictions compared to before and reasons for drinking less or more. RESULTS: Almost a third (29.9%) reported they drank less, whereas 13.3% reported they drank more. Females, younger respondents, and Oslo residents were more likely to report both less and more drinking (p values between 0.001 and 0.029). Past year alcohol use was associated with less drinking (OR = 0.93; p < 0.001) and more drinking (OR = 1.07; p < 0.001). More drinking was also associated with living with child(ren) (p = 0.023) and high educational level (p = 0.029). The most frequently reported reasons for drinking less pertained to fewer social occasions and less on-premise drinking, whereas reasons for drinking more pertained to treating oneself to something good and fewer consequences of drinking more. CONCLUSIONS: After the COVID-19 restrictions were implemented, a substantial proportion of Norwegians changed their drinking behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Motivación , Autoinforme , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cambio Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 16(1): 36, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Self-perceived changes in substance use were measured by asking respondents whether their use had decreased (slightly or substantially), increased (slightly or substantially), or not changed during the past month. The survey covered alcohol (frequency, quantity, and heavy episodic drinking occasions), tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug use. Sample weighted data were descriptively analysed and compared across substances. RESULTS: Across all countries, use of all substances remained unchanged for around half of the respondents, while the remainder reported either a decrease or increase in their substance use. For alcohol use, overall, a larger proportion of respondents indicated a decrease than those reporting an increase. In contrast, more respondents reported increases in their tobacco and cannabis use during the previous month compared to those reporting decreased use. No distinct direction of change was reported for other substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest changes in use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during the initial months of the pandemic in several European countries. This study offers initial insights into changes in substance use. Other data sources, such as sales statistics, should be used to corroborate these preliminary findings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
11.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(7): 1392-1395, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763886

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although bans or restrictions on alcohol advertising are recommended as one of the three most effective and cost-effective policies to curb alcohol consumption, the best evidence to support this is indirect. The aim of this study was to examine whether the complete ban on alcohol advertising in Norway in 1975 had any effect on total alcohol sales. METHODS: Annual time series of recorded alcohol sales (1960-2006) were analysed. Autoregressive integrated moving average interrupted time series techniques were used to model the effect of the advertising ban, adjusting for alcohol prices and wages. RESULTS: The autoregressive integrated moving average analyses showed a negative and statistically significant effect of the ban on total recorded alcohol sales, suggesting an immediate and lasting reduction of 7.4% (P = 0.002). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The complete ban on alcohol advertising in 1975 in Norway reduced recorded alcohol sales. This suggests that the ban had a protective effect by reducing total alcohol consumption. The conclusion remains tentative because of possible effects of unrecorded alcohol consumption and marketing on social media and satellite TV channels.

12.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(1): 9-17, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573718

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol per capita consumption (APC) is used for monitoring harmful alcohol exposure in populations and assessing progress with goals set internationally and nationally. Recently, the alcohol industry challenged the use of this indicator. Here, we assessed the validity of APC as an indicator for reducing alcohol-related harm. METHOD: We conducted a narrative review of association between population-level drinking and harm rates, and the underlying mechanisms of this association. RESULTS: A substantial literature demonstrates quite consistently close associations between APC and population harm levels for various types of health and social harms. Across populations with different total consumption, the distribution of consumption displays a fairly fixed shape, with no clear distinction between heavy drinkers and other drinkers. The mean consumption in a population is closely associated with the prevalence of heavy drinking; an increase in APC arises from a change in the whole distribution, heavy drinkers included. Although risk of harms from drinking increases with consumption, it seems that for many harm types the majority of drinkers, who do not drink heavily, account for a large proportion of harms from alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: By reducing APC, decreases in drinking among heavy drinkers as well as among ordinary drinkers will lead to fewer alcohol-related harms. The evidence strongly suggests public health gains from universal policies targeting APC. Reducing APC is furthermore an investment in future public health, as it is likely an efficient way of preventing people from becoming very heavy drinkers, who may cause themselves and others severe health and social problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Políticas , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(1): 118-125, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808718

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Adolescent drinking and cannabis use in Norway declined in the 2000s, and we tested the assumption that psychosocial problems were more strongly related to substance use when the prevalence was quite low (2012/2013) than when it was considerably higher (2002). DESIGN AND METHODS: Data stemmed from school surveys of almost 20 000 students aged 14-17 years in 2002 and 2012/2013 in the four largest cities in Norway. We assessed how various deviant behaviours and depressive mood were related to past-year measures on any alcohol intoxication, frequent intoxication (6+ times) and any cannabis use, and tested whether the associations varied significantly by survey year. RESULTS: The prevalence of any intoxication episodes dropped markedly from 2002 (50%) to 2012/2013 (28%), as did the prevalence of frequent intoxication (29% vs. 10%) and any cannabis use (15% vs. 7%). Deviant behaviours and depressive mood were either more closely related to the drinking outcomes in 2012/2013 than in 2002, or the associations showed no temporal change. None of the associations with cannabis use varied significantly by survey year. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The assumption that psychosocial problems correlated more strongly with alcohol and cannabis use in a low-prevalence period (2012/2013) as compared to a high-prevalence period (2002) was partly supported, but only with respect to drinking. The strength of the associations with cannabis use was stable, which may reflect that the proportion reporting any use of the drug was low even in the relatively 'high-prevalence' period.

15.
Addiction ; 116(1): 32-40, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084199

RESUMEN

The gambling industry has grown into a global business in the 21st century. This has created the need for a new emphasis on problem prevention. This article highlights the core themes of the book Setting Limits: Gambling, Science and Public Policy, taking a broad view of the consequences of gambling for society as a burden on health, well-being and equality. The book covers the extent of gambling and gambling-related problems in different societies and presents a critical review of research on industry practices, policy objectives and preventive approaches, including services to people suffering from gambling and its consequences. It discusses the developments in game characteristics and gambling environments and provides evidence on how regulation can affect those. Effective measures to minimize gambling harm exist and many are well supported by scientific evidence. They include restrictions on general availability as well as selective measures to prevent gamblers from overspending. The revenue generated from gambling for the industry, governments, and providers of public services funded from gambling returns presents an obstacle to developing policies to implement harm-reduction measures. A public interest approach must weigh these interests against the suffering and losses of the victims of gambling.

16.
Addiction ; 116(1): 53-59, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267578

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While alcohol-attributable mortality rates are higher in low socio-economic status (SES) groups, less is known about SES differences in all-cause mortality in alcohol use disorder (AUD). The aim of this study was to explore whether there are SES differences in people with AUD, regarding (i) treatment admission, (ii) all-cause mortality risk and (iii) relative mortality risk. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective cohort study in Norway, follow-up period from 2009-10 to 2013. Data on SES and mortality were obtained through linkages to national registries, using national unique ID numbers. PARTICIPANTS: AUD patients (age 20+) admitted to treatment in 2009-10 (n = 11 726) and age and gender frequency-matched controls from the general population (n = 12 055). MEASUREMENTS: The SES indicator was education level (low, intermediate and high). Mortality was calculated as deaths per 1000 person-years during the 4-year observation period. FINDINGS: Admission to AUD treatment was elevated in the low compared with the high SES categories (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 3.09, 3.55). Among AUD patients, mortality risk was elevated in the low SES category (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.45). Relative mortality risk from AUD was significantly higher in the high SES (HR = 8.65, 95% CI = 6.16, 12.14) compared with the low SES categories (HR = 3.29, 95% CI = 2.61, 4.15). CONCLUSION: Admission to treatment for alcohol use disorders in Norway appears to decrease with increasing socio-economic status, and relative mortality risk from alcohol use disorder appears to increase with increasing socio-economic status.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/mortalidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Causas de Muerte , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
17.
Addiction ; 116(11): 3235-3242, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247857

RESUMEN

People with drug use disorders (PWDUD) have elevated prevalence of oral diseases, in particular dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal (gum) disease and xerostomia (dry mouth). When left untreated, these oral health conditions may progress and lead to tooth ache, abscesses and tooth loss, and in turn, to poor chewing functioning and digestion, dental aesthetic problems and reduced wellbeing. Illicit drug use may, per se, cause xerostomia, which in turn increases vulnerability for dental caries. However, the other main drivers of oral diseases and their progression-poor oral hygiene, frequent sugar intake and infrequent dental visits-can mainly be ascribed to the irregular lifestyle, poor economy and mental health problems that often accompany illicit drug use. Establishment of good oral health habits is essential in the dental care for PWDUD. Dental treatment is often comprehensive and challenging; because the patients may have extensive treatment needs but also difficulties adhering to preventive measures and dental appointments. An integrated care approach for PWDUD would likely benefit both their oral and general health.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Drogas Ilícitas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
18.
Eur Addict Res ; 27(3): 179-188, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321498

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alcohol problems in the prison population are understudied, underdetected, and undertreated. Our aims were to identify subgroups of inmates whose pre-prison drinking behavior indicated a high need for alcohol-related interventions, to assess the prevalence of concurrent alcohol and drug problems, and to compare dual-dependent inmates and those who were alcohol-dependent alone with respect to the severity of their drinking problems. METHODS: Data stemmed from the nationwide Norwegian Offender Mental Health and Addiction (NorMA) study. Both male (n = 1,356) and female (n = 90) inmates took part in the study, representing about 40% of the prison population in Norway at the time of the data collection (2013-2014). Pre-prison substance use problems were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). RESULTS: A majority (55%) had an AUDIT positive screen (score ≥8), which is indicative of alcohol problems of some severity, and 18% were possible alcohol-dependent (score ≥20). A positive screen was associated with younger age, lower education, violent offending, driving while intoxicated (DWI), and previous criminal convictions. Two-thirds (68%) of those who screened positive on the AUDIT had also a DUDIT positive screen (score ≥6), and a similar overlap between possible alcohol dependence and possible drug dependence (score ≥25) was observed. Inmates with possible dual dependence (12% of all) had higher mean scores on the AUDIT than those with possible alcohol dependence only (7% of all). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the prisoners in Norway had AUDIT scores that indicated they could benefit from alcohol-related interventions, and the prevalence was elevated in younger, less educated groups of previously convicted DWI, and violent offenders. Alcohol problems were most often combined with drug problems, and possible dual dependence was associated with particularly severe drinking problems.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Prisioneros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias
19.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(3): 468-471, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336834

RESUMEN

Some of the best evidence of effects of control policies on alcohol availability stems from controlled experimental studies in the Nordic state-owned alcohol monopolies. Publications from these studies do not, however, explain the process leading up to the implementation of changes in policy measures under controlled experimental conditions. In September 2020, the Norwegian state alcohol monopoly started the implementation of extended trading hours, employing a randomised controlled trial design. In this commentary, we give an account of the process leading up to this implementation and how the monopoly considered various pro- and contra-arguments in this regard. This case illustrates that willingness to contribute to strengthened scientific evidence on alcohol control policies can be embedded in the social responsibility of a state alcohol monopoly.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Noruega
20.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(6): 721-728, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686238

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Adolescent drinking has decreased in numerous high-income countries in the 2000s, and how to explain this downward trend is far from clear. Focussing on the decline in drinking to intoxication among youth in Norway, we examined the following potential explanatory factors: family/home-based and peer-oriented leisure-time activities, perceived parental drinking, drug substitution, school conscientiousness and delinquency. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data stemmed from cross-sectional surveys of adolescents aged 13-17 years in the four largest cities in Norway in 2002 (n = 1204) and in 2013/2015 (n = 31 441). We examined the extent to which the decline in intoxication prevalence was attributable to the possible explanatory variables using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The proportion reporting any past-year intoxication episodes dropped markedly from 2002 (41%) to 2013/2015 (22%). Family/home-oriented leisure-time activities and school conscientiousness increased, whereas hanging out with friends in the evening and delinquent behaviours decreased. These factors together accounted for 43% of this decline. Decrease in going out with friends was the most important factor. We found no empirical support for assumptions that perceived parental drinking or drug substitution had contributed to the decrease in drinking to intoxication. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Since the millennium shift, urban adolescents in Norway have become more home-, family- and school-oriented, and less involved in unsupervised socialising with peers and delinquency. These changes may have contributed to some of the reduction in the prevalence of intoxication in this population group.

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