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Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444809


Alcohol use has been causally linked to more than 200 disease and injury conditions, as defined by three-digit ICD-10 codes. The understanding of how alcohol use is related to these conditions is essential to public health and policy research. Accordingly, this study presents a narrative review of different dose-response relationships for alcohol use. Relative-risk (RR) functions were obtained from various comparative risk assessments. Two main dimensions of alcohol consumption are used to assess disease and injury risk: (1) volume of consumption, and (2) patterns of drinking, operationalized via frequency of heavy drinking occasions. Lifetime abstention was used as the reference group. Most dose-response relationships between alcohol and outcomes are monotonic, but for diabetes type 2 and ischemic diseases, there are indications of a curvilinear relationship, where light to moderate drinking is associated with lower risk compared with not drinking (i.e., RR < 1). In general, women experience a greater increase in RR per gram of alcohol consumed than men. The RR per gram of alcohol consumed was lower for people of older ages. RRs indicated that alcohol use may interact synergistically with other risk factors, in particular with socioeconomic status and other behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, or physical inactivity. The literature on the impact of genetic constitution on dose-response curves is underdeveloped, but certain genetic variants are linked to an increased RR per gram of alcohol consumed for some diseases. When developing alcohol policy measures, including low-risk drinking guidelines, dose-response relationships must be taken into consideration.

Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Enfermedad , Mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Causalidad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(7): 496-505, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248222


Objective: To validate a Russian-language version of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Methods: We invited 2173 patients from 21 rural and urban primary health-care centres in nine Russian regions to participate in the study (143 declined and eight were excluded). In a standardized interview, patients who had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months provided information on their sociodemographic characteristics and completed the Russian AUDIT, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to identify problem drinking and alcohol use disorders. We assessed the feasibility of administering the test, its internal consistency and its ability to predict hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders in primary health care in the Russian Federation. Findings: Of the 2022 patients included in the study, 1497 were current drinkers with Russian AUDIT scores. The test was internally consistent with good psychometric properties (Cronbach's α : 0.842) and accurately predicted alcohol use disorders and other outcomes (area under the curve > 75%). A three-item short form of the test correlated well with the full instrument and had similar predictive power (area under the curve > 80%). We determined sex-specific thresholds for all outcomes, as non-specific thresholds resulted in few women being identified. Conclusion: With the validated Russian AUDIT, there is no longer a barrier to introducing screening and brief interventions into primary health care in the Russian Federation to supplement successful alcohol control policies.

Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Atención Primaria de Salud , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Población Rural , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Población Urbana
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(7): 1377-1386, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783063


ISSUES: Alcohol use has been shown to impact on various forms of liver disease, not restricted to alcoholic liver disease. APPROACH: We developed a conceptual framework based on a narrative review of the literature to identify causal associations between alcohol use and various forms of liver disease including the complex interactions of alcohol with other major risk factors. Based on this framework, we estimate the identified relations for 2017 for the USA. KEY FINDINGS: The following pathways were identified and modelled for the USA for the year 2017. Alcohol use caused 35 200 (95% uncertainty interval 32 800-37 800) incident cases of alcoholic liver cirrhosis. There were 1700 (uncertainty interval 1100-2500) acute hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections attributable to heavy-drinking occasions, and 14 000 (uncertainty interval 5900-19 500) chronic HBV and 1700 (uncertainty interval 700-2400) chronic HCV infections due to heavy alcohol use interfering with spontaneous clearance. Alcohol use and its interactions with other risk factors (HBV, HCV, obesity) led to 54 500 (uncertainty interval 50 900-58 400) new cases of liver cirrhosis. In addition, alcohol use caused 6600 (uncertainty interval 4200-9300) liver cancer deaths and 40 700 (uncertainty interval 36 600-44 600) liver cirrhosis deaths. IMPLICATIONS: Alcohol use causes a substantial number of incident cases and deaths from chronic liver disease, often in interaction with other risk factors. CONCLUSION: This additional disease burden is not reflected in the current alcoholic liver disease categories. Clinical work and prevention policies need to take this into consideration.

Eur Addict Res ; 27(3): 189-197, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271557


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of cancer has been identified as a major public health priority for Europe, and alcohol is a leading risk factor for various types of cancer. This contribution estimates the number of cancer cases that could have potentially been averted in 2018 in 4 European countries if an increase in alcohol excise taxation had been applied. METHODS: Current country and beverage-specific excise taxation of 4 member states of the WHO European Region (Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, and Sweden) was used as a baseline, and the potential impacts of increases of 20, 50, and 100% to current excise duties were modelled. A sensitivity analysis was performed, replacing the current tax rates in the 4 countries by those levied in Finland. The resulting increase in tax was assumed to be fully incorporated into the consumer price, and beverage-specific price elasticities of demand were obtained from meta-analyses, assuming less elasticity for heavy drinkers. Model estimates were applied to cancer incidence rates for the year 2018. RESULTS: In the 4 countries, >35,000 cancer cases in 2018 were caused by alcohol consumption, with the highest rate of alcohol-attributable cancers recorded in Germany and the lowest in Sweden. An increase in excise duties on alcohol would have significantly reduced these numbers, with between 3 and 7% of all alcohol-attributable cancer cases being averted if taxation had been increased by 100%. If the 4 countries were to adopt an excise taxation level equivalent to the one currently imposed in Finland, an even higher proportion of alcohol-attributable cancers could be avoided, with Germany alone experiencing 1,600 fewer cancer cases in 1 year. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Increasing excise duties can markedly reduce cancer incidence in European countries.

Bebidas Alcohólicas , Neoplasias , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Impuestos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(2): 161-165, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830351


Population survey research is limited by biases introduced through the exclusion of sub-populations from the sampling frame and by non-response bias. This is a particular problem for alcohol surveys, where populations such as the homeless and the institutionalised-who consume on average more alcohol than the general population-are usually excluded, and where people who respond to alcohol surveys tend to consume less alcohol than those who do not. These biases lead to the underestimation of alcohol consumption at the population level, which can be corrected for by triangulating alcohol consumption data with population data sources (i.e. taxation and production). Other methods which account for the biases inherent in surveys include triangulation with outcomes (e.g. traffic injuries), calculation of estimates for groups which are outside common sampling frames, and combining probabilistic sampling with new methodologies, such as computer-assisted web interviews. In particular, population surveys do not attract sufficient participation numbers for certain groups, such as the marginalised urban male youths. In this situation, it may be helpful to add estimates generated via respondent-driven sampling or non-probabilistic web panels restricted to a specific group to such population surveys. Additionally, computer-assisted web interviews perform better for sensitive questions, such as those about personal alcohol use. In sum, based on the objectives, the future of survey will need to include statistical modelling, adding data from external sources for validation and combining data from various types of surveys.

Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 591-596, 2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338220


BACKGROUND: Research has identified alcohol to be an important risk factor for several types of cancers. This study estimates the number of incident cancers attributable to alcohol consumption in the European Union (EU) in 2017, with a special focus on those caused by light to moderate drinking levels. METHODS: The attributable-fraction methodology is used to estimate the number of new cancer cases in the year 2017 in the EU caused by alcohol use, and further examines those due to light to moderate drinking levels, defined here as alcohol consumption of <20 g of pure alcohol per day. RESULTS: Light to moderate drinking levels of alcohol caused almost 23 000 new cancer cases in the EU in 2017, and accounted for 13.3% of all alcohol-attributable cancers, and 2.3% of all cases of the seven alcohol-related cancer types. Almost half of these (∼11 000 cases) were female breast cancers. Also, more than a third of the cancer cases due to light to moderate drinking resulted from a light drinking level of <1 standard drink per day (total: 37%; women: 40%; men: 32%). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use, including light to moderate drinking, continues to cause considerable cancer burden, and efforts should be made to reduce this burden. In addition to the alcohol control policies suggested by the World Health Organization, public information campaigns and the placement of warning labels on alcohol containers advising of the cancer risk associated with alcohol use should be initiated to increase knowledge about the alcohol-cancer link.

Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Unión Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/etiología , Factores de Riesgo