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1.
Endeavour ; 46(1-2): 100814, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697549

RESUMEN

Recent research about the microbiome points to a picture in which we, humans, are 'living through' nature, and nature itself is living in us. Our bodies are hosting-and depend on-the multiple species that constitute human microbiota. This article will discuss current research on the microbiome through the ideas of Japanese ecologist Imanishi Kinji (1902-1992). First, some of Imanishi's key ideas regarding the world of living beings and multispecies societies are presented. Second, seven types of relationships concerning the human microbiome, human beings, and the environment are explored. Third, inspired by Imanishi's work, this paper develops the idea of dynamic, porous, and complex multispecies societies in which different living beings or species are codependent on others, including microbiota and human beings.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Investigación , Humanos , Investigación/clasificación , Investigación/tendencias
2.
Environ Manage ; 70(1): 35-53, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362729

RESUMEN

Many cities advocate retrofitting green roofs and green walls (GRGW) to create additional green areas, especially in cramped urban areas. Yet, worldwide, only a handful of studies have evaluated the public views towards the benefits and negative issues and promotion policies of this innovative greening option. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a survey (N = 500) of residents' opinions towards GRGW in Tokyo, a city with mandatory installation of GRGW for almost two decades. Respondents mostly agreed with the contribution of GRGW to thermal comfort, air quality, and cityscape but weakly endorsed other potential benefits. High costs as well as mosquitoes and plant litter nuisances were the most recognized negative issues. Mandatory installation was the least preferred promotion policy. Instead, respondents expected installation on public buildings and provision of installation guidance. Respondents predominantly held a "moderate" view towards both the benefits and negative issues, showing indifferent attitudes towards GRGW. Income level and housing type shaped the overall perceptions, whereas age, sex, and current living environment influenced perceptions of individual aspects. Our findings signified a need for a bottom-up strategy to heighten public awareness for the advanced development of GRGW to complement and prime the top-down mandatory installation policy.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Opinión Pública , Animales , Ciudades , Japón , Tokio
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188155

RESUMEN

Access to green space (GS) is vital for children's health and development, including during daycare. In Japan, deregulation to alleviate daycare shortages has created a new category of so-called unlicensed daycare centers (UDCs) that often lack dedicated GS. UDCs rely on surrounding GS, including parks, temples and university grounds, but reports of conflicts highlight the precarity of children's well-being in a rapidly aging country. Knowledge about GS access in Japanese UDCs remains scarce. Our mail-back survey (n = 173) of UDCs and online survey (n = 3645) of parents investigated threats to GS access during daycare across 14 Japanese cities. Results suggest that UDCs use a variety of GS and aim to provide daily access. Caregivers are vital in mediating children's access, but locally available GS diversity, quality and quantity as well as institutional support were perceived as lacking. Parents did not rank GS high among their priorities when selecting daycare providers, and showed limited awareness of conflicts during GS visits. Implications of this study include the need for caregivers and parents to communicate and collaborate to improve GS access, and the importance of strong public investment into holistically improving GS diversity, quality and quantity from the perspective of public health and urban planning.


Asunto(s)
Guarderías Infantiles , Protección a la Infancia , Ambiente , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 137: 111170, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014536

RESUMEN

Food product labels can provide consumers with rich, specific, expert-certified product information. However, sources of label information differ. How do consumers then evaluate label trustworthiness of expert labels in comparison to other commonly used label types? We present results from a representative online survey (N = 10,000) of consumers in Japan, the USA, Germany, China and Thailand using professionally designed labels for four food types (milk, honey, oil, wine) and five different sources of food information (farmers, government/administration, producer associations, experts, and consumers). We tested label legibility through identification of the label information source and asked respondents to evaluate the trustworthiness of labels using a six-scale instrument ranging from overall label trust to purchase intent. Results show that label legibility varied between countries, with expert labels scoring lowest. Nevertheless, respondents correctly identifying all label information sources chose expert labels as the most or second-most trustworthy across all countries and food types, while consumer labels scored low. Demographic factors exhibited weak influence. Results suggest expert labels might play an important role as trusted sources of information in an increasingly complex global food system. Finally, we consider the implications of the study for a potential institutionalization of expert labels based on the Japanese context.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Testimonio de Experto , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Confianza/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , China , Femenino , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Alemania , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99784, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941046

RESUMEN

Informal urban green-space (IGS) such as vacant lots, brownfields and street or railway verges is receiving growing attention from urban scholars. Research has shown IGS can provide recreational space for residents and habitat for flora and fauna, yet we know little about the quantity, spatial distribution, vegetation structure or accessibility of IGS. We also lack a commonly accepted definition of IGS and a method that can be used for its rapid quantitative assessment. This paper advances a definition and typology of IGS that has potential for global application. Based on this definition, IGS land use percentage in central Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan was systematically surveyed in a 10×10 km grid containing 121 sampling sites of 2,500 m2 per city, drawing on data recorded in the field and aerial photography. Spatial distribution, vegetation structure and accessibility of IGS were also analyzed. We found approximately 6.3% of the surveyed urban area in Brisbane and 4.8% in Sapporo consisted of IGS, a non-significant difference. The street verge IGS type (80.4% of all IGS) dominated in Brisbane, while lots (42.2%) and gaps (19.2%) were the two largest IGS types in Sapporo. IGS was widely distributed throughout both survey areas. Vegetation structure showed higher tree cover in Brisbane, but higher herb cover in Sapporo. In both cities over 80% of IGS was accessible or partly accessible. The amount of IGS we found suggests it could play a more important role than previously assumed for residents' recreation and nature experience as well as for fauna and flora, because it substantially increased the amount of potentially available greenspace in addition to parks and conservation greenspace. We argue that IGS has potential for recreation and conservation, but poses some challenges to urban planning. To address these challenges, we propose some directions for future research.


Asunto(s)
Ciudades , Árboles , Australia , Recolección de Datos , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Geografía , Japón , Proyectos de Investigación , Tamaño de la Muestra
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