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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009254, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788840

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In order to protect health workers from SARS-CoV-2, there is need to characterise the different types of patient facing health workers. Our first aim was to determine both the infection status and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in health workers. Our second aim was to evaluate the occupational and demographic predictors of seropositivity to inform the country's infection prevention and control (IPC) strategy. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We invited 713 staff members at 24 out of 35 health facilities in the City of Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. Compliance to testing was defined as the willingness to uptake COVID-19 testing by answering a questionnaire and providing samples for both antibody testing and PCR testing. SARS-COV-2 antibodies were detected using a rapid diagnostic test kit and SAR-COV-2 infection was determined by real-time (RT)-PCR. Of the 713 participants, 635(89%) consented to answering the questionnaire and providing blood sample for antibody testing while 560 (78.5%) agreed to provide nasopharyngeal swabs for the PCR SARS-CoV-2 testing. Of the 635 people (aged 18-73) providing a blood sample 39.1% reported a history of past COVID-19 symptoms while 14.2% reported having current symptoms of COVID-19. The most-prevalent co-morbidity among this group was hypertension (22.0%) followed by asthma (7.0%) and diabetes (6.0%). The SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence was 8.9%. Of the 560 participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2 participants (0.36%) were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. None of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive people were positive for SAR-CoV-2 infection by PCR testing. CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION: In addition to clinical staff, several patient-facing health workers were characterised within Zimbabwe's health system and the seroprevalence data indicated that previous exposure to SAR-CoV-2 had occurred across the full spectrum of patient-facing staff with nurses and nurse aides having the highest seroprevalence. Our results highlight the need for including the various health workers in IPC strategies in health centres to ensure effective biosecurity and biosafety.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 85-91, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551502

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate community and health-care workers' perspectives on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and on early pandemic responses during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown in Zimbabwe. Methods: Rapid qualitative research was carried out between March and April 2020 via phone interviews with one representative from each of four community-based organizations and 16 health-care workers involved in a trial of community-based services for young people. In addition, information on COVID-19 was collected from social media platforms, news outlets and government announcements. Data were analysed thematically. Findings: Four themes emerged: (i) individuals were overloaded with information but lacked trusted sources, which resulted in widespread fear and unanswered questions; (ii) communities had limited ability to comply with prevention measures, such as social distancing, because access to long-term food supplies and water at home was limited and because income had to be earned daily; (iii) health-care workers perceived themselves to be vulnerable and undervalued because of a shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate pay; and (iv) other health conditions were sidelined because resources were redirected, with potentially wide-reaching implications. Conclusion: It is important that prevention measures against COVID-19 are appropriate for the local context. In Zimbabwe, communities require support with basic needs and access to reliable information to enable them to follow prevention measures. In addition, health-care workers urgently need personal protective equipment and adequate salaries. Essential health-care services and medications for conditions other than COVID-19 must also continue to be provided to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Personal de Salud , Acceso a la Información , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Investigación Cualitativa , Salarios y Beneficios , Zimbabwe
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(12): e25641, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314786

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There have been very few randomized clinical trials of interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in people living with HIV (PLWH) in African countries. This is despite the fact that alcohol use is one of the modifiable risk factors for poor virological control in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Sixteen clinic clusters in Zimbabwe were selected through stratified randomization and randomized 1: 1 to Intervention and Control arms. Inclusion criteria for individual participants were being adult, living with HIV and a probable alcohol use disorder as defined by a score of 6 (women) or 7 (men) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). In the Intervention clusters, participants received 8 to 10 sessions of Motivational Interviewing blended with brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (MI-CBT). In the control clusters, participants received four Enhanced Usual Care (EUC) sessions based on the alcohol treatment module from the World Health Organisation mhGAP intervention guide. General Nurses from the clinics were trained to deliver both treatments. The primary outcome was a change in AUDIT score at six-month post-randomization. Viral load, functioning and quality of life were secondary outcomes. A random-effects analysis-of-covariance model was used to account for the cluster design. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-four participants (n = 108 intervention and n = 126 control) were enrolled across 16 clinics. Participants were recruited from November 2016 to November 2017 and followed through to May 2018. Their mean age was 43.3 years (SD = 9.1) and 78.6% (n = 184) were male. At six months, the mean AUDIT score fell by -6.15 (95% CI -6.32; -6.00) in the MI-CBT arm, compared to a fall of - 3.09 95 % CI - 3.21; -2.93) in the EUC arm (mean difference -3.09 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.23) (p = 0.05). Viral load reduced and quality of life and functioning improved in both arms but the difference between arms was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for hazardous drinking and AUD comprising brief, multiple alcohol treatment sessions delivered by nurses in public HIV facilities in low-income African countries can reduce problematic drinking among PLWH. Such interventions should be integrated into the primary care management of AUD and HIV and delivered by non-specialist providers. Research is needed on cost-effectiveness and implementation of such interventions, and on validation of cut-points for alcohol use scales in low resource settings, in partnership with those with lived experience of HIV and AUD.

4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 725, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Commencing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately following HIV diagnosis (Option B+), has greatly improved maternal-infant health. Thus, large and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women are on ART during pregnancy, a situation concurrently increasing numbers of HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants. Compared to their HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) counterparts, HEU infants show higher rates of adverse birth outcomes, mortality, infectious/non-communicable diseases including impaired growth and neurocognitive development. There is an urgent need to understand the impact of HIV and early life ART exposures, immune-metabolic dysregulation, comorbidities and environmental confounders on adverse paediatric outcomes. METHODS: Six hundred (600) HIV-infected and 600 HIV-uninfected pregnant women ≥20 weeks of gestation will be enrolled from four primary health centres in high density residential areas of Harare. Participants will be followed up as mother-infant-pairs at delivery, week(s) 1, 6, 10, 14, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 after birth. Clinical, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental data will be assessed for adverse birth outcomes, impaired growth, immune/neurodevelopment, vertical transmission of HIV, hepatitis-B/C viruses, cytomegalovirus and syphilis. Maternal urine, stool, plasma, cord blood, amniotic fluid, placenta and milk including infant plasma, dried blood spot and stool will be collected at enrolment and follow-up visits. The composite primary endpoint is stillbirth and infant mortality within the first two years of life in HEU versus HUU infants. Maternal mortality in HIV-infected versus -uninfected women is another primary outcome. Secondary endpoints include a range of maternal and infant outcomes. Sub-studies will address maternal stress and malnutrition, maternal-infant latent tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori infections, immune-metabolomic dysregulation including gut, breast milk and amniotic fluid dysbiosis. DISCUSSION: The University of Zimbabwe-College of Health-Sciences-Birth-Cohort study will provide a comprehensive assessment of risk factors and biomarkers for HEU infants' adverse outcomes. This will ultimately help developing strategies to mitigate effects of maternal HIV, early-life ART exposures and comorbidities on infants' mortality and morbidity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT04087239 . Registered 12 September 2019.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/complicaciones , Helicobacter pylori , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Leche Humana , Morbilidad , Parto , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Factores de Riesgo , Mortinato , Sífilis/complicaciones , Universidades , Zimbabwe
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240865, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075094

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the scale-up of the HIV "Treat All" recommendation, evidence on its real-world effect on predictors of attrition (either death or lost to follow-up) is lacking. We conducted a retrospective study using Zimbabwe ART program data to assess the association between "Treat All" and, patient-mix, programmatic characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition. METHODS: We used patient-level data from the electronic patient monitoring system (ePMS) from the nine districts, which piloted the "Treat All" recommendation. We compared patient-mix, programme characteristics, retention and predictors of attrition (lost to follow-up, death or stopping ART) in two cohorts; before (April/May 2016) and after (January/February 2017) "Treat All". Retention was estimated using survival analysis. Predictors of attrition were determined using a multivariable Cox regression model. Interactions were used to assess the change in predictors of attrition before and after "Treat All". RESULTS: We analysed 3787 patients, 1738 (45.9%) and 2049 (54.1%) started ART before and after "Treat All", respectively. The proportion of men was higher after "Treat All" (39.4.% vs 36.2%, p = 0.044). Same-day ART initiation was more frequent after "Treat All" (43.2% vs 16.4%; p<0.001) than before. Retention on ART was higher before "Treat All" (p<0.001). Among non-pregnant women and men, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of attrition after compared to before "Treat All" was 1.73 (95%CI: 1.30-2.31). The observed hazard of attrition for women being pregnant at ART initiation decreased by 17% (aHR: 1.73*0.48 = 0.83) after "Treat All". Being male (vs female; aHR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12-1.87) and WHO Stage IV (vs WHO Stage I-III; aHR: 2.89; 95%CI: 1.16-7.11) predicted attrition both before and after "Treat All" implementation. CONCLUSION: Attrition was higher after "Treat All"; being male, WHO Stage 4, and pregnancy predicted attrition in both before and after Treat All. However, pregnancy became a less strong risk factor for attrition after "Treat All" implementation.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1570, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076903

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals living in Schistosoma haematobium endemic areas are often at risk of having other communicable diseases simultaneously. This usually creates diagnostic difficulties leading to misdiagnosis and overlooking of schistosomiasis infection. In this study we investigated the prevalence and severity of coinfections in pre-school age children and further investigated associations between S. haematobium prevalence and under 5 mortality. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. Using random selection, 465 preschool age children (1-5 years of age) were enrolled through clinical examination by two independent clinicians for the following top morbidity causing conditions: respiratory tract infections, dermatophytosis, malaria and fever of unknown origin. The conditions and their severe sequels were diagnosed as per approved WHO standards. S. haematobium infection was diagnosed by urine filtration and the children were screened for conditions common in the study area which included HIV, tuberculosis, malnutrition and typhoid. Data was analysed using univariate and multinomial regression analysis and relative risk (RR) calculated. RESULTS: Prevalence of S. haematobium was 35% (145). The clinical conditions assessed had the following prevalence in the study population: upper respiratory tract infection 40% (229), fever of unknown origin 45% (189), dermatophytosis 18% and malaria 18% (75). The odds of co-infections observed with S. haematobium infection were: upper respiratory tract infection aOR = 1.22 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.87), dermatophytosis aOR = 4.79 (95% CI 2.78 to 8.25), fever of unknown origin aOR = 10.63 (95% CI 6.48-17.45) and malaria aOR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.51 to1.58). Effect of schistosomiasis coinfection on disease progression based on the odds of the diseases progressing to severe sequalae were: Severe pneumonia aOR = 8.41 (95% CI 3.09-22.93), p < 0.0001, complicated malaria aOR = 7.09 (95% CI 1.51-33.39), p = 0.02, severe dermatophytosis aOR = 20.3 (95% CI 4.78-83.20):p = 0.03, and fever of unknown origin aOR = 1.62 (95%CI 1.56-4.73), p = 0.02. CONCLUSION: This study revealed an association between schistosomiasis and the comorbidity conditions of URTI, dermatophytosis, malaria and FUO in PSAC living in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A possible detrimental effect where coinfection led to severe sequels of the comorbidity conditions was demonstrated. Appropriate clinical diagnostic methods are required to identify associated infectious diseases and initiate early treatment of schistosomiasis and co-infections in PSAC.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239344, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941540

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rituximab in combination with chemotherapy is now widely accepted as standard of care for AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs) of B-cell origin. However, the clinical impact of rituximab in resource limited settings remains unknown. Different settings and patient heterogeneity may affect the effect of any given treatment. The study objectives were to determine if rituximab use was associated with improved 18-month overall survival (OS) of patients with ARLs and to identify correlates of 18-month OS. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of adult HIV infected patients treated for high-grade large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with chemotherapy +/- rituximab between 2015-2017 was conducted. Vital status and disease progression/relapse at 18 months were determined. Survival functions were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Equality of survival functions were assessed using Log-rank tests and Cox regression analysis to identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four eligible medical records were identified. This was a cohort of black Africans with a median age of 42 (IQR: 33-47) and a 57% male gender distribution. Overall survival at 6, 12 and 18 months for the population was 75.9%, 44.0% and 30.6% respectively. Over the study period, 72.6% of patients were diagnosed with disease progression/ relapse. There was a higher rate of rituximab use in patients who were treated at a private institution and those with medical insurance. Rituximab use was not associated with a reduction in 18-month mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)1.28, (95% CI 0.63-2.60)]. Risk factors for 18-month mortality were male gender [aHR 1.89, (95% CI 1.04-3.43)], age 40+ years [aHR 2.49, (1.33-4.67)], receipt of <3 chemotherapy cycles [aHR 2.48, (95% CI 1.33-4.60)] and low socioeconomic status [aHR 2.44, (95% CI 1.28-4.67)]. CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of mortality were male gender, older age, low socioeconomic status and receipt of a less than half of the recommended number of chemotherapy cycles. Rituximab use was not associated with an improvement in 18-month OS in Zimbabwean patients with ARLs.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma Relacionado con SIDA/tratamiento farmacológico , Linfoma no Hodgkin/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapéutico , Análisis de Supervivencia , Zimbabwe
8.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 21(1): 58, 2020 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746923

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescents experience higher levels of non-adherence to HIV treatment. Drug concentration in hair promises to be reliable for assessing exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Pharmacokinetic modelling can explore utility of drug in hair. We aimed at developing and validating a pharmacokinetic model based on atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) in hair and identify factors associated with variabilities in hair accumulation. METHODS: We based the study on secondary data analysis whereby data from a previous study on Zimbabwean adolescents which collected hair samples at enrolment and 3 months follow-up was used in model development. We performed model development in NONMEM (version 7.3) ADVAN 13. RESULTS: There is 16% / 18% of the respective ATV/r in hair as a ratio of steady-state trough plasma concentrations. At follow-up, we estimated an increase of 30% /42% of respective ATV/r in hair. We associated a unit increase in adherence score with 2% increase in hair concentration both ATV/r. Thinner participants had 54% higher while overweight had 21% lower atazanavir in hair compared to normal weight participants. Adolescents receiving care from fellow siblings had atazanavir in hair at least 54% less compared to other forms of care. CONCLUSION: The determinants of increased ATV/r concentrations in hair found in our analysis are monitoring at follow up event, body mass index, and caregiver status. Measuring drug concentration in hair is feasibly accomplished and could be more accurate for monitoring ARV drugs exposure.

9.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 393, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847619

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using survey and programme data to assess district-level performance along the HIV care cascade (HIV testing target achievement, linkage to ART and ART coverage) in order to formulate district-specific recommendations, taking into consideration prevalence and yield of testing. RESULTS: Data from 60 districts were analysed. Forty-eight districts (80.0%) surpassed 90% of their 2018 HIV testing targets. Linkage to ART was less than 90% in 40 districts (83.3%). Thirty districts (50.0%) had ART coverage above 90%. Of the 30 districts with suboptimal (< 90%) ART coverage, 18 districts had achieved high HIV testing target but with suboptimal linkage to ART, 6 had achieved high HIV testing targets and high linkage to ART, 4 had both suboptimal HIV testing target achievement and linkage to ART and 2 had suboptimal HIV testing target achievement and high linkage to ART. Priority should be given to districts with suboptimal ART coverage. Remediation strategies should be tailored to address the poorly performing stage of the cascade in each of the districts.

10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100333, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637890

RESUMEN

Background: There is a lack of data from low- and middle-income countries on whether anxiety independently predicts a more chronic course for depression. Methods: We undertook secondary data analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe which had tested the effectiveness of the Friendship Bench intervention for common mental disorders compared to enhanced usual care. Inclusion for the current study was participants from the trial who had probable major depression at baseline, defined as scoring => 11 on the locally validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). This emerged to be 354 of the original 573 (61.78%) of the original trial sample. Anxiety was measured using the locally validated cut-point on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Persistent depression was defined as scoring => 11 on the PHQ-9 at six-months follow-up. Analysis in Stata 15 used random-effects logistic regression to adjust for clustering by clinic. Outcomes: Of the 354 participants who were eligible for treatment, 329 (92·9%) completed 6-month follow-up assessment. 37% of the trial sample had persistent depression at 6-months follow-up; 59% in the control arm and 17% in the intervention arm. Co-morbid anxiety present at trial baseline was independently associated with persistent depression after adjusting for age, gender and baseline depression severity (adjusted OR = 2·83, 95% CI 1·32-6·07). There was no evidence of effect modification by trial arm. Baseline depression severity also predicted persistent depression. Interpretation Treatment for depression in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) should be directed towards those with greatest need. This includes people with co-morbid anxiety and greater depression severity at initial assessment who are less likely to remit at six months. Advice on coping with anxiety, psychological treatments which target common anxiety symptoms such as fear, avoidance, excessive worry and intrusive thoughts, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) should be made more widely available in LMIC and offered to those with persistent mixed depression and anxiety.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231637, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315335

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The contribution of high tuberculosis (TB) transmission pockets in propagating area-wide transmission has not been adequately described in Zimbabwe. This study aimed to describe the presence of hotspot transmission of TB cases in Harare city from 2011 to 2012 using geospatial techniques. METHODS: Anonymised TB patient data stored in an electronic database at Harare City Health department was analysed using geospatial methods. Confirmed TB cases were mapped using geographic information system (GIS). Global Moran's I and Anselin Local Moran's I (LISA) were used to assess clustering and the local Getis-Ord Gi* was used to estimate hotspot phenomenon of TB cases in Harare City for the period between 2011 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 12,702 TB cases were accessed and mapped on the Harare City map. In both 2011 and 2012, ninety (90%) of cases were new and had a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/TB co-infection rate of 72% across all suburbs. Tuberculosis prevalence was highest in the Southern district in both 2011 and 2012. There were pockets of spatial distribution of TB prevalence across West South West, Southern, Western, South Western and Eastern health districts. TB hot spot occurrence was restricted to the West South West, parts of South Western, Western health districts. West South West district had an increased peri-urban population with inadequate social services including health facilities. These conditions were conducive for increased intensity of TB occurrence, a probable indication of high transmission especially in the presence of high HIV co-infection. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Increased TB transmission was limited to a health district with high informal internal migrants with limited health services in Harare City. To minimise spread of TB into greater Harare, there is need to improve access to TB services in the peri-urban areas.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidad , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , VIH/patogenicidad , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/microbiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Espacial , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/microbiología , Tuberculosis/virología , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0222309, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The last evaluation to assess outcomes for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the Zimbabwe public sector was conducted in 2011, covering the 2007-2010 cohorts. The reported retention at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months were 90.7%, 78.1%, 68.8% and 64.4%, respectively. We report findings of a follow-up evaluation for the 2012-2015 cohorts to assess the implementation and impact of recommendations from this prior evaluation. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in 2016. Multi-stage proportional sampling was used to select health facilities and study participants records. The data extracted from patient manual records included demographic, baseline clinical characteristics and patient outcomes (active on treatment, died, transferred out, stopped ART and lost to follow-up (LTFU)) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. The data were analysed using Stata/IC 14.2. Retention was estimated using survival analysis. The predictors associated with attrition were determined using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: A total of 3,810 participants were recruited in the study. The median age in years was 35 (IQR: 28-42). Overall, retention increased to 92.4% (p-value = 0.060), 86.5% (p-value<0.001), 79.2% (p-value<0.001) and 74.4% (p-value<0.001) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months respectively. LTFU accounted for 98% of attrition. Being an adolescent or a young adult (15-24 years) (vs adult;1.41; 95% CI:1.14-1.74), children (<15years) (vs adults; aHR 0.64; 95% CI:0.46-0.91), receiving care at primary health care facility (vs central and provincial facility; aHR 1.23; 95% CI:1.01-1.49), having initiated ART between 2014-2015 (vs 2012-2013; aHR1.45; 95%CI:1.24-1.69), having WHO Stage IV (vs Stage I-III; aHR2.06; 95%CI:1.51-2.81) and impaired functional status (vs normal status; aHR1.25; 95%CI:1.04-1.49) predicted attrition. CONCLUSION: The overall retention was higher in comparison to the previous 2007-2010 evaluation. Further studies to understand why attrition was found to be higher at primary health care facilities are warranted. Implementation of strategies for managing patients with advanced HIV disease, differentiated care for adolescents and young adults and tracking of LTFU clients should be prioritised to further improve retention.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
13.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224023, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647837

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Approximately 25% of colorectal cancer patients in sub-Saharan Africa are younger than 40 years, and hereditary factors may contribute. We investigated the frequency and patterns of inherited colorectal cancer among black Zimbabweans. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of ninety individuals with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer was carried out in Harare, Zimbabwe between November 2012 and December 2015. Phenotypic data was obtained using interviewer administered questionnaires, and reviewing clinical and pathology data. Cases were screened for mismatch repair deficiency by immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability testing, and for MLH1, MSH2 and EPCAM deletions using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Next generation sequencing using a 16-gene panel was performed for cases with phenotypic features consistent with familial colorectal cancer. Variants were assessed for pathogenicity using the mean allele frequency, phenotypic features and searching online databases. RESULTS: Three Lynch syndrome cases were identified: MSH2 c.2634G>A pathogenic mutation, c.(1896+1_1897-1)_(*193_?)del , and one fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria, with MLH1 and PMS2 deficiency, but no identifiable pathogenic mutation. Two other cases had a strong family history of cancers, but the exact syndrome was not identified. The prevalence of Lynch syndrome was 3·3% (95% CI 0·7-9·4), and that of familial colorectal cancer was 5·6% (95% CI, 1·8-12·5). CONCLUSIONS: Identifying cases of inherited colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa is feasible, and our findings can inform screening guidelines appropriate to this setting.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Molécula de Adhesión Celular Epitelial/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Mutación de Línea Germinal , Homólogo 1 de la Proteína MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Inestabilidad de Microsatélites , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
14.
Global Health ; 15(1): 50, 2019 07 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health challenges and health systems set-ups differ, warranting contextualised healthcare interventions to move towards universal health coverage. As such, there is emphasis on generation of contextualized evidence to solve local challenges. However, weak research capacity and inadequate resources remain an impendiment to quality research in the African region. WHO African Region (WHO AFR) facilitated the adoption of a regional strategy for strengthening national health research systems (NHRS) in 2015. We assessed the progress in strengthening NHRS among the 47 member states of the WHO AFR. METHODS: We employed a cross sectional survey design using a semi structured questionnaire. All the 47member states of WHO AFR were surveyed. We assessed performance against indicators of the regional research strategy, explored facilitating factors and barriers to strengthening NHRS. Using the research barometer, which is a metric developed for the WHO AFR we assessed the strength of NHRS of member states. Data were analysed in Excel Software to calculate barometer scores for NHRS function and sub-function. Thematic content was employed in analysing the qualitative data. Data for 2014 were compared to 2018 to assess progress. RESULTS: WHO AFR member states have made significant progress in strengthening their NHRS. Some of the indicators have either attained or exceeded the 2025 targets. The average regional barometer score improved from 43% in 2014 to 61% in 2018. Significant improvements were registered in the governance of research for health (R4H); developing and sustaining research resources and producing and using research. Financing R4H improved only modestly. Among the constraints are the lengthy ethical clearance processes, weak research coordination mechanisms, weak enforcement of research laws and regulation, inadequate research infrastructure, limited resource mobilisation skills and donor dependence. CONCLUSION: There has been significant improvement in the NHRS of member states of the WHO AFRO since the last assessment in 2014. Improvement across the different objectives of the regional research strategy is however varied which compromises overall performance. The survey highlighted the areas with slow improvement that require a concerted effort. Furthermore, the study provides an opportunity for countries to share best practice in areas of excellence.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud/organización & administración , África , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Organización Mundial de la Salud
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215659, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116741

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in rural Zimbabwe and track the process of disclosure over time. METHODS: We recruited a population-based sample of 372 caregivers of HIV-positive children ages 9 to 15 to participate in a survey about disclosure. Using data from this cross-sectional sample, we then identified a prospective cohort of 123 caregivers who said their HIV-positive child did not know his or her HIV status, and we followed this non-disclosed cohort of caregivers through two additional waves of data collection over the next 12 months. At each wave, we inquired about the timing and process of disclosure and psychosocial factors related to HIV disclosure. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of disclosure in the cross-sectional sample was 66.9% (95% CI 62.0 to 71.5%). Only 26.9% of children knew how they were infected and that they can transmit the virus to others (i.e. "full disclosure"). Older children were more likely to know their status. Among the non-disclosed caregivers at baseline, nearly 60% of these children learned their HIV status over the course of the 12-month study period, but only 17.1% learned how they were infected and that they can transmit the virus to others. Most caregivers were satisfied with their child's disclosure experience. Caregivers who had not disclosed their child's HIV status to the child worried that disclosure would lead to stigma in the community, provoke questions from their child they would not be able to answer, or cause the child to reject the caregiver in anger. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that rates of pediatric HIV disclosure may be larger than typically reported, but also reinforces the idea that most children do not know key details about their illness, such as how they were infected and that they can infect others.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Estigma Social , Zimbabwe
16.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 14(1): 16, 2019 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use in HIV infected patients is associated with risky sexual behaviour, poor adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, treatment failure and increased physiologic harm. The objectives of the study were to pilot the outcome assessments to be used in the trial proper, assess the feasibility of delivery of a brief MI/CBT intervention compared to an WHO mhGAP intervention for problematic alcohol use in PLWH in Zimbabwe, and pilot the effectiveness (on alcohol use, functionality and CD4 count) of these interventions at 3 months in a randomised controlled trial design. METHODS: An intervention for HIV infected patients with problematic alcohol use, developed through adaptation of existing evidence based psychological treatments, was assessed for its feasibility at a tertiary HIV care clinic in Zimbabwe. Registered general nurses, using a manualised protocol, delivered the intervention. Forty patients were recruited and randomised to receive either an MI/CBT intervention or the WHO mhGAP Intervention Guide for AUDs (n = 20 patients per group). RESULTS: Out of 40 participants enrolled, 31 were successfully followed up for 3 months with a loss to follow-up rate of 23%. There was a statistically significant decrease in AUDIT score over time in both groups (p < 0.001), however no statistically significant group difference with a mean difference of 0.80, standard error of 2.07 and p = 0.70. For the CD4 count, the median and interquartile ranges at baseline for MI/CBT and WHO mhGAP IG groups were 218 (274) and 484 (211.50), respectively. At follow-up, median and interquartile ranges for the CD4 count for MI/CBT and WHO mhGAP IG groups were 390 (280) and 567 (378), respectively, indicative of improvement in immunological parameters in both arms. CONCLUSION: The findings from this pilot study suggests that a brief MI/CBT delivered by Registered General Nurses for problematic alcohol use is feasible in this population but will require the implementation of additional measures to improve retention. However, mechanisms to improve retention need special attention. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, current PACTR201509001211149.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/terapia , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/métodos , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/organización & administración , Proyectos Piloto , Psicoterapia Breve , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Carga Viral , Zimbabwe
17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(3): 145-150, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649072

RESUMEN

The interplay between hereditary and environmental factors in the causation of colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa is poorly understood. We carried out a community based case-control study to identify the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer in Zimbabwe. We recruited 101 cases of colorectal cancer and 202 controls, matched for age, sex and domicile. Potential risk factors including family history, socioeconomic status, urbanization, diabetes mellitus and previous schistosomiasis were evaluated. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios associated with the different factors. Cases were more likely to have a tertiary education (32.7 vs. 13.4%, P<0.001) and a higher income (18.8 vs. 6.9%, P=0.002). After multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR): 5.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-19.9; P=0.012], previous urban domicile (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.0-7.8; P=0.042), previous schistosomiasis (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.2; P=0.001) and cancer in a first-degree relative (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.2-4.8; P=0.018) were associated independently with colorectal cancer. Our findings suggest that family history, diabetes mellitus, previous schistosomiasis and approximation to a western lifestyle are the predominant associations with colorectal cancer in Africans. This offers opportunities for targeted prevention and hypothesis-driven research into the aetiology of colorectal cancer in this population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 57: 33-38, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa may be partly caused by changing dietary patterns. We sought to establish the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Zimbabwe. METHODS: One hundred colorectal cancer cases and 200 community-based controls were recruited. Data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis. Generalised linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns, participant characteristics and colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Three main dietary patterns were identified: traditional African, urbanised and processed food. The traditional African diet appeared protective against colorectal cancer (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.35; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.21 - 0.58), which had no association with the urban (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.43-1.08), or processed food (OR 0.91; 0.58-1.41) patterns. The traditional African diet was associated with rural domicile, (OR 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00-1.59), and a low income (OR1.48; 95% CI, 1.06-2.08). The urbanised diet was associated with urban domicile (OR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.38-2.10), secondary (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.59) or tertiary education (OR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.11-1.97), and monthly incomes of $201-500 (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.62), and the processed food pattern with tertiary education (OR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92), and income >$1000/month (OR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.02-2.15). CONCLUSION: A shift away from protective, traditional African dietary patterns may partly explain the rising incidence of colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Dieta , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Dieta/efectos adversos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
19.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 10: 47-55, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670405

RESUMEN

Background: Alcohol use is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions of the impact of alcohol use in the context of HIV care. Methods: The study design was a descriptive qualitative study of HIV positive individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. The study involved four focus group discussions with male and female participants at a tertiary center, city clinic, and rural church. We employed convenience sampling and invited patients coming for their routine visits and medication refills to participate. Results: Participants had an awareness of both the direct and indirect effects of alcohol use. The direct effects related to the incompatibility of HIV medication and alcohol. The indirect effects related to the negative impact of alcohol on treatment adherence. Participants proffered reasons why HIV infected individuals on HIV treatment drink and felt that patients had to make a deliberate choice to stop drinking. Participants displayed some knowledge of interventions for drinking cessation and highlighted the use of pharmacological interventions to stop drinking. Participants indicated that they preferred HIV counselors to provide counseling services in view of the existing relationships that patients had with counselors. Conclusion: People living with HIV have adequate knowledge of the effects of alcohol use in the context of HIV treatment. Stigma and the time taken to engage in an alcohol use intervention appeared to be the main impediments to uptake. The current model of HIV treatment, based on trust with the HIV care team, and maintenance of this trust, could bolster the uptake of an intervention. Involvement of HIV patients in their treatment is necessary to improve treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol use.

20.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2(5): 377-383, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397702

RESUMEN

The perception that colorectal cancer is rare in sub-Saharan Africa is widely held; however, it is unclear whether this is due to poor epidemiological data or to lower disease rates. The quality of epidemiological data has somewhat improved, and there is an ongoing transition to western dietary and lifestyle practices associated with colorectal cancer. The impact of these changes on the incidence of colorectal cancer is not as evident as it is with other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the epidemiology of colorectal cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. Colorectal cancer in this region frequently occurs at an early age, often with distinctive histological characteristics. We detail the crucial need for hypothesis-driven research on the risk factors for colorectal cancer in this population and identify key research gaps. Should colorectal cancer occur more frequently than assumed, then commensurate allocation of resources will be needed for diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Colorrectales/epidemiología , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Edad de Inicio , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
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