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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 381, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753863

RESUMEN

Therapies for lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are an unmet medical need. One mechanism underlying CRPC and resistance to hormonal therapies is the expression of constitutively active splice variant(s) of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) that lack its C-terminus ligand-binding domain. Transcriptional activities of AR-Vs and full-length AR reside in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Ralaniten is the only drug proven to bind AR NTD, and it showed promise of efficacy in Phase 1 trials. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Here we show that Pin1 interacted with AR NTD. The inhibition of Pin1 expression or its activity selectively reduced the transcriptional activities of full-length AR and AR-V7. Combination of Pin1 inhibitor with ralaniten promoted cell cycle arrest and had improved antitumor activity against CRPC xenografts in vivo compared to individual monotherapies. These findings support the rationale for therapy that combines a Pin1 inhibitor with ralaniten for treating CRPC.

2.
J Nat Prod ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124806

RESUMEN

Synthetic analogues of the marine natural product sintokamides have been prepared in order to investigate the structure-activity relationships for the androgen receptor N-terminal domain (AR NTD) antagonist activity of the sintokamide scaffold. An in vitro LNCaP cell-based transcriptional activity assay with an androgen-driven luciferase (Luc) reporter was used to monitor the potency of analogues. The data have shown that the chlorine atoms on the leucine side chains are essential for potent activity. Analogues missing the nonchlorinated methyl groups of the leucine side chains (C-1 and C-17) are just as active and in some cases more active than the natural products. Analogues with the natural R configuration at C-10 and the unnatural R configuration at C-4 are most potent. Replacing the natural propionamide N-terminus cap with the more sterically hindered pivaloylamide N-terminus cap leads to enhanced potency. The tetramic acid fragment and the methyl ether on the tetramic acid fragment are essential for activity. The SAR optimized analogue 76 is more selective, easier to synthesize, more potent, and presumed to be more resistant to proteolysis than the natural sintokamides.

3.
Hum Cell ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954481

RESUMEN

The androgen receptor (AR) is a validated therapeutic target for prostate cancer and has been a focus for drug development for more than six decades. Currently approved therapies that inhibit AR signaling, such as enzalutamide, rely solely on targeting the AR ligand-binding domain and, therefore, have limited efficacy on prostate cancer cells that express truncated, constitutively active AR splice variants (AR-Vs). The LNCaP95 cell line is a human prostate cancer cell line that expresses both functional full-length AR and AR-V7. LNCaP95 is a heterogeneous cell population that is resistant to enzalutamide, with its proliferation dependent on transcriptionally active AR-V7. The purpose of this study was to identify a LNCaP95 clone that would be useful for evaluating therapies for their effectiveness against enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells. Seven clones from the LNCaP95 cell line were isolated and characterized using morphology, in vitro growth rate, and response to ralaniten (AR N-terminal domain inhibitor) and enzalutamide (antiandrogen). In vivo growth of the clones as subcutaneous xenografts was evaluated in castrated immunodeficient mice. All of the clones maintained the expression of full-length AR and AR-V7. Cell proliferation of the clones was insensitive to androgen and enzalutamide but importantly was inhibited by ralaniten, which is consistent with AR-Vs driving the proliferation of parental LNCaP95 cells. In castrated immunodeficient animals, the growth of subcutaneous xenografts of the D3 clone was the most reproducible compared to the parental cell line and other clones. These data support that the enzalutamide-resistant LNCaP95-D3 subline may be suitable as a xenograft tumor model for preclinical drug development with improved reproducibility.

4.
Mol Oncol ; 14(10): 2455-2470, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734688

RESUMEN

Resistance of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to enzalutamide and abiraterone involves the expression of constitutively active, truncated androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (AR-Vs) that lack a C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Both full-length AR and truncated AR-Vs require a functional N-terminal domain (NTD) for transcriptional activity thereby providing rationale for the development of ralaniten (EPI-002) as a first-in-class antagonist of the AR-NTD. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effect of a next-generation analog of ralaniten (EPI-7170) as a monotherapy or in combination with enzalutamide in prostate cancer cells that express AR-V7 that were resistant to enzalutamide. EPI-7170 had 8-9 times improved potency compared to ralaniten. Enzalutamide increased levels of AR-V7 and expression of its target genes. Knockdown of AR-V7 restored sensitivity to enzalutamide, indicating a role for AR-V7 in the mechanism of resistance. EPI-7170 inhibited expression of genes transcriptionally regulated by full-length AR and AR-V7. A combination of EPI-7170 and enzalutamide resulted in synergistic inhibition of proliferation of enzalutamide-resistant cells that was consistent with results from cell cycle and clonogenic assays. In addition, this drug enhanced the antitumor effect of enzalutamide in enzalutamide-resistant CRPC preclinical models. Thus, a combination therapy targeting both the NTD and LBD of AR, and thereby blocking both full-length AR and AR-Vs, has potential for the treatment of enzalutamide-resistant CRPC.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708219

RESUMEN

Blocking androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves the response to radiotherapy for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Unfortunately, ADT, antiandrogens, and abiraterone increase expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR (AR-Vs) which regulate DNA damage repair leading to resistance to radiotherapy. Here we investigate whether blocking the transcriptional activities of full-length AR and AR-Vs with ralaniten leads to enhanced sensitivity to radiotherapy. Combination therapies using ralaniten with ionizing radiation were evaluated for effects on proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, DNA damage, and Western blot analyses in human prostate cancer cells that express both full-length AR and AR-Vs. Ralaniten and a potent next-generation analog (EPI-7170) decreased expression of DNA repair genes whereas enzalutamide had no effect. FACS analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease of BrdU incorporation with increased accumulation of γH2AX with a combination of ionizing radiation with ralaniten. An additive inhibitory effect on proliferation of enzalutamide-resistant cells was achieved with a combination of ralaniten compounds with ionizing radiation. Ralaniten and EPI-7170 sensitized prostate cancer cells that express full-length AR and AR-Vs to radiotherapy whereas enzalutamide had no added benefit.

6.
Org Lett ; 22(11): 4053-4057, 2020 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283033

RESUMEN

Methods for the focused isolation of low-abundance natural products with specific chemical substructures could expand known bioactive chemical diversity for drug discovery. Here we report the combined use of genome mining and an 15N NMR-based screening method for the targeted isolation of the low-abundance piperazic-acid-containing peptides incarnatapeptins A (1) and B (3). Incarnatapeptin B (3) shows in vitro cytotoxicity to LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

7.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 15(5): 551-560, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100577

RESUMEN

Introduction: Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and regions (IDRs) lack stable three-dimensional structure making drug discovery challenging. A validated therapeutic target for diseases such as prostate cancer is the androgen receptor (AR) which has a disordered amino-terminal domain (NTD) that contains all of its transcriptional activity. Drug discovery against the AR-NTD is of intense interest as a potential treatment for disease such as advanced prostate cancer that is driven by truncated constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD).Areas covered: This article presents an overview of the relevance of AR and its intrinsically disordered NTD as a drug target. AR structure and approaches to blocking AR transcriptional activity are discussed. The discovery of small molecules, including the libraries used, proven binders to the AR-NTD, and site of interaction of these small molecules in the AR-NTD are presented along with discussion of the Phase I clinical trial.Expert opinion: The lack of drugs in the clinic that directly bind IDPs/IDRs reflects the difficulty of targeting these proteins and obtaining specificity. However, it may also point to an inappropriateness of too closely borrowing concepts and resources from drug discovery to folded proteins.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 294(22): 8711-8712, 2019 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152093

RESUMEN

The androgen receptor (AR) is tightly linked to prostate cancer, but the mechanisms by which AR transactivation is dysregulated during cancer progression are not fully explored. Dagar et al. examined AR translocation to the nucleus to identify a link between heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and protein kinase A (PKA). Their findings provide a potential mechanism of the initiation of AR transactivation and potential targets for developing and refining treatments for prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Receptores Androgénicos , Proteínas Quinasas Dependientes de AMP Cíclico , Proteínas HSP90 de Choque Térmico , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilación
9.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 2(6): 453-467, 2019 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259077

RESUMEN

Inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Ralaniten (formally EPI-002) prevents AR transcriptional activity by binding to its N-terminal domain (NTD) which is essential for transcriptional activity. Ralaniten acetate (EPI-506) the triacetate pro-drug of ralaniten, remains the only AR-NTD inhibitor to have entered clinical trials (NCT02606123). While well tolerated, the trial was ultimately terminated due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and resulting pill burden. Here we discovered that ralaniten was glucuronidated which resulted in decreased potency. Long-term treatment of prostate cancer cells with ralaniten results in upregulation of UGT2B enzymes with concomitant loss of potency. This has proven to be a useful model with which to facilitate the development of more potent second-generation AR-NTD inhibitors. Glucuronidated metabolites of ralaniten were also detected in the serum of patients in Phase 1 clinical trials. Therefore, we tested an analogue of ralaniten (EPI-045) which was resistant to glucuronidation and demonstrated superiority to ralaniten in our resistant model. These data support that analogues of ralaniten designed to mitigate glucuronidation may optimize clinical responses to AR-NTD inhibitors.

10.
J Clin Med ; 7(11)2018 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453546

RESUMEN

Expression of androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has been identified as the mechanism associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, a potential link between AR-V7 expression and resistance to taxanes, such as docetaxel or cabazitaxel, has not been unequivocally demonstrated. To address this, we used LNCaP95-DR cells, which express AR-V7 and exhibit resistance to enzalutamide and docetaxel. Interestingly, LNCaP95-DR cells showed cross-resistance to cabazitaxel. Furthermore, these cells had increased levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their sensitivity to both docetaxel and cabazitaxel was restored through treatment with tariquidar, a P-gp antagonist. Results generated demonstrated that P-gp mediated cross-resistance between docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Although the LNCaP95-DR cells had increased expression of AR-V7 and its target genes (UBE2C, CDC20), the knockdown of AR-V7 did not restore sensitivity to docetaxel or cabazitaxel. However, despite resistance to docetaxel and carbazitaxel, EPI-002, an antagonist of the AR amino-terminal domain (NTD), had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of LNCaP95-DR cells, which was similar to that achieved with the parental LNCaP95 cells. On the other hand, enzalutamide had no effect on the proliferation of either cell line. In conclusion, our results suggested that EPI-002 may be an option for the treatment of AR-V7-driven CRPC, which is resistant to taxanes.

12.
Res Rep Urol ; 10: 23-32, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497605

RESUMEN

Enzalutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) both before and after chemotherapy. Enzalutamide is more effective than its predecessor bicalutamide, which was analyzed in head-to-head studies of patients with CRPC. This family of nonsteroidal antiandrogens is now comprised of four drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration with two investigational drugs in clinical trials. Antiandrogens have been employed clinically for more than five decades to provide a rich resource of information. Steady-state concentration minimums (Cmin or trough) in the range of ~1-13 µg/mL are measured in patients at therapeutic doses. Interestingly, enzalutamide which is considered to have strong affinity for the androgen receptor (AR) requires Cmin levels >10 µg/mL. The sequence of antiandrogens and the clinical order of application in regard to other drugs that target the androgen axis remain of high interest. One novel first-in-class drug, called ralaniten, which binds to a unique region in the N-terminus domain of both the full-length and the truncated constitutively active splice variants of the AR, is currently in clinical trials for patients who previously received abiraterone, enzalutamide, or both. This highlights the trend to develop drugs with novel mechanisms of action and potentially differing mechanisms of resistance compared with antiandrogens. Better and more complete inhibition of the transcriptional activity of the AR appears to continue to provide improvements in the clinical management of mCRPC.

13.
Structure ; 26(1): 4-6, 2018 01 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298412

RESUMEN

The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor is tightly regulated by an intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain. In this issue of Structure, De Mol et al. (2018) identify a motif in the disordered transactivation domain that can be induced to adopt a helical conformation essential for interaction with the transcriptional machinery.


Asunto(s)
Receptores Androgénicos , Transducción de Señal , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Unión Proteica , Activación Transcripcional
14.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174134, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306720

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor family and a therapeutic target for all stages of prostate cancer. AR is activated by ligand binding within its C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD). Here we show that overexpression of the AR NTD to generate decoy molecules inhibited both the growth and progression of prostate cancer in castrated hosts. Specifically, it was shown that lentivirus delivery of decoys delayed hormonal progression in castrated hosts as indicated by increased doubling time of tumor volume, prolonged time to achieve pre-castrate levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA nadir. These clinical parameters are indicative of delayed hormonal progression and improved therapeutic response and prognosis. Decoys reduced the expression of androgen-regulated genes that correlated with reduced in situ interaction of the AR with androgen response elements. Decoys did not reduce levels of AR protein or prevent nuclear localization of the AR. Nor did decoys interact directly with the AR. Thus decoys did not inhibit AR transactivation by a dominant negative mechanism. This work provides evidence that the AR NTD plays an important role in the hormonal progression of prostate cancer and supports the development of AR antagonists that target the AR NTD.


Asunto(s)
Orquiectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Receptores Androgénicos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Recurrencia
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28144231

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) is a validated drug target for prostate cancer based on its role in proliferation, survival, and metastases of prostate cancer cells. Unfortunately, despite recent improvements to androgen deprivation therapy and the advent of better antiandrogens with a superior affinity for the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD), most patients with recurrent disease will eventually develop lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Expression of constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD contribute toward therapeutic resistance by bypassing androgen blockade and antiandrogens. In the canonical pathway, binding of androgen to AR LBD triggers the release of AR from molecular chaperones which enable conformational changes and protein-protein interactions to facilitate its nuclear translocation where it regulates the expression of target genes. However, preceding AR function in the nucleus, initial binding of androgen to AR LBD in the cytoplasm may already initiate signal transduction pathways to modulate cellular proliferation and migration. In this article, we review the significance of signal transduction pathways activated by rapid, non-genomic signaling of the AR during the progression to metastatic CRPC and put into perspective the implications for current and novel therapies that target different domains of AR.

16.
J Biol Chem ; 291(42): 22231-22243, 2016 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576691

RESUMEN

Androgen receptor (AR) is a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). All current hormone therapies for CRPC target the C-terminal ligand-binding domain of AR and ultimately all fail with resumed AR transcriptional activity. Within the AR N-terminal domain (NTD) is activation function-1 (AF-1) that is essential for AR transcriptional activity. Inhibitors of AR AF-1 would potentially block most AR mechanisms of resistance including constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the ligand-binding domain. Here we provide evidence that sintokamide A (SINT1) binds AR AF-1 region to specifically inhibit transactivation of AR NTD. Consistent with SINT1 targeting AR AF-1, it attenuated transcriptional activities of both full-length AR and constitutively active AR splice variants, which correlated with inhibition of growth of enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells expressing AR splice variants. In vivo, SINT1 caused regression of CRPC xenografts and reduced expression of prostate-specific antigen, a gene transcriptionally regulated by AR. Inhibition of AR activity by SINT1 was additive to EPI-002, a known AR AF-1 inhibitor that is in clinical trials (NCT02606123). This implies that SINT1 binds to a site on AF-1 that is unique from EPI. Consistent with this suggestion, these two compounds showed differences in blocking AR interaction with STAT3. This work provides evidence that the intrinsically disordered NTD of AR is druggable and that SINT1 analogs may provide a novel scaffold for drug development for the treatment of prostate cancer or other diseases of the AR axis.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Pirrolidinonas/farmacología , Receptores Androgénicos/biosíntesis , Activación Transcripcional/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/metabolismo , Dominios Proteicos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacocinética , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/metabolismo
17.
Oncologist ; 21(12): 1427-1435, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628492

RESUMEN

: Despite the recent approval and widespread use of abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), this disease still poses significant management challenges because of various tumor escape mechanisms, including those that allow androgen receptor (AR) signaling to remain active. These AR-related resistance mechanisms include AR gene amplification or overexpression, constitutively active ligand-independent AR splice variants, and gain-of-function mutations involving the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD), among others. Therefore, the development of AR-targeted therapies that function independently of the LBD represents an unmet medical need and has the potential to overcome many of these resistance mechanisms. This article discusses N-terminal domain (NTD) inhibition as a novel concept in the field of AR-directed therapies for prostate cancer. AR NTD-targeting agents have the potential to overcome shortcomings of current hormonal therapies by inhibiting all forms of AR-mediated transcriptional activity, and as a result, may affect a broader AR population including mutational and splice variant ARs. Indeed, the first clinical trial of an AR NTD inhibitor is now underway. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Because of emerging resistance mechanisms that involve the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor (AR), there is currently no effective treatment addressing tumor escape mechanisms related to current AR-targeted therapies. Many patients still demonstrate limited clinical response to current hormonal agents, and castration-resistant prostate cancer remains a lethal disease. Intense research efforts are under way to develop therapies to target resistance mechanisms, including those directed at other parts of the AR molecule. A novel small-molecule agent, EPI-506, represents a new pharmaceutical class, AR N-terminal domain inhibitors, and shows preclinical promise to overcome many known resistance mechanisms related to novel hormonal therapies.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/uso terapéutico , Clorhidrinas/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores Androgénicos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Dominios Proteicos , Receptores Androgénicos/fisiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Transducción de Señal , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilasa/antagonistas & inhibidores
18.
JCI Insight ; 1(11)2016 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525313

RESUMEN

Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD-targeted (AR LBD-targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V-positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD-targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone. Both EPI-506 (NCT02606123) and galeterone (NCT02438007) are in clinical trials and are proposed to have efficacy against lesions that are positive for AR-Vs. AR activation function-1 (AF-1) is common to the N-terminal domains of full-length AR and AR-Vs. Here, we provide proof of concept for developing imaging compounds that directly bind AR AF-1 to detect both AR-Vs and full-length AR. 123I-EPI-002 had specific binding to AR AF-1, which enabled direct visualization of CRPC xenografts that express full-length AR and AR-Vs. Our findings highlight the potential of 123I-EPI-002 as an imaging agent for the detection of full-length AR and AR-Vs in CRPC.

19.
Int J Urol ; 23(8): 654-65, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302572

RESUMEN

The androgen receptor is a transcription factor and validated therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the gold standard treatment, but it is not curative, and eventually the disease will return as lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. There have been improvements in the therapeutic landscape with new agents approved, such as abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel and Ra-223, in the past 5 years. New insight into the mechanisms of resistance to treatments in advanced disease is being and has been elucidated. All current androgen receptor-targeting therapies inhibit the growth of prostate cancer by blocking the ligand-binding domain, where androgen binds to activate the receptor. Persuasive evidence supports the concept that constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants lacking the ligand-binding domain are one of the resistant mechanisms underlying advanced disease. Transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor requires a functional AF-1 region in its N-terminal domain. Preclinical evidence proved that this domain is a druggable target to forecast a potential paradigm shift in the management of advanced prostate cancer. This review presents an overview of androgen receptor-related mechanisms of resistance as well as novel therapeutic agents to overcome resistance that is linked to the expression of androgen receptor splice variants in castration-resistant prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Receptores Androgénicos/efectos de los fármacos , Andrógenos , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Radio (Elemento)
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(17): 4466-77, 2016 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27140928

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Persistent androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity is clinically evident in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, AR remains as a viable therapeutic target for CRPC. All current hormonal therapies target the C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. By using EPI to target AR activation function-1 (AF-1), in the N-terminal domain that is essential for AR transactivation, we evaluate the ability of EPI to overcome several clinically relevant AR-related mechanisms of resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To study the effect of EPI on AR transcriptional activity against overexpressed coactivators, such as SRC1-3 and p300, luciferase reporter assays were performed using LNCaP cells. AR-negative COS-1 cells were employed for reporter assays to examine whether the length of polyglutamine tract affects inhibition by EPI. The effect of EPI on constitutively active AR splice variants was studied in LNCaP95 cells, which express AR-V7 variant. To evaluate the effect of EPI on the proliferation of LNCaP95 cells, we performed in vitro BrdUrd incorporation assay and in vivo studies using xenografts in mice. RESULTS: EPI effectively overcame several molecular alterations underlying aberrant AR activity, including overexpressed coactivators, AR gain-of-function mutations, and constitutively active AR-V7. EPI inhibited AR transcriptional activity regardless of the length of polyglutamine tract. Importantly, EPI significantly inhibited the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of LNCaP95 prostate cancer cells, which are androgen independent and enzalutamide resistant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support EPI as a promising therapeutic agent to treat CRPC, particularly against tumors driven by constitutively active AR splice variants that are resistant to LBD-targeting drugs. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4466-77. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Sharp et al., p. 4280.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Androgénicos/farmacología , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/farmacología , Clorhidrinas/farmacología , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Receptores Androgénicos/metabolismo , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Células COS , Línea Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Mutación , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Unión Proteica , Empalme del ARN , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Activación Transcripcional , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
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