Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842427

RESUMEN

Two years of satellite observations were used to quantify methane emissions from coal mines in Queensland, the largest coal-producing state in Australia. The six analyzed surface and underground coal mines are estimated to emit 570 ± 98 Gg a-1 in 2018-2019. Together, they account for 7% of the national coal production while emitting 55 ± 10% of the reported methane emission from coal mining in Australia. Our results indicate that for two of the three locations, our satellite-based estimates are significantly higher than reported to the Australian government. Most remarkably, 40% of the quantified emission came from a single surface mine (Hail Creek) located in a methane-rich coal basin. Our findings call for increased monitoring and investment in methane recovery technologies for both surface and underground mines.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4138, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602990

RESUMEN

Quantifying natural geological sources of methane (CH4) allows to improve the assessment of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere from fossil fuel industries. The global CH4 flux of geological gas is, however, an object of debate. Recent fossil (14C-free) CH4 measurements in preindustrial-era ice cores suggest very low global geological emissions (~ 1.6 Tg year-1), implying a larger fossil fuel industry source. This is however in contrast with previously published bottom-up and top-down geo-emission estimates (~ 45 Tg year-1) and even regional-scale emissions of ~ 1-2 Tg year-1. Here we report on significant geological CH4 emissions from the Lusi hydrothermal system (Indonesia), measured by ground-based and satellite (TROPOMI) techniques. Both techniques indicate a total CH4 output of ~ 0.1 Tg year-1, equivalent to the minimum value of global geo-emission derived by ice core 14CH4 estimates. Our results are consistent with the order of magnitude of the emission factors of large seeps used in global bottom-up estimates, and endorse a substantial contribution from natural Earth's CH4 degassing. The preindustrial ice core assessments of geological CH4 release may be underestimated and require further study. Satellite measurements can help to test geological CH4 emission factors and explain the gap between the contrasting estimates.

3.
Sci Adv ; 6(17): eaaz5120, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494644

RESUMEN

Using new satellite observations and atmospheric inverse modeling, we report methane emissions from the Permian Basin, which is among the world's most prolific oil-producing regions and accounts for >30% of total U.S. oil production. Based on satellite measurements from May 2018 to March 2019, Permian methane emissions from oil and natural gas production are estimated to be 2.7 ± 0.5 Tg a-1, representing the largest methane flux ever reported from a U.S. oil/gas-producing region and are more than two times higher than bottom-up inventory-based estimates. This magnitude of emissions is 3.7% of the gross gas extracted in the Permian, i.e., ~60% higher than the national average leakage rate. The high methane leakage rate is likely contributed by extensive venting and flaring, resulting from insufficient infrastructure to process and transport natural gas. This work demonstrates a high-resolution satellite data-based atmospheric inversion framework, providing a robust top-down analytical tool for quantifying and evaluating subregional methane emissions.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843920

RESUMEN

Methane emissions due to accidents in the oil and natural gas sector are very challenging to monitor, and hence are seldom considered in emission inventories and reporting. One of the main reasons is the lack of measurements during such events. Here we report the detection of large methane emissions from a gas well blowout in Ohio during February to March 2018 in the total column methane measurements from the spaceborne Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). From these data, we derive a methane emission rate of 120 ± 32 metric tons per hour. This hourly emission rate is twice that of the widely reported Aliso Canyon event in California in 2015. Assuming the detected emission represents the average rate for the 20-d blowout period, we find the total methane emission from the well blowout is comparable to one-quarter of the entire state of Ohio's reported annual oil and natural gas methane emission, or, alternatively, a substantial fraction of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions from several European countries. Our work demonstrates the strength and effectiveness of routine satellite measurements in detecting and quantifying greenhouse gas emission from unpredictable events. In this specific case, the magnitude of a relatively unknown yet extremely large accidental leakage was revealed using measurements of TROPOMI in its routine global survey, providing quantitative assessment of associated methane emissions.

5.
Geohealth ; 3(1): 2-10, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159019

RESUMEN

The annual premature mortality in India attributed to exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) exceeds 1 million (Cohen et al., 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30505-6). Studies have estimated sector-specific premature mortality from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India and shown residential energy use is the dominant contributing sector. In this study, we estimate the contribution of PM2.5 and premature mortality from six regions of India in 2012 using the global chemical-transport model. We calculate how premature mortality in India is determined by the transport of pollution from different regions. Of the estimated 1.1 million annual premature deaths from PM2.5 in India, about ~60% was from anthropogenic pollutants emitted from within the region in which premature mortality occurred, ~19% was from transport of anthropogenic pollutants between different regions within India, ~16% was due to anthropogenic pollutants emitted outside of India, and ~4% was associated with natural PM2.5 sources. The emissions from Indo Gangetic Plain contributed to ~46% of total premature mortality over India, followed by Southern India (13%). Indo Gangetic Plain also contributed (~8%) to the most premature mortalities in other regions of India through transport. More than 50% of the premature mortality in Northern, Eastern, Western, and Central India was due to transport of PM2.5 from regions outside of these individual regions. Our results indicate that reduction in anthropogenic emissions over India, as well as its neighboring regions, will be required to reduce the health impact of ambient PM2.5 in India.

6.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 123(7): 3688-3703, 2018 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614367

RESUMEN

Tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) over India was simulated by Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem, a global 3-D chemical-transport model, using SMOG (Speciated Multi-pOllutant Generator from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay) and GEOS-Chem (GC) (current inventories used in the GEOS-Chem model) inventories for 2012. The simulated AODs were ~80% (SMOG) and 60% (GC) of those measured by the satellites (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer). There is no strong seasonal variation in AOD over India. The peak AOD values are observed/simulated during summer. The simulated AOD using SMOG inventory has particulate black and organic carbon AOD higher by a factor ~5 and 3, respectively, compared to GC inventory. The model underpredicted coarse-mode AOD but agreed for fine-mode AOD with Aerosol Robotic Network data. It captured dust only over Western India, which is a desert, and not elsewhere, probably due to inaccurate dust transport and/or noninclusion of other dust sources. The calculated AOD, after dust correction, showed the general features in its observed spatial variation. Highest AOD values were observed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain followed by Central and Southern India with lowest values in Northern India. Transport of aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central India into Eastern India, where emissions are low, is significant. The major contributors to total AOD over India are inorganic aerosol (41-64%), organic carbon (14-26%), and dust (7-32%). AOD over most regions of India is a factor of 5 or higher than over the United States.

7.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(11): 8017-8039, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679902

RESUMEN

India is currently experiencing degraded air quality, and future economic development will lead to challenges for air quality management. Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for 2015-2050, under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The impacts of individual source sectors on PM2.5 concentrations were assessed through systematic simulations of spatially and temporally resolved particulate matter concentrations, using the GEOS-Chem model, followed by population-weighted aggregation to national and state levels. We find that PM2.5 pollution is a pan-India problem, with a regional character, and is not limited to urban areas or megacities. Under present-day emissions, levels in most states exceeded the national PM2.5 annual standard (40 µg m-3). Sources related to human activities were responsible for the largest proportion of the present-day population exposure to PM2.5 in India. About 60 % of India's mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations come from anthropogenic source sectors, while the remainder are from "other" sources, windblown dust and extra-regional sources. Leading contributors are residential biomass combustion, power plant and industrial coal combustion and anthropogenic dust (including coal fly ash, fugitive road dust and waste burning). Transportation, brick production and distributed diesel were other contributors to PM2.5. Future evolution of emissions under regulations set at current levels and promulgated levels caused further deterioration of air quality in 2030 and 2050. Under an ambitious prospective policy scenario, promoting very large shifts away from traditional biomass technologies and coal-based electricity generation, significant reductions in PM2.5 levels are achievable in 2030 and 2050. Effective mitigation of future air pollution in India requires adoption of aggressive prospective regulation, currently not formulated, for a three-pronged switch away from (i) biomass-fuelled traditional technologies, (ii) industrial coal-burning and (iii) open burning of agricultural residue. Future air pollution is dominated by industrial process emissions, reflecting larger expansion in industrial, rather than residential energy demand. However, even under the most active reductions envisioned, the 2050 mean exposure, excluding any impact from windblown mineral dust, is estimated to be nearly 3 times higher than the WHO Air Quality Guideline.

8.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40178, 2017 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067276

RESUMEN

The difference in land surface temperature (LST) between an urban region and its nearby non-urban region, known as surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII), is usually positive as reported in earlier studies. India has experienced unprecedented urbanization over recent decades with an urban population of 380 million. Here, we present the first study of the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of SUHII in India. We found negative SUHII over a majority of urban areas during daytime in pre-monsoon summer (MAM), contrary to the expected impacts of urbanization. This unexpected pattern is associated with low vegetation in non-urban regions during dry pre-monsoon summers, leading to reduced evapotranspiration (ET). During pre-monsoon summer nights, a positive SUHII occurs when urban impacts are prominent. Winter daytime SUHII becomes positive in Indo-Gangetic plain. We attribute such diurnal and seasonal behaviour of SUHII to the same of the differences in ET between urban and non-urban regions. Higher LST in non-urban regions during pre-monsoon summer days results in intensified heatwaves compared to heatwaves in cities, in contrast to presumptions made in the literature. These observations highlight the need for re-evaluation of SUHII in India for climate adaptation, heat stress mitigation, and analysis of urban micro-climates.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(24): 13531-8, 2012 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23163320

RESUMEN

Kerosene-fueled wick lamps used in millions of developing-country households are a significant but overlooked source of black carbon (BC) emissions. We present new laboratory and field measurements showing that 7-9% of kerosene consumed by widely used simple wick lamps is converted to carbonaceous particulate matter that is nearly pure BC. These high emission factors increase previous BC emission estimates from kerosene by 20-fold, to 270 Gg/year (90% uncertainty bounds: 110, 590 Gg/year). Aerosol climate forcing on atmosphere and snow from this source is estimated at 22 mW/m² (8, 48 mW/m²), or 7% of BC forcing by all other energy-related sources. Kerosene lamps have affordable alternatives that pose few clear adoption barriers and would provide immediate benefit to user welfare. The net effect on climate is definitively positive forcing as coemitted organic carbon is low. No other major BC source has such readily available alternatives, definitive climate forcing effects, and cobenefits. Replacement of kerosene-fueled wick lamps deserves strong consideration for programs that target short-lived climate forcers.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Calor , Artículos Domésticos , Queroseno , Iluminación , Hollín/análisis , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Clima , Material Particulado/química , Termodinámica
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...