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1.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(7): 455-465, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985268

RESUMEN

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are closely related members within the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, for which fruit bats serve as the reservoir. The initial emergence of NiV infections in pigs and humans in Malaysia, and HeV infections in horses and humans in Australia, posed severe impacts on human and animal health, and continues threatening lives of humans and livestock within Southeast Asia and Australia. Recently, henipavirus-specific antibodies have also been detected in fruit bats in a number of sub-Saharan African countries and in Brazil, thereby considerably increasing the known geographic distribution of henipaviruses. Africa is progressively being recognized as a new high prevalence zone for henipaviruses, as deduced from serological and molecular evidence of past infections in Madagascar, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Gulf of Guinea, Zambia, Tanzania, Cameroon, and Nigeria lately. Serological data suggest henipavirus spillover from bats to livestock and human populations in Africa without reported clinical disease in any of these species. All virus isolation attempts have been abortive, highlighting the need for further investigations. The genome of the Ghanaian bat henipavirus designated Ghana virus (GhV), which was detected in a pteropid Eidolon helvum bat, is the only African henipavirus that has been completely sequenced limiting our current knowledge on the genetic diversity and pathogenesis of African henipaviruses. In this review, we summarize the available data on the circulation of henipaviruses in Africa, discuss potential sources for virus spillover, and highlight existing research gaps.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/epidemiología , Henipavirus , África/epidemiología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por Henipavirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Henipavirus/virología , Humanos , Ganado/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Zoonosis/virología
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 17(1): 41, 2017 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28228111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial activity of anthraquinone compounds of emodine type has been reported by many authors. These compounds are found in Vismia laurentii (Clusiaceae), a plant used in traditional pharmacopoeia for treatment of microbial infections among others affections. The continuous identification of new compounds has raised the problem of the relation between the structure and antimicrobial properties. RESULTS: The yeast growth kinetics parameters were not influenced by the pH variation as it was the case for the other tested bacteria. Fungicidal activities were noted for all molecules while only few of them had bactericidal activities, mostly on Gram positive bacteria. Mathematical model establishing a quantitative relationship between physicochemical properties of molecules and their fungicidal activities were obtained for Candida albicans and showed that physicochemical properties impacting on antifungal activity were polarizability, partition coefficient, molecular weight and hydrogen bond acceptor. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated that the presence of a long aliphatic chain methoxy group substituted in position two of the emodine structure increased the antibacterial properties of the studied compounds. Moreover this antimicrobial property depends on the pH of the environment, and specifically on the polarizability and number of hydrogen bond acceptors of the compound.


Asunto(s)
Antraquinonas/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Clusiaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Antraquinonas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fenómenos Químicos , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias Grampositivas/efectos de los fármacos , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Estructura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/química , Levaduras/efectos de los fármacos , Levaduras/crecimiento & desarrollo
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