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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

RESUMEN

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/efectos de los fármacos , Nefropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Acacia/química , Superóxido Dismutasa , Hemoglobina Glucada/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Expresión Génica , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , ATPasa Intercambiadora de Sodio-Potasio/genética , Estrés Oxidativo , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Control Glucémico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Malondialdehído
2.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 128(6): 1548-1558, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574082

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), endothelin-1 and angiotensin II are responsible for extracellular matrix accumulation within the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of adding Gum Arabic (GA) and insulin on serum glucose, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II in rats with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into; normal, normal plus GA, diabetic rats (DM), DM plus insulin, DM plus GA, and DM plus insulin plus GA groups. Levels of glucose and creatinine in serum, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 in renal homogenate and HbA1c were measured. RESULTS: Serum creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, and endothelin-1 were increased in diabetic rats. GA decreased serum glucose, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. GA and insulin decreased serum glucose, creatinine, TGF-ß1, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and HbA1c in diabetic rats. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of GA with insulin to rats with diabetic nephropathy improved the glycemic state, renal function, TGF-ß1, endothelin-1, and angiotensin II.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatías Diabéticas , Insulinas , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Creatinina , Angiotensina II/farmacología , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Endotelina-1 , Goma Arábiga/farmacología , Hemoglobina Glucada , Senegal , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Riñón , Glucosa/farmacología , Insulinas/farmacología
3.
J Lipids ; 2019: 3129461, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316836

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited haemolytic anemia with a variable course and severity. Knowledge of prognostic biomarkers may help in the establishment of therapeutic intervention, management, and follow-up of patients. There have been scattered reports of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased triglyceride (TG) in SCD patients. In addition, TG levels have been suggested to be elevated in patients with increased endothelial activation. An increased TG level has been associated with haemolysis, vascular dysfunction, and increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Gum Arabic (GA) is an edible, dried, gummy exudate from the acacia Senegal tree. Several studies on GA ingestion have shown reduced plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations in both animals and humans. We investigated GA's therapeutic potential to modulate serum lipids in patients with sickle cell anemia. METHODS: This study recruited and documented secondary outcomes in 47 patients (aged 5-42 years) carrying hemoglobin SS. The patients received 30 g/day of GA for 12 weeks. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and HDL were measured before and after GA intake. Cobas C311 (Roche, Germany) automated chemistry analyser was used for direct determination of the values of the lipid profile. RESULTS: GA significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC), TG, and LDL (p = 0.006, 0.04, and 0.02, resp.). GA showed no effect on HDL level. Baseline serum TG and LDL correlated significantly with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level, which is known as an oxidative stress marker (p = 0.003 and 0.04, resp.). None of the lipid profile elements correlated with age. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that dyslipidemia in sickle cell patients is associated with oxidative stress but not associated with age. The findings showed that GA significantly decreased TC, LDL, and TG levels, revealing a novel effect of GA, which is considered a natural dietary fibre that can modulate lipid profile in patients with sickle cell anemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This retrospective trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02467257 on 3 June, 2015.

4.
Egypt J Immunol ; 26(2): 1-10, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926490

RESUMEN

Tuberculosis (TB) affects human life globally for a long time. The difference in clinical outcome of infection suggests that host genetic makeup is responsible for such variability. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors and have a significant role in mycobacterial recognition by the innate immune system. TLR-4 is the key receptor in initiation of innate immunity against M. tuberculosis. This study investigated whether variants in TLR-4 896A/G (Asp299Gly) and TLR-4 1196C/T (Thr399Ile) genes are related with susceptibility or resistance to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Saudi population. Genotyping of TLR-4 896A/G, TLR-4 1196C/T gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR -RFLP) in 60 PTB patients and 60 control subjects. The A allele at (896A/G) was more frequent in the control group while G allele was more common in PTB patients. The frequency of T allele of (1196C/T) polymorphism was significantly increased in PTB patients as compared to the control group (P < 0.001; Odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.65-4.72). A trend toward increased frequency of TT and CT genotypes of TLR4 at (1196C/T) were also observed in PTB patients as compared to control group (48.3% vs. 26, 7%, and 21.7% vs. 15%), respectively. This study suggests that that TLR4 polymorphism especially TLR4 rs4986791 may be associated with increase susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, and C allele of rs4986791 is a promising protective factor for tuberculosis susceptibility in Saudi population.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Frecuencia de los Genes , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Arabia Saudita
5.
Lipids Health Dis ; 17(1): 56, 2018 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558953

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a strong association between cardiometabolic risk and adipose tissue dysfunction with great consequences on type 2 diabetic patients. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is an indirect clinical marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Gum Arabic (GA) is a safe dietary fiber, an exudate of Acacia Senegal. Gum Arabic had shown lipid lowering effect in both humans and animals. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of GA supplementation on anthropometric obesity marker, Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial recruited a total of 91 type 2 diabetic patients (73 females, 18 males), age (mean ± SD) 50.09 ± 9.3 years on hypoglycemic agents and were randomly assigned into two groups, either to consume 30 g of GA or 5 g of placebo daily for 3 months. Anthropometric obesity markers were measured and indices were calculated. Blood pressure was measured and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in fasting blood samples at the start and end of the study period. RESULTS: After intervention, Gum Arabic decreased BMI and VAI significantly (P < 0.05) in GA group by 2 and 23.7% respectively. Body adiposity index significantly decreased by 3.9% in GA group while there were no significant changes in waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased by 7.6% in GA group and by 2.7% in placebo group from baseline with no significant changes in diastolic blood pressure in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Gum Arabic consumption at a dose of 30 g/d for 3 months may play an effective role in preventing weight gain and modulating adipose tissue dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients, although no effect has been shown in waist-to-hip ratio. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial had been registered as prospective interventional clinical trials in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (PACTR) PACTR201403000785219 , on 7th March 2014.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Goma Arábiga/uso terapéutico , Adiposidad/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
6.
BMC Hematol ; 17: 4, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia patients suffer from oxidative stress due to chronic inflammation and self-oxidation of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S). Chronic oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and multiple organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Thus, antioxidant medication may favorably influence the disease. Gum Arabic (GA), edible, dried, gummy exudates from Acacia Senegal tree, has been claimed to act as an anti-oxidant and cytoprotective agent, protecting against experimental hepatic, renal and cardiac toxicities in rats. We hypothesized that regular intake of GA increases anti-oxidant capacity and reduce oxidative stress. METHODS: Forty-seven patients (5-42 years) carrying hemoglobin SS were recruited. Patients received 30 g/day GA for 12 weeks. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods before and after GA intake. Complete blood count was measured by sysmex. RESULTS: Gum Arabic significantly increased TAC level P < 0.001and decreased the oxidative markers MDA (P < 0.05) and H2O2 (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: GA has potent anti- oxidative properties in sickle cell anemia. The anti-oxidant effect of GA may thus favorably influence the clinical condition of this and further diseases characterized by oxidative stress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02467257. Registered 3rd June 2015. Retrospective registration.

7.
Egypt J Immunol ; 23(2): 75-85, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502135

RESUMEN

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic systemic autoimmune disease. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is cytotoxic to a wide variety of transformed cells, but not to most normal cells. This study measures serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and 10 and soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) in patients with SLE and assesses their relation to severity of the disease. The study included 70 SLE patients and 20 healthy controls. Patients were diagnosed according to criteria proposed by the American Rheumatism Association for classification of SLE and disease activity was scored using the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG-2004). All study participants were subjected to estimation of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and sTRAIL using ELISA. Results revealed that mean disease duration was 6.5±1.5 years, mean BILAG score was 18.2±12.1, while 15 patients (21.4%) had quiescent disease. Blood levels of C3 and C4 and leucocytic count showed progressive decrease, while serum C-reactive protein and anti-double strand DNA antibodies levels showed marked increase with increased disease activity. Five patients (7.1%) were neutropenic. Serum levels of sTRAIL and IL-6 were significantly (P>0.05) higher in patients (1113.5±294 ng/ml and 60±21.5 ng/ml, respectively) than controls (354.7±47.2 ng/ml and 15.6±3.3 ng/ml, respectively) and in patients had active (1157±317 ng/ml and 64.3±20.7 ng/ml, respectively) versus patients had quiescent disease (965.4±115 ng/ml and 45.4±18 ng/ml, respectively). Serum levels of TNF-α were significantly (P>0.05) higher in patients (2.4±0.7 ng/ml) especially those with active (2.8±2 ng/ml) disease compared to controls (1.45±0.9 ng/ml). Patients with quiescent disease showed non-significantly higher TNF-α level (1.52±0.5 ng/ml) as compared to control, but significantly lower than patients with active disease. Serum levels of IL-10 were significantly lower in total patients (2.4±0.7 ng/ml) and patients with active disease (2.33±0.7) as compared to control (2.61±0.6 ng/ml) with a non-significantly (P>0.05) higher levels in patients with quiescent disease (2.61±0.6 ng/ml) than patients with active disease. Estimated serum sTRAIL, TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed positive significant correlation with calculated BILAG activity score, while estimated serum IL-10 levels showed negative significant correlation with activity score. In conclusion, SLE is associated with disturbed levels of serum cytokines and sTRAIL. These disturbances may underlie pathogenesis and/or activation of SLE as BILAG-2004 numeric scoring system significantly correlated with estimated levels of serum cytokines and sTRAIL.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis , Citocinas/metabolismo , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/inmunología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Lupus Eritematoso Discoide
8.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 40(4): 335-43, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26160150

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The WNK-dependent STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase SPAK participates in the regulation of NaCl and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransport and thus renal salt excretion. The present study explored whether SPAK has similarly the potential to regulate the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). METHODS: ENaC was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without additional expression of wild type SPAK, constitutively active (T233E)SPAK, WNK insensitive (T233A)SPAK or catalytically inactive (D212A)SPAK, and ENaC activity estimated from amiloride (50 µM) sensitive current (Iamil) in dual electrode voltage clamp experiments. Moreover, Ussing chamber was employed to determine Iamil in colonic tissue from wild type mice (spak(wt/wt)) and from gene targeted mice carrying WNK insensitive SPAK (spak(tg/tg)). RESULTS: Iamil was observed in ENaC-expressing oocytes, but not in water-injected oocytes. In ENaC expressing oocytes Iamil was significantly increased following coexpression of wild-type SPAK and (T233E)SPAK, but not following coexpression of (T233A)SPAK or (D212A)SPAK. Colonic Iamil was significantly higher in spak(wt/wt) than in spak(tg/tg) mice. CONCLUSION: SPAK has the potential to up-regulate ENaC.


Asunto(s)
Canales Epiteliales de Sodio/fisiología , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/fisiología , Aldosterona/sangre , Amilorida/farmacología , Animales , Colon/metabolismo , Diuréticos/farmacología , Complejos de Clasificación Endosomal Requeridos para el Transporte/metabolismo , Canales Epiteliales de Sodio/genética , Femenino , Ratones , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Menor , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas Nedd4 , Oocitos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Placa-Clamp , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Cloruro de Sodio/metabolismo , Cloruro de Sodio/orina , Miembro 1 de la Familia de Transportadores de Soluto 12/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba/fisiología , Proteína Quinasa Deficiente en Lisina WNK 1 , Xenopus laevis
9.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 9(1): 17-24, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25901129

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke usually initiates inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to neuronal death. AIM: To investigate the existence of oxidative/nitrosativestress in rats subjected to focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and its effects on the consequent neurological deficits. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Experimental procedures were performed on 30 adult males Wister rats. In the test group, transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in 15 rats by occlusion of the left common carotid artery (CCA) for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. Another 15 rats underwent the surgery at the same neck region without occlusion of CCA and served as a control group. Neurobehavioral tests were evaluated, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites were measured in the serum and brain tissue to detect the effect of surgery on in each group. RESULT: The serum and brain tissue levels of MDA and NO in the test group were significantly higher compared to the control group (P < 0.001). In contrast, serum and brain tissue levels of TAC of rats subjected to ischemia reperfusion was significantly lower compared to the sham operated rats (P < 0.001). Neurological deficit of the test group correlated positively with serum TAC (CC = 0.937, P = 0.000) and brain tissue TAC (CC = 0.949, P = 0.000) and negatively with serum MDA (CC = -0.949, P = 0.000), brain tissue MDA (CC = -0.963, P = 0.000), serum NO (CC = -0.942, P = 0.000) and brain tissue NO (CC = -0.952, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The study provided further evidence for the presence of oxidative/nitrosative stress in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and demonstrates a relationship between oxidative/nitrosative biomarkers and the consequent neurological deficits.

10.
BMC Hematol ; 15: 19, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719803

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High levels of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) decrease sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity and leads to improved survival. According to in vivo and in vitro studies, butyrate increases HbF production. Its utilization in clinical practice is hampered, however, by its short half-life. Serum butyrate concentrations could be enhanced by colonic bacterial fermentation of Gum Arabic (GA), edible, dried, gummy exudates from Acacia Senegal tree. We hypothesized that regular intake of GA increases serum butyrate levels, thus inducing HbF production and ameliorating symptoms of sickle cell anemia. METHODS: Fourty seven patients (5-42 years) carrying hemoglobin SS were recruited from April 2014 to January 2015. Patients received 30 g/day GA for 12 weeks. HbF, blood count and erythropoietin level were measured. The main outcome of interest was the level of HbF after 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes were improvement in clinical and laboratory results. The study was ethically approved by Alneelain University IRB. RESULTS: The study revealed significant increase in HbF level P.V0.000 [95 % CI, 0.43-1.02], MCV P.V:000 [95 % CI, 2.312-6.058] and Hematocrit level P.V:0.026 [95 % CI, 0.124-1.902]. No significant difference was encountered in platelets count P.V: 0.346 [95 % CI,-25.76-71.94], and WBCs count P.V:0.194 [95 % CI,-8.035-1.68]. Thirty seven percent of patients experienced minor side effects which resolved within a week. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a novel effect of GA, which may be used to foster fetal hemoglobin production. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02467257. Registered 3rd June 2015.

11.
Exp Transl Stroke Med ; 5(1): 1, 2013 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23289587

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous reports assessing the neuroprotective role of nonselective Nitric Oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion are contradictory. The aim of this work was to examine the potential benefits of L-NAME on rats subjected to transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. METHODS: The study involved 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups 10 rats in each: First group was sham-operated and served as a control, a ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group of rats infused with 0.9% normal saline intraperitoneally 15 minutes prior to 30 minutes of left common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a test group infused with L-NAME intraperitoneally 15 minutes prior to ischemia. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated and quantitative assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in both serum and the affected cerebral hemisphere were achieved. RESULTS: Rats' neurological deficit and TAC were significantly decreased while NO and MDA were significantly increased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Alternatively in the L-NAME group, neurological deficit and TAC were significantly improved while NO and MDA were significantly decreased compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: L-NAME pretreatment for rats undergoing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion significantly improves neurological deficit while reducing oxidative stress biomarkers in the affected cerebral hemisphere.

12.
Tob Control ; 22(5): 315-8, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22328596

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke at home has been linked to many complications, including impaired lung ventilatory function; however, there is great variation in intensity of this complication between individuals of different countries. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between regular second-hand smoke exposure at home and the spirometric derived values forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow 50% and peak expiratory flow rate in healthy school boys in Khartoum. METHODS: A total of 135 male school pupils were selected randomly from three governmental primary schools for boys in Khartoum. Inclusion criteria were healthy school pupil, 9-14 years old, not active smoker, either exposed regularly to cigarette smoke at home since birth or not exposed to cigarette smoke or any other type of smoke inside or outside the house. All spirometric measurements were performed using Clement Clarke All-flow Spirometer. RESULTS: 69 school pupils were exposed regularly to second-hand smoke at home, whereas 66 pupils were not. Fathers were responsible for 67.5% of second-hand smoke at home; relatives for 30% and mothers for 2.5%. Mean FVC (± SD) was 2.21 ± 0.57 l for the exposed pupils and 2.41 ± 0.35 l for the non-exposed, showing reduction by about 8%. Mean FEV1 (mean ± SD) was 2.03 ± 0.46 l for the exposed and 2.20 ± 0.42 l for the non-exposed, indicating reduction by about 7%. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Regular second-hand smoke exposure at home causes significant reduction in FVC and FEV1 by about 7%-8% in school pupils in Khartoum.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Familia , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Capacidad Vital , Niño , Padre , Humanos , Pulmón/fisiología , Masculino , Madres , Instituciones Académicas , Espirometría , Sudán , Productos de Tabaco
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 16(9): 1586-92, 2013 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23206325

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between intakes of iodine and water chemicals and the thyroid gland status of schoolchildren living in the coastal city of Port Sudan. DESIGN: In our previous nationwide study on goitre, it was observed that the prevalence of goitre was high in Port Sudan city despite high urinary iodine excretion. A cross-sectional study including schoolchildren aged 6­12 years was designed. Measurements determined the prevalence of goitre, urinary iodine concentration and thiocyanate secretion in casual urine samples, serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin, as well as the levels of Cl⁻, F⁻, Ca²âº, Mg²âº and total hardness of drinking water. SUBJECTS: Schoolchildren (n 654) aged 6­12 years. SETTING: Port Sudan city is located at the western bank of the Red Sea. The city is surrounded by a mountainous area known as the Red Sea Hills. It is the main sea port in the Sudan, inhabited by ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of goitre in Port Sudan was 34.86% while the median urinary iodine concentration was 46,4µg/dl. Out of thirty-one pupils from Port Sudan, twenty-four (77.42 %) were found to have urinary iodine concentration greater than 30µg/dl and twelve (38.71 %) had different degrees of biochemical hypothyroidism. Excessive concentrations of Cl⁻, Ca²âº, Mg²âº and water hardness (369.2, 116.48, 60.21 and 539.0mg/l, respectively) were detected in drinking water samples collected from Port Sudan that exceeded levels permitted by the WHO. CONCLUSIONS: The coastal city of Port Sudan is a goitre-endemic area. In contrast to other Sudanese cities in which endemic goitre is related to iodine deficiency, goitre in Port Sudan is associated with iodine excess. Water chemicals seemed to have no effects on thyroid status.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/química , Bocio Endémico/epidemiología , Hipotiroidismo/etiología , Yodo/administración & dosificación , Estado Nutricional , Glándula Tiroides/patología , Biomarcadores/sangre , Calcio/análisis , Niño , Cloruros/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Bocio Endémico/sangre , Bocio Endémico/orina , Dureza , Humanos , Hipotiroidismo/sangre , Hipotiroidismo/epidemiología , Hipotiroidismo/orina , Yodo/orina , Magnesio/análisis , Prevalencia , Sudán/epidemiología
14.
Nutr J ; 11: 111, 2012 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23241359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. METHODS: A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. RESULTS: Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. CONCLUSIONS: GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/efectos de los fármacos , Composición Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Goma Arábiga/administración & dosificación , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto Joven
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 89(2): 121-6, 2011 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21346923

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the status of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) in the Sudan more than 25 years after the initiation of IDD control programmes and to explore the causes of endemic goitre in the country. METHODS: Testing for IDDs was carried out in 6083 schoolchildren 6 to 12 years of age from the capital cities of nine states in different areas of the country using the three indicators recommended by the World Health Organization: the prevalence of goitre, laboratory measurements of urinary iodine concentration in casual urine samples and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels. Serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), as well as urinary secretion of thiocyanate, which can affect the transport of iodine into thyrocytes, were also measured. FINDINGS: The prevalence of goitre in the different samples ranged from 12.2% to 77.7% and was 38.8% overall. The overall median urinary iodine concentration was 6.55 µg/dl, with the lowest median value having been found in Kosti city (2.7 µg/dl), situated in the centre of the country, and the highest (46.4 µg/dl) in Port Sudan, on the Red Sea coast. The highest mean serum Tg level (66.98 ng/ml) was found in Kosti city, which also had the highest prevalence of goitre. CONCLUSION: IDDs still constitute a public health problem throughout urban areas in the Sudan and iodine deficiency appears to be the main etiological factor involved.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Bocio Endémico/epidemiología , Yodo/deficiencia , Desarrollo de Programa , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Bocio Endémico/prevención & control , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Factores de Riesgo , Estadística como Asunto , Sudán/epidemiología , Tirotropina/sangre , Tiroxina/sangre , Factores de Tiempo , Triyodotironina/sangre
17.
Nutr Cancer ; 62(6): 802-10, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20661830

RESUMEN

Gum Arabic (GA), a nutrient from dried exudate of Acacia senegal, is widely used as emulsifier and stabilizer. It stimulates sodium and water absorption in diarrhea. This study explored the effects of GA in colonic tissue. Mice were treated with GA (10% wt/vol) in drinking water and gene array was performed. As GA modified several tumor-relevant genes, chemical cancerogenesis (intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg 1,2-dimethylhydrazine followed by 3 cycles of 3% dextrane sodium sulphate in drinking water) was induced with or without GA treatment. Within 4 days, GA treatment decreased the colonic transcript levels of the angiogenetic factors angiogenin 1, angiogenin 3, and angiogenin 4 by 78 +/- 18%, 88 +/- 15%, and 92 +/- 13%, respectively (n = 5 each), and of further genes including CD38 antigen, aquaporin4, interleukin18, vav-3-oncogene, gamma(+)-amino acid transporter, sulfatase1, ubiquitinD, and chemokine ligand5. According to Western blotting, GA treatment similarly decreased angiogenin protein expression, and according to immunohistochemistry, it decreased ss-catenin expression. Chemical cancerogenesis resulted in multiple colonic tumors within 12 wk. GA treatment (10% wt/wt) in drinking water significantly decreased the number of tumors by 70%. The observations disclose a powerful anticarcinogenic effect of GA. The nutrient could thus be used for the prophylaxis against colon carcinoma particularly in individuals at enhanced risk.


Asunto(s)
Anticarcinógenos/farmacología , Neoplasias del Colon/prevención & control , Goma Arábiga/farmacología , Ribonucleasa Pancreática/antagonistas & inhibidores , 1,2-Dimetilhidrazina , Animales , Regulación hacia Abajo , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Ribonucleasa Pancreática/análisis , Ribonucleasa Pancreática/genética
18.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 25(2-3): 203-10, 2010.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20110681

RESUMEN

Intestinal Na(+)-coupled glucose transporter SGLT1 determines the rate of glucose transport, which in turn influences glucose-induced insulin release and development of obesity. The present study explored effects of Gum Arabic (GA), a dietary polysaccharide from dried exudates of Acacia Senegal, on intestinal glucose transport and body weight in wild-type C57Bl/6 mice. Treatment with GA (100 g/l) in drinking water for four weeks did not affect intestinal SGLT1 transcript levels but decreased SGLT1 protein abundance in jejunal brush border membrane vesicles. Glucose-induced jejunal short-circuit currents revealed that GA treatment decreased electrogenic glucose transport. Drinking a 20% glucose solution for four weeks significantly increased body weight and fasting plasma glucose concentrations, effects significantly blunted by simultaneous treatment with GA. GA further significantly blunted the increase in body weight, fasting plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations during high fat diet. In conclusion, the present observations disclose a completely novel effect of gum arabic, i.e. its ability to decrease intestinal SGLT1 expression and activity and thus to counteract glucose-induced obesity.


Asunto(s)
Goma Arábiga/farmacología , Yeyuno/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Sodio-Glucosa/metabolismo , Sodio/metabolismo , Animales , Regulación hacia Abajo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Análisis de Secuencia por Matrices de Oligonucleótidos , Transportador 1 de Sodio-Glucosa/genética
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