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2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-30, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is a structural barrier to HIV care in peri-urban areas in South Africa (SA), where approximately 80% of households are moderately or severely food insecure.(1) For people with HIV (PWH), food insecurity is associated with poor ART adherence and survival rates. Yet, measurement of food insecurity among PWH remains a challenge. DESIGN: This study examines the factor structure of the 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, isiXhosa-translated) among PWH in SA using a restrictive bifactor model. SETTING: Primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, SA. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=440) were PWH who received HIV care in Khayelitsha screening for a clinical trial. Most were categorized as severely (n=250, 56.82%) or moderately (n=107, 24.32%) food insecure in the past 30 days. RESULTS: Revised parallel analysis suggested a 3-factor structure, which was inadmissible. A 2-factor structure was examined but did not adequately fit the data. A 2-factor restrictive bifactor model was examined, such that all items loaded on a general factor (food insecurity) and all but two items loaded on one of two specific additional factors, which adequately fit the data (CFI=0.995, SRMR=0.019). The two specific factors identified were: anxiety/insufficient quality, and no food intake. Reliability was adequate (ω=.82). CONCLUSIONS: Results supported the use of a total score, and identified two specific factors of the HFIAS, which may be utilized in future research and intervention development. These findings help identify aspects of food insecurity that may drive relationships between the construct and important HIV-related variables.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0240990, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765001

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Many men living with HIV want to have children. Opportunities to reduce periconception HIV transmission include antiretroviral therapy as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis, limiting condomless sex to peak fertility, and sperm processing. Whether men have knowledge of or want to adopt these strategies remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with men accessing HIV care in South Africa in 2014 to inform a safer conception intervention for men. Eligible men were 25-45 years old, living with HIV, not yet accessing treatment, and wanting to have a child with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus female partner (referred to as the "desired pregnancy partner"). FGDs explored motivations for having a healthy baby, feasibility of a clinic-based safer conception intervention, and acceptability of safer conception strategies. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twelve participants from three FGDs had a median age of 37 (range 23-45) years, reported a median of 2 (range 1-4) sexual partners, and 1 (range 1-3) desired pregnancy partner(s). A third (N = 4) had disclosed HIV-serostatus to the pregnancy partner. Emergent themes included opportunities for and challenges to engaging men in safer conception services. Opportunities included enthusiasm for a clinic-based safer conception intervention and acceptance of some safer conception strategies. Challenges included poor understanding of safer conception strategies, unfamiliarity with risk reduction [versus "safe" (condoms) and "unsafe" (condomless) sex], mixed acceptability of safer conception strategies, and concerns about disclosing HIV-serostatus to a partner. CONCLUSIONS: Men living with HIV expressed interest in safer conception and willingness to attend clinic programs. Imprecise prevention counseling messages make it difficult for men to conceptualize risk reduction. Effective safer conception programs should embrace clear language, e.g. undetectable = untransmittable (U = U), and support multiple approaches to serostatus disclosure to pregnancy partners.

4.
J Sex Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661064

RESUMEN

COVID-19 led to substantial changes in individuals' lives due to preventive measures, including social distancing and "stay at home" orders. One type of social interaction likely impacted is intimacy and sexual relationships. Sexual minority men have long navigated the impact of another pandemic, HIV, on their sexual lives. This study explored the impact of COVID-19 on Latinx sexual minority men's (LSMM) sexual behaviors in South Florida, an HIV and COVID-19 epicenter. A rapid qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with LSMM (N = 20) revealed five themes: (1) increased sex with a primary partner, (2) fewer sexual partners, (3) continued pre-COVID-19 sexual activity, often following "quarantine fatigue," (4) opportunities and challenges related to navigating COVID-19 prevention and sex, and (5) using sexual networking apps in new ways. The findings suggest LSMM's resilience and their ongoing health needs during COVID-19, with implications for interventions to promote LSMM's safe and satisfying sex.

5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(3): e25679, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724718

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about onward HIV transmissions from people living with HIV (PLWH) in care. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased in potency, and treatment as prevention (TasP) is an important component of ending the epidemic. Syndemic theory has informed modelling of HIV risk but has yet to inform modelling of HIV transmissions. METHODS: Data were from 61,198 primary HIV care visits for 14,261 PLWH receiving care through the Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) at seven United States (U.S.) sites from 2007 to 2017. Patient-reported outcomes and measures (PROs) of syndemic conditions - depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, drug use (opiates, amphetamines, crack/cocaine) and alcohol use - were collected approximately four to six months apart along with sexual behaviours (mean = 4.3 observations). Counts of syndemic conditions, HIV sexual risk group and time in care were modelled to predict estimated HIV transmissions resulting from sexual behaviour and viral suppression status (HIV RNA < 400/mL) using hierarchical linear modelling. RESULTS: Patients averaged 0.38 estimated HIV transmissions/100 patients/year for all visits with syndemic conditions measured (down from 0.83, first visit). The final multivariate model showed that per 100 patients, each care visit predicted 0.05 fewer estimated transmissions annually (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.06; p < 0.0005). Cisgender women, cisgender heterosexual men and cisgender men of undisclosed sexual orientation had, respectively, 0.47 (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.59; p < 0.0005), 0.34 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.49; p < 0.0005) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.35; p < 0.005) fewer estimated HIV transmissions/100 patients/year than cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM). Each within-patient syndemic condition predicted 0.18 estimated transmissions/100 patients/year (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.24; p < 0.0005). Each between-syndemic condition predicted 0.23 estimated HIV transmissions/100 patients/year (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.28; p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Estimated HIV transmissions among PLWH receiving care in well-resourced U.S. clinical settings varied by HIV sexual risk group and decreased with time in care, highlighting the importance of TasP efforts. Syndemic conditions remained a significant predictor of estimated HIV transmissions notwithstanding the effects of HIV sexual risk group and time in care.

6.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e446-e455, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are extremely marginalised and stigmatised, and therefore experience immense psychosocial stress. As current HIV prevention interventions in India do not address mental health or resilience to these stressors, we aimed to evaluate a resilience-based psychosocial intervention in the context of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. METHODS: We did a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial in Chennai (governmental tuberculosis research institute) and Mumbai (non-governmental organisation for MSM), India. Inclusion criteria were MSM, aged 18 years or older, who were at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission, defined as having any of the following in the 4 months before screening: anal sex with four or more male partners (protected or unprotected), diagnosis of an STI, history of transactional sex activity, or condomless anal sex with a man who was of unknown HIV status or serodiscordant. Participants were required to speak English, Tamil (in Chennai), or Hindi (in Mumbai) fluently. Eligible individuals were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a resilience-based psychosocial HIV prevention intervention, consisting of group (four sessions) and individual (six sessions) counselling alongside HIV and STI voluntary counselling and testing, or a standard-of-care control comprising voluntary counselling and testing alone. The primary outcomes were number of condomless anal sex acts with male partners during the past month (at baseline and 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after randomisation), and incident bacterial STIs (at 12 months after randomisation). Resilience-related mediators included self-esteem, self-acceptance, and depression. Recruitment is now closed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02556294. FINDINGS: Between Sept 4, 2015, and June 28, 2018, we enrolled 608 participants; 305 (50%) were assigned to the psychosocial intervention condition and 303 (50%) were assigned to the control condition. 510 (84%) of 608 men completed an assessment at 4 months after randomisation, 483 (79%) at 8 months, and 515 (85%) at 12 months. 512 (99%) of 515 men had STI data from the 12-month assessment. The intervention condition had a 56% larger reduction in condomless anal sex acts (95% CI 35-71; p<0·0001) from baseline to 4-month follow-up, 72% larger reduction (56-82; p<0·0001) from baseline to 8-month follow-up, and 72% larger reduction (53-83; p<0·0001) from baseline to 12-month follow-up, compared with the standard-of-care control condition (condition by time interaction; χ2=40·29, 3 df; p<0·0001). Improvements in self-esteem and depressive symptoms both mediated 9% of the intervention effect on condomless anal sex acts. Bacterial STI incidence did not differ between study conditions at 12-month follow-up. INTERPRETATION: A resilience-based psychosocial intervention for MSM at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission in India was efficacious in reducing condomless anal sex acts, with evidence for mediation effects in two key target resilience variables. HIV prevention programmes for MSM in India should address mental health resilience to augment reductions in the risk of sexually transmitted HIV. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/métodos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estigma Social , Adulto , Consejo/métodos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Sexo Inseguro/prevención & control , Sexo Inseguro/psicología , Adulto Joven
7.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617771

RESUMEN

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.

8.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582889

RESUMEN

Men who have sex with women are understudied in HIV research despite the extent to which they experience HIV-related mortality and contribute to the epidemic among women. During our experience of developing and piloting an HIV prevention intervention for men living with HIV in South Africa, and planning to have a child with an HIV-negative woman, ethical questions were posed regarding implementation of a male-centered intervention that did not require female partner participation. Two overarching ethical issues were the potential for (1) compromising women's reproductive and sexual autonomy and (2) increasing HIV-acquisition risks for the woman because the intervention efficacy was unknown. We describe here how these concerns were addressed to facilitate development of a male-centered HIV-prevention intervention. We hope this process manuscript will support researchers, clinicians, and reviewers to engage men who have sex with women in HIV prevention and care.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 25(5): 1636-1645, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387134

RESUMEN

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is integral to HIV prevention; however, the influence of PrEP use and PrEP use disclosure on condom use is unclear among Latinx men who have sex with men (LMSM). This study explored associations of LMSM PrEP use and use disclosure on consistent dyadic condom use in the past 6 months. Participants were 130 HIV-negative PrEP and non-PrEP using LMSM ages 20-39 years. Two-level logistic regression models assessing individual- and dyadic-level predictors on condom use were fitted using R. Participants reported a mean of four sexual partners (n = 507 dyads). Participants who reported using PrEP or having more sexual partners were more likely to use condoms; however, participants who reported disclosing PrEP use were less likely to use condoms. Future longitudinal studies should characterize approaches to increase informed personal health choices and conversations about PrEP, condom use, and other HIV risk-reduction strategies using network methodologies.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Condones , Revelación , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Hispanoamericanos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Adulto Joven
10.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, and prevalence rates are high among people living with HIV (PLWH), particularly in men. Depression is also common among PLWH, especially among smokers, who may use tobacco to manage mood. Although HIV and depression have been linked to functional impairment and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL), little research has examined the degree to which smoking impacts these relationships in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden. METHOD: Participants (N = 289) were people living with HIV (PLWH) who were being assessed for inclusion in a study targeting depression as a barrier to HIV medication adherence. Linear regression models measured the effect of gender on tobacco use (assessed by the WHO-ASSIST) and on each of the five HRQOL functional impairment domains (assessed by the SF-21). Separate multivariable regression models examined the relationships between habitual tobacco use, defined as daily, almost daily, or weekly use, and the HRQOL domains. RESULTS: The prevalence of habitual tobacco use was 23.9% (48.1% among men, 15.5% among women). Habitual tobacco use was associated with decreased cognitive functioning for the whole sample (B = - 8.99, p < 0.05) and with lower levels of pain-related impairment for men (B = 18.1, p < 0.05). Although men reported more tobacco use (B = 8.50, p < 0.001), they reported less pain-related limitations than women (B = 8.70, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, men reported higher rates of habitual tobacco use than women. Smoking was associated with cognitive impairment and with less pain-related impairment among men. Future smoking cessation treatments tailored to PLWH who have symptoms of depression may benefit from strategies that consider pain management as a pathway to habitual smoking and recognize that motivations for use may differ by gender.

11.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486978

RESUMEN

Substance use in the U.S. varies by geographic region. Opioid prescribing practices and marijuana, heroin, and methamphetamine availability are evolving differently across regions. We examined self-reported substance use among people living with HIV (PLWH) in care at seven sites from 2017-2019 to understand current regional substance use patterns. We calculated the percentage and standardized percentage of PLWH reporting current drug use and at-risk and binge alcohol use by U.S. Census Bureau geographic region and examined associations in adjusted logistic regression analyses. Among 7,686 PLWH, marijuana use was the most prevalent drug (30%), followed by methamphetamine/crystal (8%), cocaine/crack (7%), and illicit opioids (3%). One-third reported binge alcohol use (32%). Differences in percent of current use by region were seen for marijuana (24-41%) and methamphetamine/crystal (2-15%), with more use in the West and Northeast, and binge alcohol use (26-40%). In adjusted analyses, PLWH in the Midwest were significantly less likely to use methamphetamine/crystal (aOR: 0.13;0.06-0.25) or illicit opioids (aOR:0.16;0.05-0.53), and PLWH in the Northeast were more likely to use cocaine/crack (aOR:1.59;1.16-2.17), compared to PLWH in the West. Understanding differences in substance use patterns in the current era, as policies continue to evolve, will enable more targeted interventions in clinical settings among PLWH.

12.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483898

RESUMEN

Despite many successful clinical trials to test HIV-prevention interventions for sexual minority men (SMM), not all SMM are reached by these trials. Identifying factors associated with non-participation in these trials could help to ensure the benefits of research extend to all SMM. Prospective participants in New York City and Miami were screened to determine eligibility for a baseline assessment for a mental health/HIV-prevention trial (N = 633 eligible on screen). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis identified predictors of non-participation in the baseline, among those who were screened as eligible and invited to participate. Individuals who reported unknown HIV status were more likely to be non-participators than those who reported being HIV-negative (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.41, 4.04). In New York City, Latinx SMM were more likely to be non-participators than non-Latinx white SMM (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.09, 2.98). A CART model pruned two predictors of non-participation: knowledge of HIV status and age, such that SMM with unknown HIV status and SMM ages 18-19 were less likely to participate. Young SMM who did not know their HIV status, and thus are more likely to acquire and transmit HIV, were less likely to participate. Additionally, younger SMM (18-19 years) and Latinx SMM in New York City were less likely to participate. The findings suggest the importance of tailored recruitment to ensure HIV-prevention/mental health trials reach all SMM.

13.
Appetite ; 156: 104819, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853713

RESUMEN

Sexual minority men (SMM) face substantial disparities in rates of binge eating compared to heterosexual individuals, underscoring the need to study risk factors for the development of binge eating amongst SMM. One potential explanation for this disparity in binge eating is minority stress theory, which posits that minority groups face stressors, such as discrimination, due to their stigmatized position in society. Additionally, specific domains of discrimination may confer different levels of risk for binge eating. Therefore, the current study examined the association of various forms of discrimination, including appearance-based discrimination, and binge eating in a sample of SMM. A sample of 200 SMM (analytic sample of N = 187) from the greater Boston area completed self-report questionnaires assessing frequency of different forms of perceived discrimination (appearance, sexual orientation, race, etc.) and binge eating. A hierarchical binary logistic regression model was used to examine the association of different forms of discrimination with binge eating. 9% of the sample reported binge eating. Appearance-based discrimination was the most common form of discrimination (47%), and was significantly associated with binge eating, over and above all other forms of discrimination and sociodemographic variables, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = [1.24, 2.35], Wald χ2 (1) = 10.65, p = .001. Findings suggest that appearance-based discrimination may be related to binge eating in SMM. Clinicians may consider assessing appearance-based discrimination among SMM patients.

14.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(2): 144-151, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323073

RESUMEN

India has one of the largest numbers of men who have sex with men (MSM) globally; however, geographic data on sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and associations with sexual behavior are limited. Six-hundred and eight MSM in Chennai and Mumbai underwent screening for a behavioral trial and were assessed for bacterial STIs (syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea), HIV, and past-month self-reported condomless anal sex (CAS). Mumbai (37.8%) had a greater prevalence of any STI than Chennai (27.6%) (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.73). This pattern also emerged for gonorrhea and chlamydia separately but not syphilis. Conversely, Mumbai MSM reported lower rates of CAS (mean = 2.2) compared to Chennai MSM (mean = 14.0) (mean difference = -11.8, 95% CI: -14.6, -9.1). The interaction of city by CAS on any STI prevalence (PR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.45, 3.01, p < .0001) revealed that in Chennai, higher rates of CAS were not associated with STI prevalence, but in Mumbai they were (PR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.76, p < .0001). The higher prevalence of bacterial STIs but lower frequency of CAS in Mumbai (versus Chennai), along with the significant interaction of CAS with city on STI rates, suggests that there are either differences in disease burden or differences by city with respect to self-reported assessment of CAS. Regardless, the high prevalence rates of untreated STIs and condomless sex among MSM suggest the need for additional prevention intervention efforts for MSM in urban India.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219901

RESUMEN

Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) prevents recurrence after early stage, hormone sensitive breast cancer; however, adherence to AET is suboptimal, and efficacious interventions are severely lacking. Barriers to adherence are well established; however, interventions, thus, far have failed to produce meaningful changes in adherence and have generally not followed guiding principles of psychosocial intervention development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the iterative development, using the National Institutes of Health Stage Model for Behavioral Intervention Development, of an evidence-based, patient-centered, telehealth intervention to enhance adherence, improve symptom management, and reduce distress for patients taking AET after breast cancer, with a focus on (1) a small open pilot study which informed modifications and refinement of the intervention based on quantitative and qualitative patient feedback about feasibility and acceptability and (2) the underlying theoretical and empirical rationale for each component of the finalized intervention. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

16.
Sex Health ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stigma is associated with poor health among sexual minority individuals. However, no studies have examined the relationship between stigma and problematic drinking among male sex workers (MSWs). This study examined the relationship between sex work stigma and problematic alcohol use among MSWs. METHODS: Using baseline data from a cohort of 98 MSWs in the US Northeast enrolled between 2015 and 2016, we used logistic regression to examine associations between sex work stigma and hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score ≥8) and sex work while drunk, and tested whether sexual orientation (gay vs non-gay identified) and social network size moderated these associations. RESULTS: Almost half the sample (n = 46; 44%) reported hazardous drinking and 56 MSWs (57%) reported engaging in sex work while drunk. Sex work stigma was associated with hazardous drinking (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.36). Sexual orientation marginally moderated this relationship (P = 0.07), such that it was only significant among gay-identified MSWs (aOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.11-3.28), not among non-gay MSW. Similarly, sexual orientation moderated the effect of sex work stigma on sex work while drunk (P = 0.02), which was only significant among gay-identified MSWs (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-1.60). Social network size also moderated the effect of sex work stigma on sex work while drunk (P = 0.02), which was only significant among MSWs with small networks (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.58), suggesting large networks can be protective. CONCLUSIONS: Gay MSWs may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related effects of stigma. Future interventions should consider engaging social networks to curb problematic drinking among MSWs.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148992

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Male sex workers (MSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, with an estimated HIV prevalence in the United States of 19.3%. Existing research suggests that MSW are also at risk of adverse psychosocial problems. Cross-sectional studies of MSW have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or a "syndemic" of psychosocial problems may increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition/transmission via elevated sexual risk. To our knowledge, there are no published studies examining this relationship longitudinally among MSW. This study examined how a syndemic of six psychosocial problems result in additive risk for condomless anal sex (CAS) with male clients among a multicity, longitudinal cohort of MSW. SETTING: Community-based organization and health center in two Northeastern U.S. cities. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2017, 100 MSW from Boston, MA and Providence, RI completed behavioral/psychosocial surveys at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to examine the prospective relationship of additive psychosocial problems and subsequent CAS with male clients, adjusting for age, site, race/ethnicity, MSW-type, and HIV serostatus. RESULTS: Mean age=34.7 (SD=11.8); 62% racial/ethnic minority; and 20% HIV+. The prevalence of six psychosocial syndemic problems was substantial at baseline and remained high at each time point (all within the past 6-months): 74% problematic depressive symptoms; 27% polydrug use (3+ drugs, not including stimulants); 57% stimulant (methamphetamine/cocaine/crack) use; 44% hazardous drinking; 15% experienced client-specific physical/sexual violence; and 57% childhood sexual abuse. Looking at the number of psychosocial problems experienced, 7% had zero, 27% had one, 24% had two, 27% had three, and 15% had four or more. We identified a statistically significant positive "dose-response" relationship between the number of psychosocial problems and CAS with male clients over time, with the greatest odds of engaging in CAS with a male client over follow-up among those with four or more psychosocial problems (aOR=5.18, 95% CI: 1.61-16.62). CONCLUSIONS: Internet escorts and street-based MSW are likely to experience psychosocial problems and engaging in HIV sexual risk with male clients. The accumulation of psychosocial problems additively predicted CAS with male clients in a prospective cohort of MSW. The specification of psychosocial problems presents distinct treatment targets for HIV prevention among MSW in the United States.

18.
J Behav Med ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098541

RESUMEN

Individuals living with HIV report disproportionately high levels of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms, both which have been associated with suboptimal ART adherence. Often conflated, the question arises as to which construct is driving subsequent HIV self-care behavior. Given the HIV disparities among Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals, and that Miami is a geographic region with a high racial/ethnic minority make up and a unique socioeconomic environment, it is important to explore factors related to HIV outcomes in Miami to mitigate its uncontrolled epidemic. This study aimed to examine the association of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and relevant additional key factors with adherence to ART among a sample of majority Black and Hispanic/Latinx individuals who are economically marginalized receiving public HIV care in Miami, FL (N = 1237) via a cross-sectional survey. Sequential linear regression was used to examine the study aim in four blocks: (1) trauma, (2) PTSD symptoms, and key covariates of ART adherence including (3) depression and substance use (potential psychological covariates), and (4) indicators of socioeconomic status (potential structural covariates). In the first block, trauma exposure was associated with worse adherence. However, in the second block, the association with trauma dropped and PTSD was significantly associated with worse adherence. Of note, for those experiencing high levels of trauma exposure, adherence was negatively impacted regardless of PTSD. When other key factors associated with adherence were entered in the third and fourth blocks, neither trauma exposure nor PTSD were uniquely significant. In this final model, depression, substance use, and unstable housing were uniquely associated with worse adherence. Trauma-informed models of HIV care that holistically address co-occurring factors are warranted to cater to communities with HIV health disparities and keep them from falling off the HIV care continuum.

20.
J Gay Lesbian Ment Health ; 24(3): 258-280, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884609

RESUMEN

Due to minority stress, sexual minority men experience mental health disparities. Sexual minority men who engaged in cognitive-behavioral therapy to address the minority stress underlying their distress completed an exercise eliciting their own resilience. This exercise involved writing an advice letter to a hypothetical peer about coping with minority stress. Qualitative analysis of these letters yielded 18 codes grouped into three categories reflecting resilience to minority stress. Categories included (1) cultivating internal affirmation strategies, (2) building supportive relationships and community, and (3) using cognitive and behavioral skills to cope with minority stress. Findings highlight this population's resilience and suggest building resilience through treatment.

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