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Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 57(3): 364-370, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529989


OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children with and without cleft lip and/or palate using a previously validated questionnaire and to examine the clinical and demographic variables that may lead to increased OSA risk. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred fifty-five cleft lip palate and 155 noncleft children between 2 and 18 years old. INTERVENTIONS: The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ): Sleep Related Breathing Disorder Scale was used for screening of increased OSA risk. Age, body mass index (BMI), gender, breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding durations were recorded for all patients. Cleft type, lip and palate operation times, nasoalveolar molding, or nutrition plaque usage was documented for the cleft lip palate group. Pearson χ2 or Fisher exact test was used for the evaluation of the qualitative variables and independent samples t test or Mann Whitney U test for quantitative variables. P < .05 was accepted as statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean ages were 7.52 ± 3.91 and 7.50 ± 3.89 years for cleft lip palate and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the groups for age, gender, or BMI. Breast-feeding duration was significantly higher, and bottle-feeding duration was lower in the control group (P < .05). Mean PSQ score was significantly higher in cleft lip palate group (0.18 ± 0.12) than in control group (0.13 ± 0.1, P < .001); and prevalence of increased OSA risk was significantly higher in patients with both cleft lip and palate (P = .020). CONCLUSIONS: Positive OSA screening ratio of children with cleft lip and palate (12.2%) was significantly higher than the controls (4.5%).

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 154(1): 26-34.e1, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957314


INTRODUCTION: The objective of this 2-arm parallel trial was to compare the effects of direct and indirect bonding techniques on the orthodontic treatment process and outcomes. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to undergo bonding of brackets indirectly (group A, n = 15) or directly (group B, n = 15). Eligibility criteria included permanent dentition with bilateral Angle Class I molar and canine relationships, no previous orthodontic treatment, no skeletal discrepancy, and mild or moderate crowding. The main outcome was the orthodontic treatment results assessed using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System; the secondary outcomes were times taken to perform the laboratory and clinical steps, total treatment duration, plaque accumulation, formation of white spot lesions, bond failures, and need for additional archwire bending and bracket repositioning. The randomization sequence was created using an online randomization software. The patients were allocated with a 1:1 ratio using a block size of 4. The sequence generator was contacted by phone for group assignment after a patient was enrolled for allocation concealment. Blinding was implemented during the dental cast and radiographic evaluations, data entry, and data analysis. Patients were evaluated before treatment, and 1, 2, and 6 months after the start of treatment, and at the end of treatment. RESULTS: All patients completed the study and were analyzed. There were no dropouts. Marginal ridge (median difference, -1.000; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.99 to -0.001; P = 0.03) and total Objective Grading System scores (median difference, -3.999; 95% CI, -6.000 to -0.005; P = 0.03) were significantly higher in group B than in group A; other Objective Grading System categories did not differ significantly between the groups. The clinical time was significantly longer in group B than in group A (mean difference, -26.51; 95% CI, -29.57 to -23.46; P <0.001), and the total time was significantly longer in group A than in group B (mean difference, 19.03; 95% CI, 15.32 to 22.74; P <0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in treatment duration, plaque accumulation, formation of white spot lesions, bond failure, or need for additional archwire bending or bracket repositioning. No harms were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect bonding was significantly faster than direct bonding in the clinical stage and yielded better marginal ridge and total scores. Both techniques showed similar rates of plaque accumulation, formation of white spot lesions, bond failure, and additional archwire bending and bracket repositioning. REGISTRATION: The trial was not registered. PROTOCOL: The protocol was not published before trial commencement.

Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo/métodos , Maloclusión de Angle Clase I/terapia , Ortodoncia Correctiva/efectos adversos , Ortodoncia Correctiva/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Diseño de Aparato Ortodóncico , Estudios Prospectivos , Método Simple Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 23(1): e72-e77, ene. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-170307


Background: Despite the advances in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with mandibular advancement appliances (MAA), their effectiveness is dependent on the patients' compliance. Our aims were to evaluate the long-term adherence to MAA therapy and patients' experiences of the treatment in OSA. Material and Methods: Sixty-nine patients (52 males, 17 females; Mean age: 54.4±10.8 years) were included in the study. The subjects were mild (56%) and moderate (44%) OSA patients who had been treated using MAA at least 4 years prior to the study. A phone survey was used to determine the demographic characteristics of the patients, as well as to assess self-reported adherence to therapy, subjective long-term effectiveness, and patient experiences with the appliance. Descriptive statistics, Pearson Chi-square test, and independent samples t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Only 22 (32%) patients reported using the appliance regularly. Most of the non-adherent patients had stopped using their appliances in the first year (55%). The mean duration of appliance use was 33.5 months (Median: 12 months). No significant differences in appliance type, OSA severity, educational level, gender, marital status, income status, employment status or place of residence existed between adherent and non-adherent subjects. Adherent subjects were significantly younger than non-adherent subjects (Age: 50.6 ± 11.9 versus 56.1 ± 9.9, p < 0.05). The most common reasons reported by patients were inability to adapt to the appliance (62%) and pain in the temporomandibular joint (38%). The most common factors associated with continued usage were effectiveness (100%) and ease of use (64%). Conclusions: The overall long-term nonadherence to MAA therapy in mild-to moderate OSA patients was high suggesting that barriers to MAA therapy adherence should be prevented to increase the efficiency of oral appliance treatment in OSA and achieve better outcomes for this disease (AU)

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Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/terapia , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Polisomnografía/métodos , Análisis de Datos , Articulación Temporomandibular
Acta Odontol Scand ; 76(2): 86-91, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28984173


OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to determine the adherence rate to dentist referrals for sleep apnea evaluation and the barriers and facilitators to referral compliance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A sample of 1099 patients was screened with the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Those with elevated risk were referred for a sleep evaluation. An interview was conducted over the phone to determine compliance to referral and the barriers and facilitators to compliance. RESULTS: Of the 1099 patients (mean age: 45.1 ± 10 years) screened, 224 (20.4%) patients were determined to be at-risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Only 41 (18.3%) patients with increased risk adhered to referral recommendation. Demographic and health characteristics did not show significant differences between the compliant and non-compliant patients. The most common facilitators to compliance were increased awareness about OSA (N = 25, 65%) and dentist recommendation (N = 14, 34.1%), whereas the most common barriers to referral compliance were misconceptions about OSA (N = 69, 37.7%) and work responsibilities (N = 44, 24%). CONCLUSIONS: Only a small percentage of patients adhered to the recommendation of their dentist to see a sleep specialist. Increased awareness about OSA and dentist recommendation were the most common factors that facilitated compliance, whereas misconceptions about OSA and work responsibilities were the most common barriers to patient compliance.

Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 68(2): 254-9, 2010 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20116692


PURPOSE: To evaluate skeletal and dental stability in adult cleft lip and palate patients treated with a rigid external distraction system at the end of distraction and during the postdistraction period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Lateral cephalograms of 7 patients were obtained before distraction, at the end of distraction, and during the postdistraction period. The mean age before distraction was 21.56 +/- 4.73 years. The mean follow-up was 37.3 +/- 12.4 months. RESULTS: The assessment of findings showed that skeletal maxillary sagittal movement was achieved in a superoanterior direction. The maxillary depth angle and effective maxillary length increased significantly (2 degrees and 9 mm, respectively) after distraction, whereas the palatal plane angle increased by 8 degrees , resulting in an anterior movement of the maxilla with a counterclockwise rotation. The lower facial height showed no significant changes after distraction. The sagittal movement of the upper incisors and the angulation of the upper first molars increased significantly (4.5 mm and 5.5 degrees , respectively). During the postdistraction period, the maxilla showed a slight relapse (22%). The effective maxillary length decreased by 2 mm. The palatal plane angle almost returned to its original position, showing 7 degrees of clockwise rotation. The lower facial height remained stable. The upper incisors moved anteriorly and the upper first molars showed a significant mesioangular change during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: After distraction, significant maxillary advancement was achieved with a counterclockwise rotation. The upper incisors moved labially, and the upper first molars angulated mesially. After 3 years, a 22% relapse rate was seen in the maxilla. The counterclockwise rotation of the maxilla was returned to its original position. The upper incisors moved more anteriorly.

Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/cirugía , Maxilar/cirugía , Osteogénesis por Distracción , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría , Labio Leporino/cirugía , Fijadores Externos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteogénesis por Distracción/instrumentación , Osteotomía Le Fort/instrumentación , Osteotomía Le Fort/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Técnicas de Movimiento Dental , Adulto Joven
Ann Plast Surg ; 63(4): 396-403, 2009 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19745712


Although the use of rigid fixation of bony segments in orthognathic surgery has become a standard of care, the question remains, 'With use of rigid fixation has stability of common orthognathic surgical procedures improved?' Because of the problems with various methods of osteosynthesis for the osteotomies commonly used in orthognathic surgery, we have developed our own way of semirigid fixation method to stabilize the osteotomized fragments for bone healing with enough flexibility to avoid the problems arising from absolute rigid fixation. The purpose of this article is to review the existing data to determine whether our method of semirigid fixation yields enough short-term and long-term stability after orthognathic surgery procedures. The study was designed as a retrospective trial. A total of 23 patients with double jaw surgery and 12 patients with mandibular set back surgery were reviewed. Preoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained 1 month before the surgery, early postoperative cephalometric radiographs obtained after intermaxillary fixation was opened and late postoperative cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. Pog-McNamara vertical (mm) was used to measure the anteroposterior movement of mandible. Facial axis (degrees) was used to measure the vertical movement of the anterior part of the mandible. A-McNamara vertical (mm) was used to measure the anteroposterior movement of maxilla. Maxillary height (degrees) was used to measure rotational movement of the osteotomized maxillary segment in vertical dimension. The raw data obtained from cephalometric analysis were evaluated by using the computerized statistical program SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. The differences in linear and angular measurements between time intervals were tested for statistical significance, using repeated measures analysis of variance. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. None of the patients had infection at maxillary osteotomy side. Unilateral local infection at osteotomy side was seen in only one patient after double jaw surgery. Condylar malpositioning was not observed in any of the patients. Although postoperative maxillaomandibular fixation with elastics was applied routinely to all patients for 15 days, none of the patients had complaint related with temporomandibular joint discomfort, such as pain, restricted joint motion, etc. There is significant difference in anteroposterior movement of mandible in all time intervals. In terms of facial axis, the differences at T1 and T2 and at T2 and T3 are significant, while the difference at T1 and T3 is not significant. There is significant difference in anteroposterior movement of maxilla in all time intervals. In terms of maxillary height, the differences at T1 and T2 and at T2 and T3 are significant, while the difference at T1 and T3 is not significant. Method of semirigid fixation with 2 plates for maxillary fixation and 2 screws for mandibular fixation provide enough stability after LeFort I and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedures where mainly anteroposterior linear displacements were performed. There was no significant clinical short-term or long-term relapse. Stability in rotational movements needs to be further evaluated.

Fijadores Internos , Mandíbula/cirugía , Maxilar/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos/instrumentación , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría , Estudios de Cohortes , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Maloclusión/diagnóstico , Maloclusión/cirugía , Mandíbula/anomalías , Maxilar/anomalías , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Osteotomía Le Fort/métodos , Recuperación de la Función , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
J Craniofac Surg ; 19(1): 165-70, 2008 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18216683


Goldenhar syndrome is a well-known developmental anomaly of the maxillofacial skeleton and hemifacial soft tissue. Maxillofacial anomalies of that syndrome can be managed by a variety of means such as inlay- or onlay-applied nonvascularized bone grafts, vascularized osteocutaneous/osseous flaps, or distraction osteogenesis. Vascularized full-thickness calvarial bone grafting is an important option for mandibular reconstruction for cases in which, for one reason or another, other techniques are not available, not applicable, or have failed. A mandibular defect of a 6-year-old boy presenting with bilateral preauricular skin tags, right microtia, right mandibular hypoplasia (with missing right condylar head and ascending ramus of the mandible) was reconstructed with right vascularized full-thickness calvarial bone grafting. Preoperative three-dimensional computed tomographic scans were used to acquire the stereolithographic biomodeling of the patient for assessing the amount of bone defect and precise planning of the surgery. Panoramic, anteroposterior, and lateral cephalograms and three-dimensional computed tomographic scans were obtained before and after the surgery and in the follow-up period for the evaluation of amount of relapse in the follow-up period. Clinical follow up and bone scintigraphy were used to assess the viability of transferred vascularized calvarial bone graft in the postoperative period. Plain radiographic evaluation with anteroposterior radiographs showed that mandibular symmetry increased and normooclusive closure of incisive teeth was achieved after surgery and retained in the postoperative period. Radiographs taken 1 year after surgery demonstrated that there was a slight relapse (1 mm) to the right side in the mandible when the results were compared with early postoperative ones. Postoperative three-dimensional computed tomographic evaluation of bony structures 3 months after operation showed that the transferred bone retained its volume. Sequential bone scintigraphies, performed to assess the vascularity of the grafts 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after the operation, demonstrated the viability of transferred vascularized bone graft. The temporalis muscle osteofascial flap is a reliable method for mandibular reconstruction. It lessens the operative time, lessens surgical team labor, minimizes postoperative morbidity and discomfort, minimizes the hospital stay period, and minimizes financial expenses without renouncing the bone-healing capacity and increases aesthetic outcome by camouflaging the donor site scar in scalp and minimizing the facial scarring.

Trasplante Óseo/métodos , Fascia/trasplante , Síndrome de Goldenhar/cirugía , Mandíbula/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Músculo Temporal/trasplante , Trasplante Óseo/diagnóstico por imagen , Cefalometría/métodos , Niño , Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Estudios de Seguimiento , Supervivencia de Injerto , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Mandíbula/anomalías , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Cóndilo Mandibular/anomalías , Cóndilo Mandibular/cirugía , Planificación de Atención al Paciente , Radiografía Panorámica/métodos , Cintigrafía , Recurrencia , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
J Craniofac Surg ; 18(4): 740-7, 2007 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17667659


Stereolithographic (medical rapid prototyping) biomodeling allows three-dimensional computed tomography to be used to generate solid plastic replicas of anatomic structures. Reports in the literature suggest that such biomodels may have a use in maxillofacial surgery, craniofacial surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, otology, vascular, and nasal research. A prospective trial to assess the usefulness of biomodeling in orthognathic surgery has been performed. In 12 patients with mandibular prognathism and/or maxillary retrusion, in addition to routine preoperative cephalometric analysis, preoperative high-resolution (cutting slice thickness of 1 mm) three-dimensional computed tomography scan of the patients was obtained. Raw data obtained from computed tomography scanning was processed with a Mimics 9.22 Software (Materialise's Interactive Medical Image Control System, Belgium). Fabrication of three-dimensional medical models was obtained through a process called powder depositional modeling by use of a Spectrum Z 510 3D Color Printer (Z Corporation, Burlington, MA). Alveolar arches of the maxilla and mandibula of the models were replaced with orthodontic dental cast models. Temporomandibular joints of the models were fixed with Kirschner wire. Maxillary and mandibular bony segments were mobilized according to preoperative orthodontic planning done by analysis of cephalometric plain radiographs. The relation between proximal and distal mandibular segments after bilateral sagittal split osteotomies were evaluated on models preoperatively. The same surgeon had a role in both model cutting preoperatively and as an instructor preoperatively. The same bony relation was observed both in preoperative modelsand in the perioperative surgical field in all patients. Condylar malpositioning was not observed in any of the patients. Studying preoperative planned movements of osteotomized bone segments and observing relations of osteotomized segments of mandibula and maxilla in orthognathic surgery increased the intraoperative accuracy. Limitations of this technology were manufacturing time and cost.

Modelos Anatómicos , Planificación de Atención al Paciente , Prognatismo/cirugía , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Cóndilo Mandibular/fisiopatología , Ferulas Oclusales , Osteotomía Le Fort/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos
J Craniofac Surg ; 18(4): 792-9, 2007 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17667667


For better evaluation of long-term results of orthognathic surgery, movements of osteotomized maxillary and mandibular segments should be documented both in x-, y-, and z-axes and in terms of kind of movement (either linear or rotational movements). Lateral cephalometric, anteroposterior cephalometric, and submentovertex radiographs of 14 patients, treated with combined orthodontic and surgical treatment for skeletal class III malocclusion, were reevaluated retrospectively to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of defined parameters in four maxillary and five mandibular movements. There was no clinically significant relapse in the follow-up period of 6 months in any of the patients. Differences between preoperative and postoperative measurements to demonstrate the linear movement in the z-axis, rotational movements in the x-axis and y-axis of the maxilla, and the linear movement in the z-axis of the mandibula were found to be statistically significant. Differences between early postoperative and late postoperative measurements to demonstrate rotational movement in the y-axis of the maxilla and rotational movement in the y-axis of the mandibula were found to be statistically significant. In this article, the possible tridimensional movements and cephalometric measurements of osteotomized bony segments after LeFort I and sagittal split osteotomy surgery were defined for better evaluation and follow up of the postoperative results.

Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/cirugía , Mandíbula/fisiopatología , Maxilar/fisiopatología , Osteotomía Le Fort/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cefalometría , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/diagnóstico por imagen , Maloclusión de Angle Clase III/fisiopatología , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/cirugía , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Maxilar/cirugía , Radiografía , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos