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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
2.
Blood Press ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172593

RESUMEN

Purpose: Previous data suggest that tronco-conical cuffs should be used for accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement in the obese. However, not only arm size but also its shape may affect the accuracy of BP measurement when a cylindrical cuff is used.Methods: In 197 subjects with arm circumference >32 cm, and 157 subjects with arm circumference ≤ 32 cm, the upper-arm was considered as formed from two truncated cones and the frustum slant angles of the proximal (upper angle) and distal (middle angle) truncated cones were measured. Five cylindrical and five tronco-conical cuffs of appropriate size in relation to arm circumference were used.Results: In the group with large arm, the upper slant angle was greater than the middle angle (86.5 ± 1.7° versus 84.7 ± 2.3°), whereas in the group with normal arm the two angles were similar. In the former group, the cylindrical cuff overestimated BP by 2.5 ± 5.4/1.7 ± 4.7 mmHg, whereas in the latter negligible between-cuff BP discrepancies were found. In the whole sample, BP discrepancies between the cylindrical and the tronco-conical cuffs correlated with both arm size and shape, considered as the difference between the upper and middle slant angles (all p < 0.0001). Among the participants with large arm, the between-cuff BP discrepancies increased progressively with increasing upper-middle angle difference (3.75 ± 0.38/2.78 ± 0.32 mmHg for the top tertile, p < 0.001/<0.001).Conclusions: These data indicate that in people with large upper arms, the tronco-conical shape of the arm is more pronounced on the lower than the upper half, a feature that amplifies the BP measurement error when cylindrical cuffs are used.

3.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

5.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 324-330, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865788

RESUMEN

Whether extreme dipping is associated with cardiovascular events (CVE) is unclear. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the prognostic role of extreme dipping varies as a function of age. The analysis was performed in 10 868 participants (53% men) aged 53±15 (mean±SD) years enrolled in 8 prospective studies. Using the ambulatory systolic blood pressure nocturnal decline, we identified 4 groups: dippers (>10%-20%), nondippers (>0%-10%), reverse dippers (≤0%), and extreme dippers (>20%). The association between dipping category and CVE was estimated as a function of age using Cox models adjusted for sex, average 24-hour systolic blood pressure, and traditional risk factors. During a median follow-up of 5.7 years, there were a total of 829 CVE (168 fatal). For extreme dippers, no increase in risk of CVE was observed among the participants <70 years (hazard ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.73-1.34]; P=0.93) compared with dippers. In contrast, among the participants ≥70 years, there was a significant increase in risk (hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.14-3.11]; P=0.013). Among the octogenarians, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for CVE were 2.34 (1.12-4.93) for nondippers (P=0.024), 3.91 (1.75-8.73) for reverse dippers (P=0.001), and 4.12 (1.64-10.37) for extreme dippers (P=0.003) compared with dippers. These data show that extreme dipping is not associated with poorer outcome in people younger than 70 years. A U-shaped relationship between nocturnal blood pressure dipping and adverse outcome is present in subjects older than 70 years. In the octogenarian extreme dippers, the risk of CVEs was 4× higher than in the dippers and similar to that in the reverse dippers.

6.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(6): 493-499, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625119

RESUMEN

Accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) has a pivotal role in the management of patients with arterial hypertension. Recently, introduction of unattended office BP measurement has been proposed as a method allowing more accurate management of hypertensive patients and prediction of hypertension-mediated target organ damage (HMOD). This approach to BP measurement has been in particular proposed to avoid the white coat effect (WCE), which can be easily assessed once both attended and unattended BP measurements are obtained. In spite of its interest, the role of WCE in predicting HMOD remains largely unexplored. To fill this gap the Young Investigator Group of the Italian Hypertension Society (SIIA) conceived the study "Evaluation of unattended automated office, conventional office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements and their correlation with target organ damage in an outpatient population of hypertensives". This is a no-profit multicenter observational study aiming to correlate attended and unattended BP measurements for quantification of WCE and to correlate WCE with markers of HMOD, such us left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial dilatation, and peripheral atherosclerosis. The Ethical committee of the Federico II University hospital has approved the study.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Presión Sanguínea , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Visita a Consultorio Médico , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/etiología , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/fisiopatología , Italia , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/etiología , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/fisiopatología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores de Riesgo , Hipertensión de la Bata Blanca/complicaciones , Hipertensión de la Bata Blanca/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipertensión de la Bata Blanca/fisiopatología
7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(7): 966-974, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169986

RESUMEN

The prognostic value of uric acid (UA) for cardiovascular events (CVE) is still debated. Our purpose was to investigate the association between UA and CVE in 5243 participants of the ABP-International study with the main aim of identifying optimal sex-specific cut-points. In multivariable Cox analyses, the relationship between CVE and UA as a continuous variable was modeled by including both linear and nonlinear terms. Survival models were also estimated with UA as a categorical variable. Optimal UA cut-points were determined using an outcome-oriented approach. During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 423 CVE (93 fatal). In age- and sex-adjusted Cox models, UA as a continuous variable was a significant predictor of CVE in all individuals and in men and women considered separately. The relationship between UA and CVE was linear (P-value for nonlinearity 0.54 and 0.80 for men and women, respectively). For each 1 mg/dL increase in UA, the relative hazard increase was 16% in men and 19% in women. In fully adjusted models, UA remained a significant predictor of CVE in the whole study cohort. The optimal cut-point best separating patients at low and high risk of CVE was 6.3 mg/dL for men and 4.4 mg/dL for women. Subjects with high UA had a 38% greater risk of CVE. In a sex-specific analysis, the association remained significant only in men (hazard ratio, 1.47; P < 0.01). In conclusion, high UA is an independent predictor for subsequent CVE and significantly improves risk discrimination and reclassification over the baseline multivariable model.

8.
J Hypertens ; 37(7): 1419-1426, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882599

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The association of short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) with cardiovascular events (CVEs) is controversial. Aim of this study was to investigate whether BPV measured as weighted 24-h SD was associated with CVE in a prospective cohort study of young patients screened for stage 1 hypertension. METHODS: We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 1206 participants aged 33.1 ±â€Š8.5 years, untreated at baseline examination. Participants were divided into two categories with low (<12.8 mmHg) or high (≥12.8 mmHg) SBPV. Hazard ratios for CVE associated with BPV expressed either as continuous or categorical variable were computed from multivariable Cox models. RESULTS: During 15.4 ±â€Š7.4 years of follow-up there were 69 fatal and nonfatal CVE. In multivariable Cox models, high SBPV was an independent predictors of CVE [2.75 (1.65-4.58); P = 0.0001] and of coronary events [3.84 (2.01-7.35), P < 0.0001]. Inclusion in the model of development of hypertension requiring treatment during the follow-up, did not reduce the strength of the associations. Addition of SBPV to fully adjusted models had significant impact on risk reclassification and integrated discrimination (relative integrated discrimination improvement for BPV as continuous variable: 13.5%, P = 0.045, and for BPV as categorical variable: 26.6%, P = 0.001). When the coefficient of variation was used as BPV metric similar results were obtained. Of note, in all Cox models average 24-h BP was no longer an independent predictor of outcome after BPV was included. CONCLUSION: Short-term BPV adds to the risk stratification for cardiovascular events in young-to-middle-age patients screened for stage 1 hypertension over and above traditional 24-h ambulatory monitoring indexes.

9.
J Hypertens ; 37(1): 37-41, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927843

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Rectangular (cylindrical) cuffs and bladders are currently used for blood pressure (BP) measurement at the upper arm. However, large arms have a troncoconical shape, which make cylindrical cuffs potentially unsuitable. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the shape of the cuff on BP measurement in very obese participants. METHODS: In 33 participants with upper arm mid-circumference at least 42 cm and 33 participants of control, cylindrical and troncoconical cuffs of appropriate size were compared. In addition, in the obese participants, the pressure transmitted to the arm under the cuffs was measured at five cuff pressure levels using a paper-thin pressure sensor. RESULTS: In all obese participants, the upper arm shape was troncoconical (mean ±â€ŠSD slant angle, 84.1 ±â€Š1.4°). In this group, SBP and DBP differences between the troncoconical and the cylindrical cuff were -5.3 ±â€Š4.0 and -3.0 ±â€Š4.3 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001/=0.01 versus controls). In the obese participants of the top BP quintile, the between-cuff SBP difference was -9.1 ±â€Š5.1 mmHg. Arm slant angle was an independent predictor of the between-cuff SBP discrepancy (P = 0.003). When the cylindrical cuff was used, measurement with the pressure sensor showed a marked disagreement between the pressure in the cuff and the pressure transmitted to the arm (mean difference, -10.2 ±â€Š5.2 mmHg) a difference, which increased with increasing level of the pressure pumped in the cuff. CONCLUSION: In very obese people, cylindrical cuffs overestimate BP chiefly in people with high SBP and thus only troncoconical cuffs should be used.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/instrumentación , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Obesidad Mórbida/fisiopatología , Brazo/irrigación sanguínea , Brazo/fisiopatología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/normas , Humanos
10.
J Hum Hypertens ; 32(11): 745-751, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082690

RESUMEN

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common endocrine cause of resistant hypertension. Individuals with PA are at increased cardiovascular risk, and an appropriate management and treatment would ideally reduce such risk. Screening and diagnosis of PA requires a specific diagnostic test which is considered time- and cost-consuming and, as a result, is underperformed in clinical practice. An online survey reviewing available diagnostic procedures, laboratory testing, and clinical protocols for screening and confirmation of PA diagnosis was conducted among clinical lead of Reference and Excellence centers of the Italian Hypertension Society. A total of 102 questionnaires were sent and 62 centers participated in the survey. Assessment of the plasma renin (plasma renin activity/direct renin concentration) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) was available in all centers. Captopril challenge test (CCT) and saline infusion test (SIT) were available in 60% and 61% of the centers, respectively. Fludrocortisone suppression test was available in 32% of the units. Adrenal vein sampling was accessible in 32% of the centers. We found discrepancies in cutoff levels of aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and PAC after SIT. Other discrepancies involved the duration of the wash-out period before ARR testing and dosage of captopril administered during CCT. In conclusion, although all centers are sufficiently equipped to perform PA screening, often patients should be referred to other centers to confirm the diagnosis of PA. A greater uniformity across centers to define precise cutoffs for screening and confirmatory testing for the diagnosis of PA would be of utility.


Asunto(s)
Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Centros de Atención Secundaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
J Hypertens ; 36(9): 1810-1815, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005026

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in youth is controversial. One main confounding factor is the strong white-coat effect often observed in ISH patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of hypertension needing pharmacological treatment in ISH identified with ambulatory 24-h blood pressure (24-h BP). METHODS: We examined 1206, 18-45-year-old participants from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording VEnetia STudy. Based on 24-h BP, 269 participants were normotensive, 209 had ISH, 277 had isolated diastolic hypertension, and 451 had systolic-diastolic hypertension. The predictive role of ISH for incident hypertension was evaluated in Cox survival analyses, adjusting for risk factors and confounders. RESULTS: ISH participants were more frequently young men active in sports, with lower heart rate and cholesterol. During a 6.9-year follow-up, 61.1% of participants developed hypertension. ISH participants had a nonsignificant increase in risk of hypertension compared with normotensive (reference group). In contrast, participants with diastolic hypertension (1.44; 1.13-1.85) or systolic-diastolic hypertension (2.04; 1.59-2.64) had a significant increase in risk. When the ISH participants were divided according to whether 24-h mean BP was normal (<97 mmHg) or high, ISH patients with normal mean BP had no increase in risk (1.01; 0.73-1.40), whereas those with high mean BP had a significant increase in risk (1.70; 1.16-2.49). CONCLUSION: These data obtained with ambulatory BP monitoring show that in ISH people younger than 45 years, only mean BP is a predictor of future hypertension needing treatment, whereas the ISH status per se does not necessarily imply an increase in risk.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Diástole , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Sístole , Adulto Joven
12.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 20(5): 39, 2018 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717392

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors including central obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and arterial hypertension, is a well-known determinant of arterial wall remodeling and stiffening. The mechanisms whereby MetS promotes arterial stiffening include increased sympathetic activity with the associated fast heart rate, enhanced activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and reduction of nitric oxide availability. These adverse effects can explain why aerobic physical activity can retard the age-related decline in arterial elasticity in subjects with MetS. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of studies have shown that in patients with MetS, exercise can reduce body weight and blood pressure and improve the metabolic profile. In addition, regular exercise training can counterbalance the detrimental effects of MetS by reducing sympathetic activity and improving endothelial function with a beneficial effect on arterial elasticity. Indeed, the majority of published data have shown a favorable effect of aerobic exercise on pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, central blood pressure, and small artery compliance. Special attention should be paid by clinicians to people with MetS in whom the adverse effect of metabolic disturbances on arterial structure and function can be offset by a program of physical training.


Asunto(s)
Arterias/fisiopatología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Elasticidad/fisiología , Humanos , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Factores de Riesgo
13.
J Hypertens ; 36(6): 1222-1236, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570514

RESUMEN

: Whether isolated systolic hypertension in the young (ISHY) implies a worse outcome and needs antihypertensive treatment is still a matter for dispute. ISHY is thought to have different mechanisms than systolic hypertension in the elderly. However, findings from previous studies have provided inconsistent results. From the analysis of the literature, two main lines of research and conceptualization have emerged. Simultaneous assessment of peripheral and central blood pressure led to the identification of a condition called pseudo or spurious hypertension, which was considered an innocent condition. However, an increase in pulse wave velocity has been found by some authors in about 20% of the individuals with ISHY. In addition, obesity and metabolic disturbances have often been documented to be associated with ISHY both in children and young adults. The first aspect to consider whenever evaluating a person with ISHY is the possible presence of white-coat hypertension, which has been frequently found in this condition. In addition, assessment of central blood pressure is useful for identifying ISHY patients whose central blood pressure is normal. ISHY is infrequently mentioned in the guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. According to the 2013 European Guidelines on the management of hypertension, people with ISHY should be followed carefully, modifying risk factors by lifestyle changes and avoiding antihypertensive drugs. Only future clinical trials will elucidate if a benefit can be achieved with pharmacological treatment in some subgroups of ISHY patients with associated risk factors and/or high central blood pressure.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Niño , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Estilo de Vida , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Factores de Riesgo , Sociedades Médicas , Hipertensión de la Bata Blanca/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
14.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 118(3): 543-550, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294160

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the augmentation index (AIx) is negatively correlated with heart rate (HR). This led some authors to claim that the use of HR-lowering drugs may be detrimental in hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships of HR with AIx and central blood pressure (BP) in 346 subjects from the HARVEST (mean age 30.7 ± 8.5 years). METHODS: At baseline, HR was measured with 24-h ambulatory recording. Central hemodynamics were evaluated with Specaway DAT system after a median of 8.0 years from baseline. In multivariate linear regression analyses, AIx and central systolic BP were used as dependent variables and night-time HR or office HR as predictors adjusting for several risk factors and confounders. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, baseline night-time HR was a significant positive predictor of AIx (p < 0.001) and central BP (p = 0.014) measured 8 years later. Adjusted office HR measured at the time of arterial distensibility assessment was inversely correlated with AIx (p = 0.001) a relationship which was attenuated after physical activity (p = 0.004) and left ventricular ejection time (p = 0.015) were taken into account. In addition, office HR was inversely correlated with central BP (p = 0.039) a relationship which was no longer significant after physical activity and ejection time were accounted for. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that HR measured during sleep is longitudinally associated with AIx and central BP. Thus, low HR in the long term may have beneficial effects on central hemodynamics and the wall properties of the large arteries in hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Ritmo Circadiano , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Adulto , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sueño
15.
Kidney Int ; 93(1): 195-203, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935213

RESUMEN

The association between glomerular hyperfiltration and cardiovascular events is not well known. To investigate whether glomerular hyperfiltration is independently associated with risk of adverse outcome we analyzed 8794 participants, average age 52 years enrolled in 8 prospective studies. Of these, 89% had hypertension. Using the 5th and 95th percentiles of the age- and sex-specific quintiles of CKD-EPI-calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we identified three participant groups with low, high and normal eGFR. The ambulatory pulse pressure interval was wider and nighttime blood pressure fall was smaller in both the low and high than in the normal eGFR participants. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 years, there were 722 cardiovascular events. Crude event rates were significantly higher for both high (1.8 per 100-person-year) and low eGFR groups (2.1 per 100 person-year) as compared with group with normal eGFR (1.2 per 100 person-year). In multivariable Cox models including age, sex, average 24-hour blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and cholesterol, both high eGFR (hazard ratio 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1) and low eGFR (2.0 [1.5-2.6]) participants had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events as compared to those with normal eGFR. Addition of body mass index to the multivariable survival model did not change the magnitude of hazard estimates. Thus, glomerular hyperfiltration is a strong and independent predictor of cardiovascular events in a large multiethnic population of predominantly hypertensive individuals. Our findings support a U-shaped relationship between eGFR and adverse outcome.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Riñón/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Sistema de Registros , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Hypertension ; 2017 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739974

RESUMEN

The role of pulse pressure in young individuals remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of elevated pulse pressure in young- to middle-aged subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. We examined 1241 subjects (mean age, 33.1±8.4 years) from the HARVEST (Hypertension Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study), during a median follow-up of 12.1 years. To evaluate the predictive value of pulse pressure and mean blood pressure for future hypertension needing treatment and for cardiovascular events, participants were grouped into pressure tertiles. Significant determinants of pulse pressure were male sex (P=0.029), younger age (P<0.001), physical activity (P=0.003), heart rate (P<0.001), systolic white coat effect (P<0.001), and stroke volume (n=829; P<0.001). During follow-up, 65.1% of participants developed hypertension requiring pharmacological treatment and 5.1% experienced a cardiovascular event. Participants in the highest pulse pressure tertile had a reduced risk of incident hypertension compared with those of the bottom tertile (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.91; P=0.003). In contrast, participants in the top mean blood pressure tertile had an increase in risk (1.91; 1.57-2.33; P<0.001). In addition, participants in the highest pulse pressure tertile had a reduced risk of cardiovascular events (0.35; 0.17-0.73; P=0.005) and those in the top mean blood pressure tertile had an increase in risk (3.06; 1.32-7.09; P=0.009). Our data show that in subjects <45 years, only mean blood pressure is a predictor of adverse outcome whereas high pulse pressure even carries a reduced risk.

17.
Am J Med ; 130(8): 967-974.e1, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366424

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: An interactive effect of tobacco and alcohol use has been described for cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the joint effect of smoking and alcohol intake on major adverse cardiovascular and renal events (MACE) in young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. METHODS: A total of 1204 untreated patients aged from 18 to 45 years (mean 33.1) were included in this prospective cohort study. Subjects were classified into 4 categories of cigarette smoking and 3 classes of alcohol use. Main outcome variable was risk for MACE. RESULTS: During a 12.6-year follow-up, there were 74 fatal and nonfatal MACE. In multivariable Cox models, current smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with risk of MACE. In a multivariable model also including follow-up changes in blood pressure and body weight, hazard ratio (HR) was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.83) for smoking and was 1.82 (95% CI, 1.05-3.15) for alcohol use. In addition, an interactive effect was found between smoking and alcohol on risk of MACE (P <.001). Among the 142 smokers who also drank alcoholic beverages, the risk of MACE (HR 4.02; 95% CI, 1.98-8.15) was more than doubled compared with the 112 smokers who abstained from drinking (HR 1.64; 95% CI, 0.63-4.27). In the group of heavy smokers who also were alcohol drinkers (n = 51), the risk of MACE was even quadrupled (HR 7.79; 95% CI, 4.22-14.37). CONCLUSION: Alcohol use potentiates the deleterious cardiovascular effects of heavy smoking in stage 1 hypertensive subjects younger than 45 years. These results call for prompt intervention addressed to improve unhealthy behaviors in these subjects.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Café/efectos adversos , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Cardiopatías/etiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
18.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 24(2): 133-139, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374153

RESUMEN

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is the most common form of hypertension in older persons and its predictive value for adverse outcome is well known. However, ISH can be frequently found also in young individuals, especially among males, but its prognostic significance in this setting is still controversial. Increased large artery stiffness is the main determinant of ISH in elderly patients whereas the mechanisms that lead to ISH in the young are still debated. According to some authors ISH in youth is a totally benign condition that can be called "spurious hypertension" a phenomenon due to enhanced pulse pressure amplification of the pulse wave from central to peripheral sites. According to others the main determinant of ISH in young individuals is increased sympathetic activity and the consequent hyperkinetic state characterized by elevated heart rate and stroke volume. This phenomenon is often amplified by a powerful alarm reaction to the medical visit. However, recent research has shown that ISH in the young is a heterogeneous condition and that in some individuals also increased arterial stiffness can play a role. Although ISH seems to be a benign condition chiefly in young men, only few longitudinal data assessing the association with adverse outcomes are available. Future studies with long term follow-up are needed to better understand the clinical significance of this condition.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Sístole , Adulto Joven
19.
J Hypertens ; 35(5): 994-1001, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118282

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The association of serum uric acid (SUA) with risk of hypertension is controversial and may be modulated by lifestyle factors. We did a prospective study to investigate whether SUA was an independent predictor of hypertension in the young and whether physical activity influences this association. METHODS: The study was conducted in a cohort of 1156 young to middle-age participants screened for stage 1 hypertension and followed for a median of 11.4 years. In multivariable Cox analyses, participants were stratified by tertiles of uric acid and physical activity habits. RESULTS: At follow-up end, 63.3% of the study participants developed hypertension needing treatment. In the whole group, SUA was an independent predictor of future hypertension (P = 0.005). Participants with SUA more than 5.60 mg/dl (top tertile) had a 31% increase in risk compared with those of the bottom tertile. However, the risk of hypertension related to SUA was increased only among the sedentary participants with a hazard ratio of 1.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.88) for the participants of the top SUA tertile. In contrast, among the active participants no association was found between SUA and risk of hypertension. Alcohol intake was another modulator of the SUA-hypertension relationship (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.38, 1.02-1.87). Plasma renin activity, office and ambulatory heart rates, and metabolic variables were proportional to SUA level and were lower in active than sedentary participants. CONCLUSION: These data confirm that SUA is a predictor of hypertension and suggest that exercise may counteract the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the association between hyperuricemia and future hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hiperuricemia/sangre , Ácido Úrico/sangre , Adulto , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Masculino , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Renina/sangre , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
20.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 23(3): 237-43, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342243

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction (AD) is a particular condition that can be detected by means of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). ABPM is helpful to identify some specific characteristics of haemodynamic AD, including non-dipping/reverse-dipping pattern, orthostatic and post-prandial hypotension and elevated blood pressure variability. These characteristics may be misdiagnosed with traditional, clinic blood pressure measurements. AD is relatively common in the real world. By analysing about 1000 recordings in a Cardiology unit, AD was found in 6.8 % of the exams. Several diseases may be the underlying causes of AD. In our sample half of the subjects were diabetic (54.4 %), 17.7 % were patients with alpha-synucleinopathy (Parkinson disease or multiple system atrophy), and 27.9 % had other underlying causes of AD including chronic kidney disease, α-lytic drug assumption and AD from unknown causes. According to the different aetiology, different clinical characteristics can be found, in particular in diabetics these peculiar aspects are less pronounced compared to the other subgroups. These characteristics have been found to be predictors of cardiovascular events, organ damage, and mortality. For these reasons, early identification of these behaviours is important, in order to better define patient's cardiovascular risk profile. As regard treatment of AD, several drugs have been tested, however none of this showed efficacy in all kinds of patients. Another open aspect is "safe" reference values for supine hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/diagnóstico , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervación , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Ritmo Circadiano , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipotensión Ortostática/diagnóstico , Hipotensión Ortostática/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipotensión Ortostática/fisiopatología , Masculino , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
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