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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070998

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current data about the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its entry factors in oral tissues and cells. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was carried out based on the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Three databases were analyzed (Pubmed, Web of science and Scopus) by three independent researchers. From the 18 identified studies, 10 of them met the inclusion criteria. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 or its entry factors (angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), transmembrane serine proteases (TMPRSS), and furin) was analyzed in these 10 studies during the pandemic. Results: ACE2 expression was analyzed in 9 of the 10 studies. ACE2 is expressed mainly in the tongue, oral mucosa, salivary glands and epithelial cells. The expression of the TMPRSS2 gene or protein was analyzed in 6 studies. These studies reported that the expression of TMPRSS2 was mainly in the salivary glands, tongue, sulcular epithelium and oral mucosa; as well as in cells of the salivary glands (ductal, acinar and myoepithelial cells) and the tongue (the spinous-based cell layer, horny layer and the epithelial surface). Other TMPRSS were also reported. The expression of TMPRSS3, TMPRSS4, TMPRSS5, TMPRSS7 and TMPRSS11D was reported mainly in salivary glands and in epithelial-type cells. Furan expression was analyzed in three studies. The expression of furin was detected mainly in epithelial cells of the tongue. A variety of methods were used to carry out the detection of SARS-CoV-2 or its input molecules. Conclusions: These results show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide variety of oral tissues and cells, and that together with the theories dedicated to explaining the oral symptoms present in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, it provides us with a good scientific basis for understanding the virus infection in the oral cavity and its consequences.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Furina , Humanos , Proteínas de la Membrana , Mucosa Bucal , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Pandemias , Serina Endopeptidasas
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068221

RESUMEN

The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence regarding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with the possibly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to establish a hypothesis that explains the ways in which this interaction could take place. A literature search up from 1 January 2020 to 21 March 2021 was conducted in three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, in order to identify studies on periodontal disease alone or in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, reporting any relation with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a primary outcome. Only articles published in the English language were included. Due to the lack of studies, we decided to collect all the theoretical and clinical evidence suggesting a possible biological pathway evidencing the relationship among PD, DM, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. From a total of 29 articles, 12 were included for final review studies (five reviews, two hypotheses, one Special Issue, one perspective, one commentary, one case-control study, and one case report). In addition, this systematic review article hypothesizes the correlation between PD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in periodontal tissue and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from altered insulin secretion or action. Likewise, periodontitis and T2DM are inflammatory disorders with a bidirectional association, and both diseases have a similar immunomodulatory cascade and cytokine profile. ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the key factor of entry in the cells by the new SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is widely distributed in the lung and kidneys, and interestingly has a great distribution in the oral cavity, principally in the tongue and periodontal tissue. ACE2 in periodontal tissue plays a crucial role between health and disease. Moreover, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis is downregulated in the dysbiotic and inflammatory periodontal environment. Nevertheless, the balance of ACE2 activity is modified in the context of concurrent diabetes, increasing the expression of ACE2 by the uncontrolled glycemia chronic in T2DM. Therefore, the uncontrolled hyperglycemia possibly increases the risk of developing periodontitis and triggering overexpression of ACE2 in periodontal tissue of T2DM patients, with these events potentially being essential to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of mild-to-severe form of COVID-19. In this sense, we would like to point out that the need for randomized controlled trials is imperative to support this association.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Enfermedades Periodontales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Periodontales/complicaciones , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134177

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied as an alternative to antibiotic use due to their antimicrobial properties at lower concentrations. Enterococcus faecalis is a facultative Gram-positive microorganism inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. It can also be present in other environments such as the oral cavity, water, sewage, soil and food. AIMS: We evaluated whether E. faecalis could develop resistance to silver NPs (AgNPs) after exposure to sublethal concentrations of the NPs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proteomic analyses revealed that different pathways were activated during the acquired resistance under sublethal concentrations, and selected genes were validated by qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that E. faecalis is capable of generating resistance to AgNPs. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To avoid the generation of resistance against AgNPs, future use of these NPs should be combined with other NPs prepared with different metals to prevent the dissemination of resistant strains.

4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917276

RESUMEN

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has become a global ongoing pandemic. This pandemic represents a great work risk for all health professionals, it includes dental professionals who are in constant contact with saliva, which represents one of the main routes of transmission of the disease. This is due to the fact that a wide variety of oral tissues and cells are susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 and that they express the ACE2 receptor, which is the main route of entry of the virus into cells, as well as the proteins TMPRSS and furin that contributes to the binding of the virus to the host cells. According to recent studies, some of the oral cells most susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 are the epithelial cells of the salivary glands. This explains the presence of the virus in the saliva of infected patients and provides scientific evidence that supports the use of saliva as a biofluid that offers the opportunity to develop new detection and diagnostic techniques. This is because saliva is much easier to collect compared to nasopharyngeal swab. However, the presence of the virus in saliva, also represents a great source of transmission, since the main form of infection is through microscopic drops that are generated when infected people cough or sneeze. Likewise, health professionals, such as dentists are exposed to contagion through saliva. The objective of this review article is to provide a perspective on the main cells and tissues that can be affected by the virus, the risk of contagion that the presence of the virus in saliva represents for dentists; and the new techniques developed from saliva samples for the diagnosis and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review is expected to contribute to the knowledge of oral health professionals about the risk of saliva in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but also its advantages as a diagnostic tool for pandemic control. In conclusion, the authors can mention that information that provides more scientific evidence of the mechanisms of infection of the coronavirus in oral cells and tissues is being published continually. This also explains the presence of the virus in the saliva of infected people and the risk of contagion that this means. It also provides scientific evidence of the use of saliva as a biofluid for the detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and control of the spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Odontólogos , Humanos , Rol Profesional , Saliva
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670181

RESUMEN

Background: on 7 January 2020, a new type of coronavirus was isolated, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2), the organism causing the outbreak that has affected the lives of all humans and has modified the rules of coexistence around the world. In Mexico, from 3 January 2020 to 9 January 2021, there have been 1439, 569 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 131,031 deaths. The World Health Organization reported that Mexico was ranked twelfth, in terms of confirmed cases of COVID-19 by country. Aim: the objective of this study was to determine what modifications dentists from the Mexican Republic have made to their dental practice during theCOVID-19 pandemic. Methods: the study was conducted based on a questionnaire to evaluate the dentists' response and knowledge on the modifications in their dental practice to combat the new coronavirus's cross-transmission. The questionnaire was piloted before it was distributed. The questionnaire was disseminated through the social network Facebook. The questionnaire was distributed to groups of dentists on Facebook, in each of the Mexican Republic states. The survey was carried out during June 2020. Results and Conclusions: from the 32 states of the Mexican Republic, 29 participated with at least one respondent. The results of the applied survey suggest that dentists, at least the population of surveyed ones, have proper knowledge of detection methods of patients suspected of COVID-19, preventive measures that must be applied in the dental office to decrease the risk of infection, and the appropriate procedures and solutions for dental office disinfection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Odontólogos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Control de Infecciones , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Competencia Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 9(1): e49, ene.-mar. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1254401

RESUMEN

Sinus pathologies of odontogenic origin (SPO) are common in the clinical consultation; however, the dentist has some complications to detect them because their discovery is usually incidental and through imaging studies that, in most cases, are of low quality. The objective of this review is to describe the pertinent imaging resources that allow the detection of the most frequent SPO and, at the same time, carry out an updated review of the scientific literature in order to recognize the imaging of both the maxillary sinus and the dental organs. The scientific literature focused on this topic, published between 2014 and 2020, was consulted. The review showed two important results: the first is that Cone Beam Tomography (CBCT) represents the imaging modality with the best performance for the detection of SPO by what can be considered the gold standard for this purpose. The second is that the most frequent SPO is sinus mucositis, which is related to odontogenic conditions such as periapical lesions and periodontal affectations. Although Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is the most appropriate tool to detect SPO compared to images obtained by 2D devices, there are also other alternatives such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography, which seem to have a promising future. (AU)


Las patologías sinusales de origen odontogénico (PSO) son frecuentes en la consulta clínica; sin embargo, el odontólogo tiene algunas complicaciones para detectarlos porque su descubrimiento suele ser incidental y mediante estudios de imagen que, en la mayoría de los casos, son de baja calidad. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los recursos de imagen pertinentes que permitan la detección de las PSO más frecuentes y, al mismo tiempo, realizar una revisión actualizada de la literatura científica con el fin de reconocer la imagenologia tanto del seno maxilar como de los órganos dentales. Se consultó la literatura científica centrada en este tema, publicada entre 2014 y 2020. La revisión arrojó dos resultados importantes: el primero es que la tomografía de haz cónico (TCHC) representa la modalidad de imagen con mejor desempeño para la detección de PSO, por lo que se puede considerar el estándar de oro para este propósito. La segunda es que la PSO más frecuente es la mucositis sinusal, que se relaciona con afecciones odontogénicas como lesiones periapicales y afectaciones periodontales. Si bien la TCHC es la herramienta más adecuada para detectar la SPO en comparación con las imágenes obtenidas con dispositivos 2D, también existen otras alternativas como la resonancia magnética y la ecografía, que parecen tener un futuro prometedor. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Sinusitis Maxilar/patología , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181755

RESUMEN

The increase in bacterial resistance to one or several antibiotics has become a global health problem. Recently, nanomaterials have become a tool against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are one of the most studied nanomaterials against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several in vitro studies report that metal nanoparticles have antimicrobial properties against a broad spectrum of bacterial species. However, until recently, the bacterial resistance mechanisms to the bactericidal action of the nanoparticles had not been investigated. Some of the recently reported resistance mechanisms include electrostatic repulsion, ion efflux pumps, expression of extracellular matrices, and the adaptation of biofilms and mutations. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent findings regarding the mechanisms used by bacteria to counteract the antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Óxidos/farmacología , Compuestos de Plata/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo
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