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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 45: 1-6, 2021 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639293

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Febrile neutropenic immunocompromised children are at a high risk of Serious Bacterial Infections (SBI). OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis report the prevalence of SBI in healthy children with febrile neutropenia. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from their inception to August 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Patients with an Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) <1000 cells/mm3 up to 18 years of age presenting to the ED with a chief complaint of fever (temperature > 38°C) and who had a workup for SBI as defined by each study. DATA ABSTRACTION: Data from individual studies was abstracted by a subset of the authors and checked independently by the senior author. Any discrepancies were adjudicated by the joint agreement of all the authors. We calculated the prevalence of SBI by using the number of SBI's as the numerator and the total number of febrile events in patients as the denominator. Bias in our studies was quantified by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We identified 2066 citations of which five studies (1693 patients) our inclusion criteria. None of our reviewed studies consistently tested every included patient for SBI. Spectrum bias in every study resulted in a wide range of the SBI prevalence of 1.9% (<0.01% - 11%) similar to non-neutropenic children. LIMITATIONS: All of our studies were retrospective and many did not consistently screen all subjects for SBI. CONCLUSION: If the clinical suspicion is low, the risk for SBI is similar between febrile healthy neutropenic and non-neutropenic children.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572960

RESUMEN

Bio-nanotechnology employing bio-sourced nanomaterial is an emerging avenue serving the field of fish medicine. Marine-sourced chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) is a well-known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory reagent with low or no harm side effects on fish or their human consumers. In this study, in vitro skin mucus and serum antibacterial activity assays along with intestinal histology, histochemical, and gene expression analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of dietary CSNPs (5 g kg-1 dry feed) on rainbow trout resistance against 'enteric redmouth' disease. Two treatment conditions were included; short-term prophylactic-regimen for 21 days before the bacterial challenge, and long-term therapeutic-regimen for 21 days before the challenge and extended for 28 days after the challenge. Our results revealed higher antibacterial defense ability and positive intestinal histochemical and molecular traits of rainbow trout after dietary CSNPs. The prophylactic-regimen improved trout health while the therapeutic regimen improved their disease resistance and lowered their morbidity. Therefore, it is anticipated that CSNPs is an effective antibacterial and immunomodulatory fish feed supplement against the infectious threats. However, the CSNPs seem to be more effective in the therapeutic application rather than being used for short-term prophylactic applications.

3.
J Community Health ; 46(2): 399-404, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389474

RESUMEN

There have long been noted significant health disparities related to cancer in populations comprised of low-income and minority individuals, including those with gynecologic cancers. Compliance with appointments related to cancer care is critical to ensuring timely diagnosis, treatment, and detection of disease progression. At a public safety net hospital in New York City, the rate of clinic absenteeism in gynecologic oncology clinic was noted to be nearly 20%. This prospective, survey-based study catalogued reasons for clinic absenteeism and noted that the most common reason an appointment was missed was the patient being unaware it existed. Next most common reasons were medical conflicts and family obligations. Patients at this clinic would benefit from a clinic navigator to assist with scheduling appointments, remind patients of upcoming appointments, and resolve conflicting medical appointments.

4.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429926

RESUMEN

Fish pathogens causing disease outbreaks represent a major threat to aquaculture industry and food security. The aim of the presented study is to develop safe and effective bioactive agents against two bacterial isolates: Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens. We employed a broth microdilution method to investigate the antibacterial effect of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); rutin, a natural flavonoid extracted from Ruta graveneoles; and heliomycin, a secondary metabolite produced by marine actinomycetes AB5, as monotherapeutic agents. Moreover, AgNPs in combination with rutin (AgNP + R) and heliomycin (AgNPs + H) were examined for their synergistic effect. The cytotoxic effect of individual bioactive compounds and in combination with AgNPs was investigated on epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) fish cell lines. Individual treatment of AgNPs, rutin, and heliomycin exhibited a dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens. Rutin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed the lowest cytotoxicity when tested on EPC cell lines, while heliomycin MIC was highly cytotoxic. Combined subtherapeutic doses of AgNPs + R and AgNPs + H displayed additive and synergistic effects against A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens, respectively, with improved results and relative safety profile. The study findings demonstrate that a combination of AgNPs and natural bioactive compounds may represent novel therapeutics fighting fish pathogens potentially affecting the fish farming industry.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 106: 844-851, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891791

RESUMEN

Myxobolus cerebralis, the etiological agent of Whirling Disease (WD), is a freshwater myxozoan parasite with considerable economic and ecological relevance for salmonids. There are differences in disease susceptibility between species and strains of salmonids. Recently, we have reported that the suppressor of cytokine signaling SOCS1 and SOCS3 are key in modulating rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) immune responses and that resistant fish apparently exhibit effective Th17 cell response after exposure to M. cerebralis. It is unclear whether such molecules and pathways are also involved in the immune response of M. cerebralis infected brown trout (Salmo trutta). Hence, this study aimed to explore their role during immune modulation in infected brown trout, which is considered resistant to this parasite. Fish were exposed to the triactinomyxon (TAM) stages of M. cerebralis and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was carried out to examine local (caudal fin) and systemic (head kidney, spleen) immune transcriptional changes associated with WD over time in infected and control fish. All of the immune genes in the three tissues studied were differentially expressed in infected fish at multiple time points. Brown trout reduced the parasite load and demonstrated effective immune responses, likely by keeping pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in balance whilst stimulating efficient Th17-mediated immunity. This study increases knowledge on the brown trout immune response to M. cerebralis and helps us to understand the underlying mechanisms of WD resistance.

6.
J Fish Dis ; 43(9): 1049-1063, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632933

RESUMEN

Nanotechnology is an emerging avenue employed in disease prevention and treatment. This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) against major bacterial and oomycete fish pathogens in comparison with chitosan suspension. Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, MIC90 ) were determined and the per cent inhibition of bacterial growth was calculated. Subsequently, the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined. The time-dependent disruptions of CSNP-treated pathogens were observed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the effect of CSNPs on the viability of two fish cell lines was assessed. No antimicrobial effect was observed with chitosan, while CSNPs (105 nm) exhibited a dose-dependent and species-specific antimicrobial properties. They were bactericidal against seven bacterial isolates recording MBC values from 1 to 7 mg/ml, bacteriostatic against four further isolates recording MIC values from 0.125 to 5 mg/ml and fungistatic against oomycetes recording MIC90 values of 3 and 4 mg/ml. TEM micrographs showed the attachment of CSNPs to the pathogenic cell membranes disrupting their integrity. No significant cytotoxicity was observed using 1 mg/ml CSNPs, while low dose-dependent cytotoxicity was elicited by the higher doses. Therefore, it is anticipated that CSNPs are able to compete and reduce using antibiotics in aquaculture.

7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(11): 2492.e5-2492.e6, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532619

RESUMEN

Early reports of COVID-19 in pediatric populations emphasized a mild course of disease with severe cases disproportionately affecting infant and comorbid pediatric patients. After the peak of the epidemic in New York City, in late April to early May, cases of severe illness associated with COVID-19 were reported among mostly previously healthy children ages 5-19. Many of these cases feature a toxic shock-like syndrome or Kawasaki-like syndrome in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 positive diagnostic testing and the CDC has termed this presentation Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). It is essential to disseminate information among the medical community regarding severe and atypical presentations of COVID-19 as prior knowledge can help communities with increasing caseloads prepare to quickly identify and treat these patients as they present in the emergency department. We describe a case of MIS-C in a child who presented to our Emergency Department (ED) twice and on the second visit was found to have signs of distributive shock, multi-organ injury and systemic inflammation associated with COVID-19. The case describes two ED visits by an 11- year-old SARS-CoV-2-positive female who initially presented with fever, rash and pharyngitis and returned within 48 hours with evidence of cardiac and renal dysfunction and fluid-refractory hypotension requiring vasopressors and PICU admission.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234479, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542025

RESUMEN

There are differences in disease susceptibility to whirling disease (WD) among strains of rainbow trout. The North American strain Trout Lodge (TL) is highly susceptible, whereas the German Hofer (HO) strain is more resistant. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are key in inhibiting cytokine signaling. Their role in modulating the immune response against whirling disease is not completely clear. This study aimed at investigating the transcriptional response of SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes to Myxobolus cerebralis along with that of several upstream regulators and immune response genes. M. cerebralis induced the expression of SOCS1, the IL-6-dependent SOCS3, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the Treg associated transcription factor FOXP3 in TL fish at multiple time points, which likely caused a restricted STAT1 and STAT3 activity affecting the Th17/Treg17 balance. The expression of SOCS1 and the IL-6-dependent SOCS3 was induced constraining the activation of STAT1 and STAT3 in TL fish, thereby causing Th17/Treg17 imbalance and leaving the fish unable to establish a protective immune response against M. cerebralis or control inflammatory reactions increasing susceptibility to WD. Conversely, in HO fish, the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 was restrained, whereas the expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 was induced potentially enabling more controlled immune responses, accelerating parasite clearance and elevating resistance. The induced expression of STAT1 and IL-23-mediated STAT3 likely maintained a successful Th17/Treg17 balance and enabled fish to promote effective immune responses favouring resistance against WD. The results provide insights into the role of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in regulating the activation and magnitude of host immunity in rainbow trout, which may help us understand the mechanisms that underlie the variation in resistance to WD.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Myxobolus/inmunología , Oncorhynchus mykiss/inmunología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/inmunología , Factor de Transcripción STAT3/inmunología , Proteína 3 Supresora de la Señalización de Citocinas/inmunología , Animales , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitología , Factor de Transcripción STAT1/inmunología , Proteína 1 Supresora de la Señalización de Citocinas/inmunología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/citología , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Células Th17/citología , Células Th17/inmunología
9.
AJP Rep ; 10(2): e129-e132, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309013

RESUMEN

Appendicitis in pregnancy is the most common nonobstetric surgical emergency. Pregnancy causes changes in anatomy, which could lead to uncertainty regarding the diagnosis of appendicitis. This case report describes a case of appendicitis presenting with peritoneovaginal fistula in a pregnant woman in the second trimester, with interesting finding of isolated appendiceal endometriosis on pathology. The importance of complete physical examination, including speculum examination, is emphasized in the pregnant patient presenting with acute-onset abdominal pain. Imaging criteria for diagnosis of appendicitis should be adjusted to account for the gravid uterus, which may cause appendiceal abscess to appear in a variety of locations, such as posterior to the cervix, as in this case.

10.
Front Genet ; 10: 1066, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781159

RESUMEN

Introduction: Rapid changes in genomic technology are transforming healthcare delivery. Although it has been well established that many health professionals lack the adequate knowledge, skills, and confidence to adapt to these changes, the specific educational needs of Australian allied health professionals, nurses, and midwives are not well understood. This diverse group of health professionals is primarily involved in the management of symptoms and psychosocial care of patients with genetic conditions, rather than risk assessment and diagnosis. The relevance of genetics and genomics to their clinical practice may therefore differ from medical practitioners and specialists. Materials and Methods: This paper reports on a study undertaken to identify the perceived genetic knowledge and education needs for this group of health professionals. Allied health professionals, nurses, and midwives were recruited from throughout New South Wales (NSW) and invited to participate in semi-structured telephone or face to face interviews. Results: A total of 24 geographically and professionally diverse individuals (14 allied health, 6 nurses, and 4 midwives) were interviewed. Interview recordings were transcribed and using thematic qualitative analysis recurring themes were identified. The results show that this is a diverse group that is keen to know more about genomics and genetic services but unsure of reliable sources. Discussion: The need for a generic update from a trustworthy source was identified and suggested topics to be covered included genetic fundamentals, recognizing common genetic conditions, and psychosocial/ethical aspects of genetics/testing including informed consent. In addition, the challenge of incorporating education into highly clinical roles was identified as a key barrier and having a readily accessible, accredited learning resource would help overcome this. Findings from this study are informing the development of a targeted, interactive e-learning resource for allied health professionals, nurses, and midwives.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639560

RESUMEN

Proteomic analyses techniques are considered strong tools for identifying and quantifying the protein contents in different organisms, organs and secretions. In fish biotechnology, the proteomic analyses have been used for wide range of applications such as identification of immune related proteins during infections and stresses. The proteomic approach has a significant role in understanding pathogen surviving strategies, host defence responses and subsequently, the fish pathogen interactions. Proteomic analyses were employed to highlight the virulence related proteins secreted by the pathogens to invade the fish host's defence barriers and to monitor the kinetics of protein contents of different fish organs in response to infections. The immune related proteins of fish and the virulence related proteins of pathogens are up or down regulated according to their functions in defence or pathogenesis. Therefore, the proteomic analyses are useful in understanding the virulence mechanisms of microorganisms and the fish pathogen interactions thereby supporting the development of new effective therapies. In this review, we focus and summarise the recent proteomic profiling studies exploring pathogen virulence activities and fish immune responses to stressors and infections.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Peces/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Inmunidad , Proteómica , Animales , Peces/inmunología , Peces/microbiología
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 68-82, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442715

RESUMEN

Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) are the nanostructures of chitosan biopolymer which is derived from chitin polysaccharide, the main component of crustacean shells. Chitosan is a biocompatible, nontoxic and biodegradable polymer soluble in acidic solutions and easily excreted from kidneys. It is widely used in medical and pharmaceutical applications including artificial matrices for tissue engineering, drug transport, targeted drug delivery and protein or gene delivery. The antimicrobial activities of chitosan and CSNPS against different bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens made them valuable for several biological applications including food preservation purposes. In addition, they have immunomodulatory effects on fish and crustaceans providing direct positive impact on aquaculture and fish farming industry. Sustained release of some bioactive ingredients such as hormones, vitamins, nutrients and antioxidants has improved the biological activities of fish. Furthermore, CSNPs have recently been employed to diagnose fish diseases. In this review, we present the medical and biological applications of chitosan and CSNPs on aquatics to provide an update on recent advances and the potential for further advanced applications for aquaculture in the future.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Quitosano/química , Quitosano/farmacología , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Nanocompuestos , Animales , Peces
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 249, 2019 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113489

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whirling disease (WD), caused by the myxozoan parasite Myxobolus cerebralis, is responsible for high mortalities in rainbow trout hatcheries and natural populations. To elucidate how resistant and susceptible rainbow trout strains respond to early invasion, a well-established model of WD was used to demonstrate the kinetics of local and systemic immune responses in two rainbow trout strains, the susceptible American Trout Lodge (TL) and the more resistant German Hofer strain (HO). METHODS: Parasite load and cellular immune responses were compared across several time points after M. cerebralis exposure to elucidate the kinetics of immune cells in resistant and susceptible rainbow trout in response to early invasion. In the course of the 20 days following exposure, leukocyte kinetics was monitored by flow cytometry in the caudal fin (CF), head kidney (HK) and spleen (SP). For the analysis of the leukocyte composition, cells were stained using a set of monoclonal antibodies with known specificity for distinct subpopulations of rainbow trout leukocytes. RESULTS: Experiments indicated general increases of CF, HK and SP myeloid cells, while decreases of B cells and T cells in the SP and HK were observed at several time points in the TL strain. On the other hand, in the HO strain, increases of T cells were dominant in CF, HK and SP at multiple time points. The differences between HO and TL were most distinct at 2, 4, 12 and 48 hours post-exposure (hpe) as well as at 4 days post-exposure (dpe), with the vast majority of innate immune response cells having higher values in the susceptible TL strain. Alteration of the leukocyte populations with augmented local cellular responses and excessive immune reactions likely lead to subsequent host tissue damage and supports parasite invasion and development in TL. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlight the significance of effective local and systemic immune reaction and indicate proper activation of T lymphocytes critical for host resistance during M. cerebralis infection. The present study provides insights into the cellular basis of protective immune responses against M. cerebralis and can help us to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the variation in resistance to WD.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/inmunología , Animales , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Inmunidad Celular , Inmunidad Innata , Cinética , Myxobolus/inmunología , Carga de Parásitos , Infecciones por Protozoos/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología
14.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 1, 2019 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616664

RESUMEN

CD4 is a nonpolymorphic transmembrane glycoprotein molecule that is expressed on the surface of T-helper cells and plays an essential role in the immune response. It functions as a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor by binding to major histocompatibility complex class II on the surface of dendritic cells that present antigens. CD4+ T cells hold a key position in coordinating the immune system through production of several cytokines after activation and differentiation. The CD4+ T helper subtypes (T-helper 1, T-helper 2, T-helper 17, T-helper 9, and regulatory-T cells) perform different immune functions subsequent to their differentiation from the naive T cells. Different types of CD4+ T cells require different cytokines such as drivers and effectors, as well as master transcription factors for their activation. Fish cells that express CD4-related genes are activated in the presence of a pathogen and release cytokines against the pathogen. This review highlights the types of CD4+ T cells in fish and describes their direct role in cell-mediated and humoral immunity for protection against the intracellular bacterial as well as viral infections in fish.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Peces/inmunología , Inmunidad Celular , Inmunidad Humoral , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/inmunología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Virosis/inmunología , Virosis/veterinaria
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 834-842, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385245

RESUMEN

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite, causes ichthyophthiriasis and leads to considerable economic losses to the aquaculture industry. Understanding the fish immune response and host-parasite interactions could support developing novel strategies for better disease management and control. Fish skin mucus is the first line of defence against infections through the epidermis. Yet, the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, protein-based defence strategies against infection with I. multifiliis at this barrier remain elusive. The skin mucus proteome of common carp was investigated at 1 day and 9 days post-exposure with I. multifiliis. Using nano-LC ESI MS/MS and statistical analysis, the abundance of 19 immune related and signal transduction proteins was found to be differentially regulated in skin mucus of common carp in response to I. multifiliis. The analysis revealed increased abundance values of epithelial chloride channel protein, galactose-specific lectin nattection, high choriolytic enzyme 1 (nephrosin), lysozyme C, granulin and protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 in I. multifiliis-exposed carp skin mucus. Multiple lectins and a diverse array of distinct serpins with protease inhibitor activity were identified likely implicated in lectin pathway activation and regulation of proteolysis, indicating that these proteins contribute to the carp innate immune system and the protective properties of skin mucus. The results obtained from this proteomic analysis enables a better understanding of fish host response to parasitic infection and gives insights into the key role skin mucus plays in protecting fish against deleterious effects of I. multifiliis.


Asunto(s)
Carpas/genética , Carpas/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Proteínas de Peces/genética , Inmunidad Mucosa/genética , Proteoma/genética , Animales , Infecciones por Cilióforos/inmunología , Infecciones por Cilióforos/veterinaria , Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Hymenostomatida/fisiología , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteómica , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/inmunología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/veterinaria , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 554, 2018 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is increasingly being used for genome editing experiments. It is a system to add, delete and/or replace parts of a gene in situ in a time- and cost-efficient manner. The genome of many organisms has been edited using this system. We tested the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Aphanomyces invadans, an oomycete, which is the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) in many fish species. Extracellular proteases produced by this oomycete are believed to play a role in EUS virulence. METHODS: We designed three single guide-RNAs (gRNA) to target A. invadans serine protease gene. These gRNAs were individually combined with the Cas9 to form ribo-nucleo-protein (RNP) complex. A. invadans protoplasts were then transfected with RNP complexes. After the transfection, the target gene was amplified and subjected to sequencing. Zoospores of A. invadans were also transfected with the RNP complex. Three groups of dwarf gourami (Trichogaster lalius) were then experimentally inoculated with (i) non-treated A. invadans zoospores; (ii) RNP-treated A. invadans zoospores; and (iii) autoclaved pond water as negative control, to investigate the effect of edited serine protease gene on the virulence of A. invadans in vivo. RESULTS: Fluorescence microscopy showed sub-cellular localization of RNP complex in A. invadans protoplasts and zoospores. Sequencing results from the protoplast DNA revealed a point mutation in the target gene. A matching mutation was also detected in zoospores after similar treatment with the same RNP complex. In vivo results showed that the CRISPR/Cas9-treated A. invadans zoospores did not produce EUS clinical signs in the fish. These results were then confirmed by histopathological staining of the muscle sections using Gomori's methenamine silver nitrate and hematoxylin and eosin stains. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained in this study indicate that the RNP complex caused effective mutation in the target gene. This hindered the production of serine protease, which ultimately impeded the manifestation of EUS in the fish. Our methods thus establish a promising approach for functional genomics studies in A. invadans and provide novel avenues to develop effective strategies to control this pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Aphanomyces/genética , Animales , Aphanomyces/enzimología , Aphanomyces/patogenicidad , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Marcación de Gen , Genoma , Perciformes/parasitología , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Serina Proteasas/genética
17.
J Bioeth Inq ; 15(4): 549-555, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117063

RESUMEN

According to the World Health Organization, female genital cutting affects millions of girls and women worldwide, particularly on the African continent and in the Middle East. This paper presents a plausible, albeit hypothetical, clinical vignette and then explores the legal landscape as well as the ethical landscape physicians should use to evaluate the adult patient who requests re-infibulation. The principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and autonomy are considered for guidance, and physician conscientious objection to this procedure is discussed as well. Analyses of law and predominant principles of bioethics fail to yield a clear answer regarding performing female genital cutting or re-infibulation on an adult in the United States. Physicians should consider the patient's physical, mental, and social health when thinking about female genital cutting and should understand the deep-rooted cultural significance of the practice.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Circuncisión Femenina/ética , Obstetricia , Prioridad del Paciente/etnología , Mujeres Embarazadas/etnología , Salud de la Mujer/etnología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Características Culturales , Toma de Decisiones/ética , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Obstetricia/ética , Embarazo
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 326, 2018 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848363

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most of the studies on fish diseases focus on single infections, although in nature co-infections occur more often. The two freshwater myxozoan parasites of salmonids, having high economic and ecologic relevance are Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Malacosporea), the etiological agent of proliferative kidney disease, and Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxosporea), the etiological agent of whirling disease. The present study aims to investigate immune modulation in rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during single and co-infections by these parasites. METHODS: Fish were initially infected with T. bryosalmonae (one group) and M. cerebralis (another group) separately. At 30 days post-exposure (dpe), both the single species infected groups were co-infected, respectively, with the other parasite. Posterior kidney and cartilage cranium samples were collected at 30, 60, 90 and 120 dpe and RT-qPCR was performed on them to assess the transcription of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) -1 and -3, Janus kinase-1 (JAK-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) genes. RESULTS: Kidney samples from the T. bryosalmonae-infected group showed upregulation of all immune genes tested between 60-120 dpe. Crania from the single M. cerebralis-infected group and the M. cerebralis and T. bryosalmonae co-infected group exhibited upregulation of SOCS-1 and JAK-1 between 60-120 dpe and SOCS-3 at 120 dpe. However, only in the single M. cerebralis-infected group, was a statistically significant expression of STAT-3 observed at 30 and 60 dpe. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that both T. bryosalmonae and M. cerebralis induce overexpression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 genes and modulate the host immune response during the development of parasite to cause immunosuppression.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces/inmunología , Myxozoa/inmunología , Oncorhynchus mykiss/inmunología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/inmunología , Animales , Coinfección/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Inmunosupresión/veterinaria , Quinasas Janus/genética , Riñón/parasitología , Myxobolus/inmunología , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/parasitología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Factores de Transcripción STAT/genética , Transducción de Señal , Cráneo/parasitología , Proteínas Supresoras de la Señalización de Citocinas/genética
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 119: 196-204, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958154

RESUMEN

The rise of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is one of the great challenges of our age. One of the strategies to limit the development of antibiotics resistance is the investigation of alternative antimicrobials. As silver nanoparticles demonstrated a potent bactericidal activity in vitro, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Rainbow trout (n = 120) were divided into four groups of 30 fish each. First group was challenged with A. salmonicida (Positive control), the second group was challenged with A. salmonicida and exposed to silver nanoparticles by immersion for three hours (100 µg/L), the third group was challenged with A. salmonicida and intraperitoneally injected with silver nanoparticles (17 µg/mL) and the fourth group was sham-treated and served as a negative control group. At the 7th day post challenge, histopathology of the positive control group revealed the presence of bacterial aggregates in tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes, while at the 35th day post challenge, only liver necrosis persisted. Silver nanoparticles-treated and negative control groups did not show any clinical signs, mortalities or histopathological alterations and they were tested negative for A. salmonicida. The immersion in silver nanoparticles did not result in detectable residues of silver in the muscles 35 days after treatment. These findings demonstrate the antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles against A. salmonicida infection. Therefore, they could be used for development of antibacterial agents in aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Aeromonas salmonicida/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiología , Plata/farmacología , Aeromonas salmonicida/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Enfermedades de los Peces/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/veterinaria , Nanopartículas del Metal
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 178, 2018 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29879957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marine and aquaculture industries are important sectors of the food production and global trade. Unfortunately, the fish food industry is challenged with a plethora of infectious pathogens. The freshwater and marine fish communities are rapidly incorporating novel and most up to date techniques for detection, characterization and treatment strategies. Rapid detection of infectious diseases is important in preventing large disease outbreaks. MAIN TEXT: One hundred forty-six articles including reviews papers were analyzed and their conclusions evaluated in the present paper. This allowed us to describe the most recent development research regarding the control of diseases in the aquatic environment as well as promising avenues that may result in beneficial developments. For the characterization of diseases, traditional sequencing and histological based methods have been augmented with transcriptional and proteomic studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that transcriptional based approaches using qPCR are often synergistic to expression based studies that rely on proteomic-based techniques to better understand pathogen-host interactions. Preventative therapies that rely on prophylactics such as vaccination with protein antigens or attenuated viruses are not always feasible and therefore, the development of therapies based on small nucleotide based medicine is on the horizon. Of those, RNAi or CRISPR/Cas- based therapies show great promise in combating various types of diseases caused by viral and parasitic agents that effect aquatic and fish medicine. CONCLUSIONS: In our modern times, when the marine industry has become so vital for feed and economic stability, even the most extreme alternative treatment strategies such as the use of small molecules or even the use of disease to control invasive species populations should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Enfermedades Transmisibles/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Peces/diagnóstico , Peces , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Peces/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Peces/virología
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