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1.
Waste Manag ; 30(6): 1114-22, 2010 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20163947

RESUMEN

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.


Asunto(s)
Celulosa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Materiales de Construcción , Saccharum , Brasil , Dióxido de Silicio
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 97(18): 2443-6, 2006 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16311030

RESUMEN

In this study, the effect of density on the velocity of an ultrasonic wave in wood is investigated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of density on the longitudinal velocity of an ultrasonic wave, propagated in the longitudinal direction. Experiments were conducted on 5cm x 5cm x 5cm wood specimens selected from the following species: pinus caribea (Pinus caribea var. caribea), eucalyptus citriodora (Eucalyptus citriodora), eucalyptus grandis (Eucalyptus grandis), cupiúba (Goupia glabra) and jatobá (Hymenaea sp.). The relationship between density and velocity was analyzed in two different manners: between and within species. The results obtained between species indicated that ultrasonic velocity tends to increase with increasing density. The results obtained within species also showed an increasing trend in ultrasonic velocity as density increased, but the relationship was not as significant as it was for between species.


Asunto(s)
Árboles/anatomía & histología , Ultrasonografía , Madera , Brasil , Celastraceae/anatomía & histología , Eucalyptus/anatomía & histología , Fabaceae/anatomía & histología , Pinus/anatomía & histología , Clima Tropical
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