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1.
Ann Epidemiol ; 94: 42-48, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642626

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Methods for assessing the structural mechanisms of health inequity are not well established. This study applies a phased approach to modeling racial, occupational, and rural disparities on the county level. METHODS: Rural counties with disparately high rates of COVID-19 incidence or mortality were randomly paired with in-state control counties with the same rural-urban continuum code. Analysis was restricted to the first six months of the pandemic to represent the baseline structural reserves for each county and reduce biases related to the disruption of these reserves over time. Conditional logistic regression was applied in two phases-first, to examine the demographic distribution of disparities and then, to examine the relationships between these disparities and county-level social and structural reserves. RESULTS: In over 200 rural county pairs (205 for incidence, 209 for mortality), disparities were associated with structural variables representing economic factors, healthcare infrastructure, and local industry. Modeling results were sensitive to assumptions about the relationships between race and other social and structural variables measured at the county level, particularly in models intended to reflect effect modification or mediation. CONCLUSIONS: Multivariable modeling of health disparities should reflect the social and structural mechanisms of inequity and anticipate interventions that can advance equity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Población Rural , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/etnología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Masculino , Femenino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Grupos Raciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Inequidades en Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Incidencia , Adulto
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562514

RESUMEN

We assessed the impact of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) on patient care using previously established criteria. Among 37 patients receiving mNGS testing, 16% showed results that had a positive clinical impact. While mNGS results may offer valuable supplementary information, results should be interpreted within the broader clinical context and evaluation.

3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 11(4): ofae142, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595955

RESUMEN

Background: Penicillin's long-standing role as the reference standard in syphilis treatment has led to global reliance. However, this dependence presents challenges, prompting the need for alternative strategies. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of these alternative treatments against nonneurological syphilis. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science from database inception to 28 August 2023, and we included studies that compared penicillin or amoxicillin monotherapy to other treatments for the management of nonneurological syphilis. Our primary outcome was serological cure rates. Random-effect models were used to obtain pooled mean differences, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Results: Of 6478 screened studies, 27 met the inclusion criteria, summing 6710 patients. The studies were considerably homogeneous, and stratified analyses considering each alternative treatment separately revealed that penicillin monotherapy did not outperform ceftriaxone (pooled odds ratio, 1.66 [95% confidence interval, .97-2.84]; I2 = 0%), azithromycin (0.92; [.73-1.18]; I2 = 0%), or doxycycline (0.82 [.61-1.10]; I2 = 1%) monotherapies with respect to serological conversion. Conclusions: Alternative treatment strategies have serological cure rates equivalent to penicillin, potentially reducing global dependence on this antibiotic.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655026

RESUMEN

Objective: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination against post-COVID conditions (long COVID) in the pediatric population. Design: Systematic literature review/meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science from December 1, 2019, to August 14, 2023, for studies evaluating the COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against post-COVID conditions among vaccinated individuals < 21 years old who received at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine. A post-COVID condition was defined as any symptom that was present 4 or more weeks after COVID-19 infection. We calculated the pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (95% CI) for post-COVID conditions between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Results: Eight studies with 23,995 individuals evaluated the effect of vaccination on post-COVID conditions, of which 5 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence of children who did not receive COVID-19 vaccines ranged from 65% to 97%. The pooled prevalence of post-COVID conditions was 21.3% among those unvaccinated and 20.3% among those vaccinated at least once. The pooled DOR for post-COVID conditions among individuals vaccinated with at least 1 dose and those vaccinated with 2 doses were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.77-1.49) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.63-1.08), respectively. Conclusions: A significant proportion of children and adolescents were unvaccinated, and the prevalence of post-COVID conditions was higher than reported in adults. While vaccination did not appear protective, conclusions were limited by the lack of randomized trials and selection bias inherent in observational studies.

5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661311

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of alternative treatments for neurosyphilis. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science from database inception to September, 2023, for studies in neurosyphilis that compared penicillin monotherapy to other treatments. We focused on the impact of these therapies on treatment response, but also assessed data regarding reinfection and adverse drug events. Random-effect models were used to obtain pooled mean differences. Of 3,415 screened studies, six met the inclusion criteria for the systematic literature review. Three studies provided quantitative data that allowed for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Our analysis revealed that the efficacy of intravenous ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 10 days (51 patients) did not appear statistically different compared to intravenous penicillin G 18-24 million units daily for 10 days (185 patients) for neurosyphilis (pooled OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 0.41-19.56; I2 = 49%). No statistical difference between ceftriaxone and penicillin was identified in people living with HIV (pooled OR, 4.51; 95% CI, 0.50-40.49; I2 = 34%). We concluded that alternative therapy with IV ceftriaxone appears similar to penicillin, potentially expanding treatment options for neurosyphilis. Other treatment options including doxycycline warrant further study.

6.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 11: 20499361241228666, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333229

RESUMEN

Objective: This scoping review aimed to describe studies that evaluate the management of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts, types of shunts used, and clinically relevant patient outcomes. Methods: We searched in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science/Core collection, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov on 1 April 2022. We included two-arm and one-arm cohort studies that evaluated clinically relevant patient outcomes. Case reports were used to describe the type of CSF shunts used and the rationale behind its selection. The selection and extraction processes were independently performed by two authors. Results: This study included 20 cohort studies and 26 case reports. Only seven cohort studies compared two groups. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was the most commonly used type of shunt (82.1%). The main indications for placing a shunt were persistently high opening pressure (57.1%) and persisting neurological symptoms or deterioration (54.3%). Cohort studies suggest that patients with shunt showed improvement in some outcomes such as neurological symptoms and hospital stay length. The most common shunt complications were post-operative fever (1-35.6%) and shunt obstruction (7-16%). Conclusion: CSF shunts may improve some clinically relevant outcomes in patients with CM, but the evidence is very uncertain.

7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 45(1): 110-113, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37528757

RESUMEN

Of the 2,668 patients admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 4% underwent prolonged isolation for >20 days. Reasons for extended isolation were inconsistent with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines in 25% of these patients and were questionable in 54% due to an ongoing critically ill condition at day 20 without CDC-defined immunocompromised status.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Iowa , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 45(2): 241-243, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37746805

RESUMEN

We used a strand-specific RT-qPCR to evaluate viral replication as a surrogate for infectiousness among 242 asymptomatic inpatients with a positive severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) admission test. Only 21 patients (9%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 minus-strand RNA. Because most patients were found to be noninfectious, our findings support the suspension of asymptomatic admission testing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Prueba de COVID-19 , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , ARN Viral/genética
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38028898

RESUMEN

Objective: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination against post-COVID conditions (long COVID) among fully vaccinated individuals. Design: Systematic literature review/meta-analysis. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Web of Science from December 1, 2019, to June 2, 2023, for studies evaluating the COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against post-COVID conditions among fully vaccinated individuals who received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine. A post-COVID condition was defined as any symptom that was present four or more weeks after COVID-19 infection. We calculated the pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) (95% confidence interval) for post-COVID conditions between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 100% x (1-DOR). Results: Thirty-two studies with 775,931 individuals evaluated the effect of vaccination on post-COVID conditions, of which, twenty-four studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled DOR for post-COVID conditions among fully vaccinated individuals was 0.680 (95% CI: 0.523-0.885) with an estimated VE of 32.0% (11.5%-47.7%). Vaccine effectiveness was 36.9% (23.1%-48.2%) among those who received two doses of COVID-19 vaccine before COVID-19 infection and 68.7% (64.7%-72.2%) among those who received three doses before COVID-19 infection. The stratified analysis demonstrated no protection against post-COVID conditions among those who received COVID-19 vaccination after COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: Receiving a complete COVID-19 vaccination prior to contracting the virus resulted in a significant reduction in post-COVID conditions throughout the study period, including during the Omicron era. Vaccine effectiveness demonstrated an increase when supplementary doses were administered.

10.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 10: 20499361231196683, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37663111

RESUMEN

Background: Monkeypox (Mpox) is a reemerging, neglected viral disease. By May 2023, worldwide Mpox cases surpassed 87,000. Predictive factors for hospitalization with Mpox are lacking. Objective: We aim to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients with Mpox infection. Design: A multicenter retrospective case-control cohort of patients with Mpox infection. Methods: We performed a propensity score match analysis from a global health network (TrinetX). We compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients with Mpox. Results: Of 1477 patients, 6% were hospitalized, 52% required an ED visit, and 29% received treatment at urgent care. After propensity score matching, 80 patients remained in each group. Hospitalizations were more common among Black persons (51% versus 33%, p = 0.01), people with HIV (50% versus 20%, p < 0.0001), and those with proctitis (44% versus 12.5%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Independent predictive factors of hospitalization in our cohort for Mpox included people who are Black with a diagnosis of HIV, severe proctitis, pain requiring opioids, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Greater recognition of factors associated with increased risk of Mpox severity and hospitalization is paramount.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(9): ofad433, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37674630

RESUMEN

Background: Blood culture contamination may lead to misdiagnosis, overutilization of antibiotics, and prolonged length of stay. Blood specimen diversion devices can reduce contamination rates during blood culture collection procedures. We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis evaluating the influence of blood specimen diversion devices in blood culture contamination rates. Methods: We searched Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science, from database inception to 1 March 2023, for studies evaluating the impact of a diversion device on blood culture contamination. Blood culture contamination was a positive blood culture with microorganisms not representative of true bacteremia, but rather introduced during collection or processing the blood sample. Random-effects models were used to obtain pooled mean differences, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Results: Of 1768 screened studies, 12 met inclusion criteria for this systematic literature review. Of them, 9 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were substantially heterogeneous, but stratified analyses considering only high-quality studies revealed that venipuncture using a diversion device was associated with a significant reduction in blood culture contamination in comparison to the standard procedure of collection (pooled odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .13-.54]; I2 = 19%). Furthermore, the stratified analysis showed that the adoption of a diversion device did not reduce the detection of true infection (pooled OR, 0.85 [95% CI, .65-1.11]; I2 = 0%). Conclusions: Blood culture diversion devices was associated with decreased contamination rates and could improve quality of care, reduce costs, and avoid unnecessary antibiotic use.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37396193

RESUMEN

Objective: To compare the long-term vaccine effectiveness between those receiving viral vector [Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1)] or inactivated viral (CoronaVac) primary series (2 doses) and those who received an mRNA booster (Pfizer/BioNTech) (the third dose) among healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HCWs (aged ≥18 years) in Brazil from January 2021 to July 2022. To assess the variation in the effectiveness of booster dose over time, we estimated the effectiveness rate by taking the log risk ratio as a function of time. Results: Of 14,532 HCWs, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in 56.3% of HCWs receiving 2 doses of CoronaVac vaccine versus 23.2% of HCWs receiving 2 doses of CoronaVac vaccine with mRNA booster (P < .001), and 37.1% of HCWs receiving 2 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccine versus 22.7% among HCWs receiving 2 doses of ChAdOx1 vaccine with mRNA booster (P < .001). The highest vaccine effectiveness with mRNA booster was observed 30 days after vaccination: 91% for the CoronaVac vaccine group and 97% for the ChAdOx1 vaccine group. Vacine effectiveness declined to 55% and 67%, respectively, at 180 days. Of 430 samples screened for mutations, 49.5% were SARS-CoV-2 delta variants and 34.2% were SARS-CoV-2 omicron variants. Conclusions: Heterologous COVID-19 vaccines were effective for up to 180 days in preventing COVID-19 in the SARS-CoV-2 delta and omicron variant eras, which suggests the need for a second booster.

14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 44(12): 2078-2080, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37381726

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) strand-specific assay can be used to identify active SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. We describe the characteristics of 337 hospitalized patients with at least 1 minus-strand SARS-CoV-2 assay performed >20 days after illness onset. This test is a novel tool to identify high-risk hospitalized patients with prolonged SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Replicación Viral , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
16.
Nat Med ; 29(3): 738-747, 2023 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36864252

RESUMEN

Undetected infection and delayed isolation of infected individuals are key factors driving the monkeypox virus (now termed mpox virus or MPXV) outbreak. To enable earlier detection of MPXV infection, we developed an image-based deep convolutional neural network (named MPXV-CNN) for the identification of the characteristic skin lesions caused by MPXV. We assembled a dataset of 139,198 skin lesion images, split into training/validation and testing cohorts, comprising non-MPXV images (n = 138,522) from eight dermatological repositories and MPXV images (n = 676) from the scientific literature, news articles, social media and a prospective cohort of the Stanford University Medical Center (n = 63 images from 12 patients, all male). In the validation and testing cohorts, the sensitivity of the MPXV-CNN was 0.83 and 0.91, the specificity was 0.965 and 0.898 and the area under the curve was 0.967 and 0.966, respectively. In the prospective cohort, the sensitivity was 0.89. The classification performance of the MPXV-CNN was robust across various skin tones and body regions. To facilitate the usage of the algorithm, we developed a web-based app by which the MPXV-CNN can be accessed for patient guidance. The capability of the MPXV-CNN for identifying MPXV lesions has the potential to aid in MPXV outbreak mitigation.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Mpox , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Monkeypox virus , Algoritmos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(4): 848-850, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36918374

RESUMEN

We retrospectively screened oropharyngeal and rectal swab samples originally collected in California, USA, for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing for the presence of monkeypox virus DNA. Among 206 patients screened, 17 (8%) had samples with detectable viral DNA. Monkeypox virus testing from mucosal sites should be considered for at-risk patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia , Gonorrea , Mpox , Humanos , California/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , ADN , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/aislamiento & purificación , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Mpox/diagnóstico
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(3): 592-594, 2023 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716741

RESUMEN

Mpox (formally monkeypox) is an Orthopoxvirus associated with both zoonotic and person-to-person spread. Human mpox classically presents with rash and systemic symptoms. Although sporadic outbreaks of mpox have occurred worldwide, the 2022 outbreak is the first of pandemic significance. Thousands of geographically dispersed cases were reported beginning in May 2022. The clinical presentations and outcomes of mpox infection have varied greatly based on viral clade. Further guidance is needed for clinicians to diagnose and treat this emerging infection. We present five clinical vignettes of confirmed cases diagnosed in June and July 2022 in northern California to demonstrate the range of mpox disease, including myocarditis, pharyngitis, epididymitis, and proctitis. We note a significant overlap with HIV infection and a high rate of concurrent sexually transmitted infection. Given the heterogenous presentations of mpox disease, clinicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion in patients with oropharyngeal or genital lesions, proctitis, or new rash.


Asunto(s)
Exantema , Infecciones por VIH , Mpox , Proctitis , Masculino , Humanos , Brotes de Enfermedades
20.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 44(6): 968-970, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801814

RESUMEN

Among 287 US hospitals reporting data between 2015 and 2018, annual pediatric surgical site infection (SSI) rates ranged from 0% for gallbladder to 10.4% for colon surgeries. Colon, spinal fusion, and small-bowel SSI rates did not decrease with greater surgical volumes in contrast to appendix and ventricular-shunt SSI rates.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos del Sistema Digestivo , Fusión Vertebral , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Niño , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Hospitales , Estudios Retrospectivos
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