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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246151, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529263

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe HIV testing uptake, as well as HIV prevalence and its associated factors among older adults aged ≥50 years in health facilities in Togo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2018 to June 2019 among hospitalized older adults aged ≥50 years in tertiary and secondary hospitals in Togo. HIV testing was performed according to the national algorithm. Socio-demographic data and HIV testing history were collected using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 619 patients (43.9% female) of median age 61 years, (IQR: 55-70) were recruited and offered HIV testing. Among them, 25.7% had never previously tested for HIV. In total, 91.6% (567/619) accepted HIV testing while 8.4% (52/619) refused to be tested. Of those who tested, forty patients were HIV positive, yielding a prevalence of 7.1%. Twenty-three patients (57.5%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. In multivariable analysis, two factors were associated with HIV infection: living alone (aOR = 5.83; 95%CI = [2.26-14.53]) and being <60 years (aOR = 3.12; 95%CI = [1.51-6.66]). CONCLUSION: The majority of older adults in this study accepted testing for HIV and almost three in five HIV positive older adults were newly diagnosed with HIV as a result of this testing. There is an urgent need to integrate older adults into responses to the HIV epidemic and to strengthen targeted prevention care and treatment in this population.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 58, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407321

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no effective treatment for COVID-19, which is a pandemic disease, caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. In Togo, where four in five people practice self-medication, the absence of a cure for COVID-19 and the constant progression of the disease requires an assessment of self-medication patterns in the context of the pandemic. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-medication to prevent COVID-19 and its associated factors in Lomé, Togo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lomé, the capital city of Togo, from April 23rd to May 8th, 2020, with a sample of participants from five sectors: the healthcare, air transport, police, road transport and informal sectors. The participants were invited to provide information about their self-medication practices to prevent COVID-19 in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. RESULTS: A total of 955 participants (71.6% men) with a median age of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included. Approximately 22.1% were in the air transport sector, 20.5% were in the police sector, and 38.7% were in the health sector. The overall prevalence of self-medication to prevent COVID-19 was 34.2% (95% CI: 31.2-37.3%). The most commonly used products were vitamin C (27.6%) and traditional medicine (10.2%). Only 2.0% of participants reported using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Female sex (aOR=1.90; p< 0.001), work in the health sector (aOR=1.89; p= 0.001), secondary education level (aOR= 2.28; p= 0.043) and university education level (aOR= 5.11; p< 0.001) were associated with self-medication. CONCLUSION: One-third of the individuals in high-risk populations in Lomé practiced self-medication. Intensifying awareness campaigns is crucial to fight misinformation about alleged COVID-19 prevention products on social media.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Automedicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Togo/epidemiología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242124, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166369

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the COVID-19 outbreak began in China and quickly spread throughout the world and was reclassified as a pandemic in March 2020. The first case of COVID-19 was declared in Togo on March 5. Two months later, few data were available to describe the circulation of the new coronavirus in the country. OBJECTIVE: This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in high-risk populations in Lomé. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 23, 2020, to May 8, 2020, we recruited a sample of participants from five sectors: health care, air transport, police, road transport and informal. We collected oropharyngeal swabs for direct detection through real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and blood for antibody detection by serological tests. The overall prevalence (current and past) of infection was defined by positivity for both tests. RESULTS: A total of 955 participants with a median age of 36 (IQR 32-43) were included, and 71.6% (n = 684) were men. Approximately 22.1% (n = 212) were from the air transport sector, 20.5% (n = 196) were from the police sector, and 38.7% (n = 370) were from the health sector. Seven participants (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.3-1.6%) had a positive rRT-PCR test result at the time of recruitment, and nine (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8%) were seropositive for IgM or IgG against SARS-CoV-2. We found an overall prevalence of 1.6% (n = 15), 95% CI: 0.9-2.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among high-risk populations in Lomé was relatively low and could be explained by the various measures taken by the Togolese government. Therefore, we recommend targeted screening.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Prevalencia , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Factores de Riesgo , Togo/epidemiología
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 839, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem in Togo and transmission to the child occurs mainly during childbirth. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV among childbearing women and infants born to HBV positive mothers in Togo. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study was carried out in six cities in Togo in the six health regions in Togo. Mother-child pairs were recruited from immunization centers or pediatric wards in Lomé, Tsévié, Atakpamé, Sokodé, Kara and Dapaong in 2017. Women aged 18 and over with one child of at least 6 months old were included. A standardized questionnaire was used for data collection and HBV screening was performed using Determine® rapid tests. The prevalence of HBV, defined by a positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), was estimated in mothers and then in infants of mothers who were positive for HBsAg. Logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors for HBsAg positivity in mothers. RESULTS: A total of 2105 mothers-pairs child were recruited. The median age of mothers and infants was 29 years, interquartile range (IQR) [25-33] and 2.1 years, IQR [1-3] respectively. About 35% of women were screened for HBV during antenatal care and 85% of infants received three doses of HBV immunization. Among mothers, the prevalence of HBV was 10.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [9.4-12.0%], and 177 had detectable HBV viral load (> 10 IU/mL). Among mothers with positive HBsAg, three infants also had positive HBsAg, a prevalence of 1.3, 95% CI [0.2-3.8%]. In multivariable analysis, HIV-infection (aOR = 2.19; p = 0.018), having at least three pregnancies (aOR = 1.46; p = 0.025) and living in Tsévié (aOR = 0.31; p < 0.001) compared to those living in Lomé, were associated to HBV infection in mothers. CONCLUSION: In this study, one out of 10 childbearing women were infected with HBV, but less than 2% of infant born to HBV positive mothers under 5 years' old who received immunization under the Expanded Program on Immunization were infected. Improving antenatal screening and providing targeted interventions in babies could help eliminate HBV in Togo.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Vacunación , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B/virología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231726, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298337

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Mental health is a largely neglected issue among in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially among key populations at risk for HIV. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) and to assess the factors associated among males who have sex with males (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and drug users (DU) in Togo in 2017. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional bio-behavioral study was conducted in August and September 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method, in eight cities in Togo. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was used to record sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a subset of questions from the Tobacco Questions for Survey were used to assess alcohol and tobacco consumption respectively. PD was assessed with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. A blood sample was taken to test for HIV. Descriptive statistics, univariable and multivariable ordinal regression models were used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2044 key populations including 449 DU, 952 FSW and 643 MSM with a median age of 25 years, interquartile range (IQR) [21-32] were recruited. The overall prevalence of mild PD among the three populations was 19.9% (95%CI = [18.3-21.8]) and was 19.2% (95%CI = [17.5-20.9]) for severe/moderate PD. HIV prevalence was 13.7% (95%CI = [12.2-15.2]). High age (≥ 25 years) [aOR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.02-1.50)], being HIV positive [aOR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.31-2.48)] and hazardous alcohol consumption [aOR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.22-1.87)] were risk factors for PD. Secondary [aOR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64)] or higher [aOR = 0.46 (95% CI: 0.32-0.64)] education levels were protective factors associated with PD. FSW [OR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.43-0.68)] and MSM [OR = 0.33 (95% CI: 0.24-0.44)] were less likely to report PD compared with DU. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: This is the first study conducted among a large, nationally representative sample of key populations in Togo. The prevalence of PD is high among these populations in Togo and was associated to HIV infection. The present study indicates that mental health care must be integrated within health programs in Togo with a special focus to key populations through interventions such as social support groups.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Distrés Psicológico , Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sociológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
AIDS ; 34(5): 783-787, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895149

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the potential effectiveness of the implementation of dolutegravir (DTG)-based regimens in patients on failing current antiretroviral treatment (ART) given the high levels of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance in Togo. DESIGN: Patients on ART attending health facilities for routine follow-up visits and for whom HIV viral load test was performed were consecutively included. METHODS: Protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase fragments were sequenced and analyzed for presence of drug resistance mutations for patients with viral load more than 1000 copies/ml. RESULTS: Among 1681 patients, 320 (19.04%) had viral load more than 1000 copies/ml and 200 were tested for drug resistance mutations. Reverse transcriptase gene was successfully sequenced for 181/200 (90.5%) patients; 140/181 (77.4%) were resistant to NRTIs and non-NRTIs, 4/181 (2.2%) to NRTIs only and 18/181 (9.9%) to non-NRTIs only. Many viral strains accumulated mutations predicting resistance to NRTIs recommended in first and second-line DTG-based ART regimens. ART switch to a DTG-based regimen after viral load testing (viral load >1000 copies/ml) or blind switch without prior viral load testing to a new DTG-based first line, estimated 31% and 47.6% of patients to be potentially on functional DTG monotherapy respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results predict that, at the scale of sub-Saharan Africa a significant proportion of patients could be on functional monotherapy. To achieve the third 90 of UNAIDS objectives, implementation of DTG-based regimens should be accompanied with an accelerated scaling up of access to viral load. Studies designed to quantify the implications of use of suboptimal DTG-based regimens are also needed.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028934, 2019 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate alcohol and tobacco use prevalence and their correlates among female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DU) in Togo. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional bio-behavioural study was conducted among 2115 MSM, FSW and DU in 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling method, in the eight biggest towns of Togo. Selection criteria for the MSM were being male and having had oral or anal intercourse with a man in the previous 12 months; for FSW, being a female and having exchanged sex for money in the previous 12 months; and for DU, consuming heroin, cocaine or hashish for MSM, FSW and DU, respectively. All participants had to be at least 18 years old and residing in the territory for the past 3 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, hazardous/harmful consumption and binge drinking was 64.8%, 38.4% and 45.5%, respectively. Current tobacco use was reported by 30.6% of participants and HIV prevalence was estimated at 12.5%. DU were more likely to engage in binge drinking compared with other key populations (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8; p=0.001). Participants who were identified as having hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption had almost three times the odds of tobacco consumption than those with no risky consumption (aOR=2.6; 95% CI 2.0 to 3.4; p=0.001). Hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption was three times more likely among participants with severe psychological distress compared with those with no psychological distress (aOR=3.3, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.1; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Findings from this study demonstrate the need for the integration of mental health and substance abuse reduction interventions into HIV prevention programme, particularly those geared towards key populations.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Borrachera/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Distrés Psicológico , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Prevalencia , Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Arch Public Health ; 77: 39, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508231

RESUMEN

Background: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the screening of syphilis among populations highly exposed to HIV. However, data on the prevalence of syphilis in these populations are scarce in Togo. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of syphilis among males who have sex with males (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and drug users (DU) in Togo. Methods: A cross-sectional bio-behavioral study was conducted in August and September 2017 using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in eight major cities in Togo. A standardized questionnaire was used to record socio-demographic data and sexual behavior patterns. A blood sample was taken and SD Bioline Duo VIH/Syphilis rapid test was used to test for HIV and syphilis. Results: A total of 2158 key populations (678 MSM, 1003 FSW and 477 DU), with an average age of 27.6 years (standard deviation 8.8 years) participated in the study. Prevalence of syphilis was 0.6% (95% CI = [0.3-1.0]) with no statistical significance between the three groups: null among MSM, 0.8% among FSW (95% CI = [0.37-1.63]) and 1.1% among DU (95% CI = [0.39-2.57]). There was no relation between HIV status and syphilis (p = 0.236). Among the 298 HIV-positive people, none was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions: Findings from this study reveal a low prevalence rate of syphilis among key populations in Togo. Specific interventions into HIV prevention programs should be reinforced to eliminate syphilis in Togo.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(6): 1019-1026, 2019 08 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520971

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is a region of both high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anal cancer incidence. We conducted the first national study in Togo to assess human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A multicentric cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM recruited in 4 Togolese cities. Anal swabs were collected to test HPV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and 7 STIs. RESULTS: Among the 207 MSM, HIV and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) overall prevalence were 26.1% and 44.9%, respectively. The most common hrHPV types were HPV-35 (15.0%) and HPV-16 (13.0%). Prevalence of hrHPV and multiple HPV infections were higher among HIV-infected than among HIV-uninfected MSM (85.2% vs 30.7%, P < 10-5 and 85.2% vs 28.7%, P < 10-5, respectively). Other STIs, except hepatitis B virus, were also more prevalent among HIV-infected MSM (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, P = .03; Mycoplasma genitalium, P = .04; HSV-2, P = .001; and a trend for Chlamydia trachomatis, P = .06). In multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]), HIV (10.1 [4.0-25.6]), living in Lomé (2.8 [1.1-7.1]), HSV-2 excretion (26.7 [2.9-244.3]), C. trachomatis (11.7 [2.3-58.9]), and M. genitalium infection (9.6 [3.1-29.9]) were associated with increased risk of hrHPV infection. CONCLUSIONS: We report a high burden of anal STIs with an unusual hrHPV type distribution among MSM, highlighting the critical need of implementation of a national strategy regarding prevention of STIs and vaccination against HPV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Coinfección , Estudios Transversales , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/clasificación , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/etiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Open Virol J ; 11: 1-7, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28217218

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo. METHOD: The present study is a cross-sectional study about the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage from 2009 to 2011. All study participants were screened for HBsAg at the Immunology laboratory of CHU Campus of Lome. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred individuals were screened for HBsAg from 2009-2011. The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.08%. This prevalence was significantly higher in men (25.00%) than women (14.80%). The highest prevalence of HBV was observed in age range of 20-29 years and 30-39 years with respectively 26.33% and 21.67%. The lowest prevalence was 6.08%, found in people over 50 years. Concerning the clinical indication of the test, the prevalence during the clinical abnormalities related to liver (CARL) was the highest (26.21%), followed by the systematic screening (SS) with 20.25% while the pre-operative assessment (POA) showed the lowest prevalence with 5.56%. CONCLUSION: The study shows the high prevalence of HBsAg carriage in young people. This could be used to enhance prevention and treatment of HBV infection in Togo.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 16(1): 651, 2016 11 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27821092

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen which represents the leading cause of meningitis in Southeast Asia and an emerging pathogen in the Western world, the main risk factor for infection being contact with pigs. In Africa, the prevalence of S. suis infections in swine and humans is largely unrecognized, with only one recent report of a limited case series. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a human case of meningitis due to S. suis in a 32-year-old man living in Togo. The patient had no particular medical history and no risk factors for immunodeficiency but reported regular contact with pork products. Using specific immunological and molecular methods, we characterized the isolate as S. suis serotype 2, ST1, one the most prevalent and virulent clone worldwide. The outcome was favorable after one week of adapted antibiotic therapy but the patient was left with severe hearing disorders. CONCLUSIONS: This work highlights the emergence of this pathogen in Africa and reinforces the need for accurate epidemiological and surveillance studies of S. suis infections and for educating clinicians and exposed groups in non-endemic countries.


Asunto(s)
Meningitis Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus suis/patogenicidad , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Masculino , Meningitis Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Meningitis Bacterianas/etiología , Carne Roja/microbiología , Serogrupo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/etiología , Streptococcus suis/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos , Acúfeno/tratamiento farmacológico , Acúfeno/etiología , Togo
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 35(8): 879-85, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs have been largely scaled-up, but data on infant HIV drug resistance from PMTCT programs implemented in resource-limited countries are lacking. METHODS: Remnant dried blood spots from HIV-infected children (aged <18 months) tested through the Togo national early infant diagnosis program during 2012 and 2013 were collected and assessed for HIV drug resistance. Pol-RT (reverse transcriptase) region was amplified, sequenced and analyzed for the presence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). RESULTS: Overall, 121 of 201 (60.2%) newly diagnosed children had detectable DRMs. Among the 131 of 201 (65.2%) children with reported exposure to maternal and/or infant antiretrovirals (ARVs), DRMs were detected in 99 children (75.6%). Importantly, in 41 of 201 children for whom no exposure to ARVs was reported, DRMs were detected in 11 children (26.8%). For 29 children, no data on ARV exposure were available. For the 121 of 201 children with DRMs, 99 of 121 (81.8%) had only nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor DRMs detected but 21 of 121 (17.3%) had both nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) DRMs. Among breast-fed children, drug resistance was more frequent when mothers were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 61 of 75 (81.3%) versus 14 of 39 (35.9%) when mothers were not on ART (P < 0.001). Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was more common when mothers were on ART. CONCLUSIONS: Scale-up and improvement of PMTCT strategies resulted in a global decrease of pediatric HIV infections, but our study shows high rates of drug resistance in infants for whom prevention failed.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Masculino , Togo/epidemiología
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 46: 279-285, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235597

RESUMEN

Understanding the HIV epidemic in key populations is important. Today only scarce information is available on HIV-1 strains that circulate in men having sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we studied for the first time the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in the MSM population in Lomé, the capital city from Togo. The overall subtype/CRF distribution in pol (protease and/or partial reverse transcriptase (RT)) among the 79 HIV-1 strains from MSM was as follows: CRF02_AG (72%, n=57), subtype G (2.5%, n=2), sub-subtype A3 (1.3%, n=1), and unique recombinant forms (URF) (24%, n=19). Among the 19 URFs four different mosaic structures were observed, annotated as URF1 to URF4. Fifteen sequences (URF1) had the same mosaic structure in pol (G/CRF02_AG) and could represent a new circulating recombinant form (CRF). Phylogenetic analysis of the RT sequences showed that there were several introductions of CRF02_AG strains in the MSM population, however half of the CRF02_AG and all URF1 strains formed a separate, well-supported cluster suggesting one major introduction of CRF02_AG in the MSM population followed by efficient transmission and emergence of a possible new CRF. At least 40% of the strains fell into recent transmission chains involving two to seven MSM. Comparison with >950 HIV-1 sequences from previous studies in Togo showed intermixing of the HIV-1 epidemics between MSM and the general population. Moreover, an HIV-1 strain from a recently HIV-1 infected male patient from Germany, fell within a cluster of HIV-1 strains from MSM from Togo, illustrating recent exchange between MSM from Africa and people from other geographic regions. With growing evidence of the importance of MSM in the dynamic of the HIV epidemic in Africa there is an urgent need for appropriate interventions to limit HIV transmission in this population group.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1/genética , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Variación Genética , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 19(1): 20683, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125320

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been scaled up over the last decade but compared to adults, children living with HIV are less likely to receive ART. Moreover, children and adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to virological failure (VF) and emergence of drug resistance. In this study we determined virological outcome in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving ART in Togo. METHODS: HIV viral load (VL) testing was consecutively proposed to all children and adolescents who were on ART for at least 12 months when attending HIV healthcare services for their routine follow-up visit (June to September 2014). Plasma HIV-1 VL was measured using the m2000 RealTime HIV-1 assay (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA). Genotypic drug resistance was done for all samples with VL>1000 copies/ml. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Among 283 perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents included, 167 (59%) were adolescents and 116 (41%) were children. The median duration on ART was 48 months (interquartile range: 28 to 68 months). For 228 (80.6%), the current ART combination consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (zidovudine and lamivudine) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) (nevirapine or efavirenz). Only 28 (9.9%) were on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen. VL was below the detection limit (i.e. 40 copies/ml) for 102 (36%), between 40 and 1000 copies/ml for 35 (12.4%) and above 1000 copies/ml for 146 (51.6%). Genotypic drug-resistance testing was successful for 125/146 (85.6%); 110/125 (88.0%) were resistant to both NRTIs and NNRTIs, 1/125 (0.8%) to NRTIs only, 4/125 (3.2%) to NNRTIs only and three harboured viruses resistant to reverse transcriptase and PIs. Overall, 86% (108/125) of children and adolescents experiencing VF and successfully genotyped, corresponding thus to at least 38% of the study population, had either no effective ART or had only a single effective drug in their current ART regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided important information on virological outcome on lifelong ART in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents who were still on ART and continued to attend antiretroviral (ARV) clinics for follow-up visits. Actual conditions for scaling up and monitoring lifelong ART in children in resource-limited countries can have dramatic long-term outcomes and illustrate that paediatric ART receives inadequate attention.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Togo
17.
AIDS Res Ther ; 12: 38, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26617663

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited countries has increased significantly but scaling-up ART into semi-rural and rural areas is more recent. Information on treatment outcome in such areas is still very limited notably due to additional difficulties to manage ART in these areas. RESULTS: 387 HIV-1 infected adults (≥18 years) were consecutively enrolled when attending healthcare services for their routine medical visit at 12 or 24 months on first-line ART in five HIV care centers (four semi-rural and one rural). Among them, 102 patients were on first-line ART for 12 ± 2 months (M12) and 285 for 24 ± 2 months (M24). Virological failure was observed in 70 (18.1 %) patients ranging from 13.9 to 31.6 % at M12 and from 8.1 to 22.4 % at M24 across the different sites. For 67/70 patients, sequencing was successful and drug resistance mutations were observed in 65 (97 %). The global prevalence of drug resistance in the study population was thus at least 16.8 % (65/387). Moreover, 32 (8.3 %) and 27 (6.9 %) patients were either on a completely ineffective ART regime or with only a single drug active. Several patients accumulated high numbers of mutations and developed also cross-resistance to abacavir, didanosine or the new NNRTI drugs like etravirine and rilpivirine. CONCLUSION: The observations on ART treatment outcome from ART clinics in semi-rural areas are close to previous observations in Lomé, the capital city suggesting that national ART-programme management plays a role in treatment outcome.

18.
AIDS ; 29(18): 2527-30, 2015 Nov 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558549

RESUMEN

Information on efficacy of long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) exposure in resource-limited countries is still scarce. In 767 patients attending routine HIV centers in Togo and receiving first-line ART for more than four years, 42% had viral load greater than 1000 copies/ml and either were on a completely ineffective ART regime or were with only a single drug active. The actual conditions to ensure lifelong ART in resource-limited countries can have dramatic long-term outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Togo/epidemiología , Carga Viral
19.
Sante Publique ; 25(4): 491-8, 2013.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24404731

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: In the context of implementing a serological and behavioural surveillance system among drugs users, this study estimated the prevalence of HIV infection and related risk behaviours among drug users (DUs) in Togo. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among DUs in Togo from November 2011 to January 2012. This study involved all DUs regardless of the type of drug and the mode of consumption, over the age of 18 years, who had lived in Togo for at least 3 months. Behavioural data were collected by face-to-face interviews and serum was obtained for HIV antibody testing. HIV prevalence was estimated together with its 95% confidence interval (CI). Univariate and then multivariate analyses were performed to study the factors associated with HIV prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 387 DUs participated in the survey and 235 (60.7%) of them were enrolled in Lomé, the country's capital. The median age of DUs was 32 years with an interquartile range of [25-39 years] and 10 (2.6%) were women. The mode of drug consumption was: smoking or inhaling drugs in 92.8% of cases and 2.8% of DUs used drugs by injection. HIV testing was accepted in 98.4% of cases. The estimated HIV prevalence among drugs users was 5.5%, (95% CI, 3.2-7.8%). CONCLUSION: This study, the first to be conducted among DUs in Togo, found an HIV prevalence of 5.5%, which is higher than the HIV prevalence in the general population (3.2% in 2010). Specific care of DUs is essential in order to reduce HIV prevalence in Togo.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Seroprevalencia de VIH , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Togo/epidemiología
20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 14: 30, 2011 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21663632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With widespread use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in Africa, one of the major potential challenges is the risk of emergence of ARV drug-resistant HIV strains. Our objective is to evaluate the virological failure and genotypic drug-resistance mutations in patients receiving first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in routine clinics that use the World Health Organization public health approach to monitor antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Togo. METHODS: Patients on HAART for one year (10-14 months) were enrolled between April and October 2008 at three sites in Lomé, the capital city of Togo. Plasma viral load was measured with the NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 assay (Biomérieux, Lyon, France) and/or a Generic viral load assay (Biocentric, Bandol, France). Genotypic drug-resistance testing was performed with an inhouse assay on plasma samples from patients with viral loads of more than 1000 copies/ml. CD4 cell counts and demographic data were also obtained from medical records. RESULTS: A total of 188 patients receiving first-line antiretroviral treatment were enrolled, and 58 (30.8%) of them experienced virologic failure. Drug-resistance mutations were present in 46 patients, corresponding to 24.5% of all patients enrolled in the study. All 46 patients were resistant to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): of these, 12 were resistant only to NNRTIs, 25 to NNRTIs and lamivudine/emtricitabine, and eight to all three drugs of their ARV regimes. Importantly, eight patients were already predicted to be resistant to etravirine, the new NNRTI, and three patients harboured the K65R mutation, inducing major resistance to tenofovir. CONCLUSIONS: In Togo, efforts to provide access to ARV therapy for infected persons have increased since 2003, and scaling up of ART started in 2007. The high number of resistant strains observed in Togo shows clearly that the emergence of HIV drug resistance is of increasing concern in countries where ART is now widely used, and can compromise the long-term success of first- and second-line ART.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/genética , VIH-1/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Mutación , Prevalencia , Togo/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Carga Viral
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