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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800894

RESUMEN

Dental implants may be considered a reliable routine procedure in clinical practice for the replacement of missing teeth. Results from long-term studies indicate that implant-supported dental prostheses constitute a predictable treatment method for the management of fully and partially edentulous patients. Implants and their restorations, however, are not free from biological complications. In fact, peri-implantitis, defined as progressive bone loss associated to clinical inflammation, is not a rare finding nowadays. This constitutes a concern for clinicians and patients given the negative impact on the quality of life and the sequelae originated by peri-implantitis lesions. The purpose of this narrative review is to report on the prevalence of peri-implantitis and to overview the indications, contraindications, complexity, predictability and effectiveness of the different surgical therapeutic modalities to manage this disorder.

2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mechanical disruption and removal of the subgingival biofilm represent the most important step in the treatment of periodontitis. However, in deep periodontal pockets, mechanical removal of the subgingival biofilm is difficult and frequently incomplete. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of amino acid buffered sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel may chemically destroy the bacterial biofilm and facilitate its mechanical removal. OBJECTIVES: To clinically evaluate the efficacy of minimally invasive nonsurgical therapy (MINST) of periodontal pockets with or without local application of an amino acid buffered sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) gel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty untreated patients diagnosed with severe/advanced periodontitis (i.e. stage III/IV) with a slow/moderate rate of progression (i.e. grade A/B) were randomly allocated in two treatment groups. In the test group, the periodontal pockets were treated by means of MINST and NaOCl gel application, while in the control group, treatment consisted of MINST alone. Full-mouth plaque scores (FMPS), full-mouth bleeding scores (FMBS), probing depths (PD), clinical attachment levels (CAL) and gingival recessions (GR) were assessed at baseline and at 6 months following therapy. The primary outcome variable was PD reduction at sites with PD ≥ 5 mm at baseline. RESULTS: At 6 months, statistically significant differences between the two groups were found (p = 0.001) in terms of PD and CAL change. No statistically significant differences were found in terms of GR (p = 0.81). The number of sites with PD ≥ 5 mm and BOP (+) decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.001), i.e. from 85.3 to 2.2% in the test group and from 81.6 to 7.3% in the control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences between test and control groups were recorded at 6 months (p = 0.001). MINST + NaOCl compared to MINST alone decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.001) the probability of residual PDs ≥ 5 mm with BOP- (14.5% vs 18.3%) and BOP+ (2.2% vs. 7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Within their limits, the present results indicate that (a) the use of MINST may represent a clinically valuable approach for nonsurgical therapy and (b) the application of NaOCl gel in conjunction with MINST may additionally improve the clinical outcomes compared to the use of MINST alone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In patients with untreated periodontitis, treatment of deep pockets by means of MINST in conjunction with a NaOCl gel may represent a valuable approach to additionally improve the clinical outcomes obtained with MINST alone.

3.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 137-147, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615769

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare clinical outcomes and oral fluid biomarkers in gingivitis subjects using an electric toothbrush/irrigator combination (test) or a manual toothbrush alone (control) over 8 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of n = 30. In both groups, toothbrushing was performed twice daily at home and no additional interdental cleaning aids were allowed. Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), whole saliva (WS), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, and 8. RESULTS: Subjects' mean age was 23 years and 52% were female. Overall baseline means were 1.31 for PLI, 1.07 for GI, and 34.9 for number of bleeding sites. At every follow-up visit, both groups differed statistically significantly (p < 0.001) from baseline for all clinical parameters. The test group demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater reductions in GI vs the control group by 18% at week 2, 17% at week 4 and 24% at week 8. The test group also demonstrated statistically significantly (p < 0.002) greater reductions in the number of bleeding sites vs the control group by 33% at week 2, 34% at week 4 and 43% at week 8. Between-group comparisons for both WS and GCF revealed numerical trends for decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß in GCF after 4 and 8 weeks, but these were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In subjects using the electric toothbrush/irrigator combination, increased clinical improvements may be found accompanied by similarly improved trends for oral fluid biomarkers such as IL-1ß.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Placa Dental , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Gingivitis/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simple Ciego , Cepillado Dental , Adulto Joven
5.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 23(2): 189-196, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448601

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Implant-supported restorations with cantilever extension may display high rates of biological and technical complications. PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of single-unit crowns with cantilever extension (SCCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SCCs were reevaluated after ≥10 years of loading. Radiographic marginal bone levels (mBLs) at baseline (ie, delivery of SCCs) and follow-up were calculated and compared between implant surfaces adjacent to and distant from the cantilever extension. Implant survival and success rates were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients with 25 SCs supported by 25 implants were reevaluated after a mean of 13.6 ± 3.8 years (range: 10-19 years). No implants were lost. The mean overall mBLs changed from 0.99 mm ± 0.95 at baseline to 0.95 mm ± 0.99 at follow-up (p = 0.853). The mean pocket probing depths changed from 3.39 mm ± 0.62 at baseline to 3.34 mm ± 0.54 at follow-up (p = 0.635). Loss of retention occurred 3× in 2 patients (14.3%). At follow-up, peri-implant health was diagnosed in 10 (48%) and peri-implant mucositis in 11 (52%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, the use of implant-supported SCs with cantilever extension in posterior areas represents a reliable long-term treatment option with a 100% implant survival rate and minimal marginal bone level changes.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Coronas , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 98-104, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427228

RESUMEN

The present narrative review provides a summary of the temporal and spatial reactions of the oral microbiome to the placement of a dental implant into the oral cavity, depicting the most important interactions between the oral microbiota and the host response involved in the development of peri-implant infections in humans (i.e., peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis). Starting with the formation of a pellicle to acute and rampant peri-implant inflammation, a number of steps, including biofilm formation, aggressive bacterial invasion, and host defense mechanisms, are involved. Better understanding of the factors related to the host response and changes in the composition of microbiota has led to the development of novel treatment modalities. Finally, a short outlook into the future is provided.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Microbiota , Periimplantitis , Estomatitis , Bacterias , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Periimplantitis/etiología , Estomatitis/etiología
7.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170372

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the effects of laser monotherapy with non-surgical mechanical instrumentation alone in untreated periodontitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A focused question was formulated based on the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Study design criteria (PICOS): in patients with untreated periodontitis, does laser mono-therapy provide adjunctive effects on pocket probing depth (PPD) changes compared with non-surgical instrumentation alone? Both randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were included. The results of the meta-analyses are expressed as weighted mean differences (WMD) and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: The search yielded 1268 records, out of which 8 articles could be included. With respect to PPD changes, a meta-analysis including 5 articles (n = 148) failed to identify statistically significant differences in favor of laser monotherapy for PPD change (WMD = 0.14 mm; 95% CI: - 0.04/0.32; z = 1.51; p = 0.132) nor for clinical attachment level (CAL) (WMD = 0.04 mm; 95% CI: - 0.35/0.42; z = 0.19; p = 0.850). Data on cost-effectiveness are lacking. One study reported patient-related outcome measures (PROMS). CONCLUSIONS: In untreated periodontitis patients, laser monotherapy does not yield superior clinical benefits compared with non-surgical mechanical instrumentation alone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In untreated periodontitis patients, mechanical instrumentation with hand and/or ultrasonic instruments remains the standard of care.

8.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040203

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of a newly proposed minimally invasive split-thickness flap design without vertical-releasing incisions for vertical bone regeneration performed in either a simultaneous or staged approach and to analyze the prevalence of adverse events during postoperative healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following preparation of a split-thickness flap and bilaminar elevation of the mucosa and underlying periosteum, the alveolar bone was exposed over the defects, vertical GBR was performed by means of a titanium-reinforced high-density polytetrafluoroethylene membrane combined with particulated autogenous bone (AP) and bovine-derived xenograft (BDX) in 1:1 ratio. At 9 months after reconstructive surgery, vertical and horizontal hard tissue gain was evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examination. RESULTS: Twenty-four vertical alveolar ridge defects in 19 patients were treated with vertical GBR. In case of 6 surgical sites, implant placement was performed at the time of the GBR (simultaneous group); in the remaining 18 surgical, sites implant placement was performed 9 months after the ridge augmentation (staged group). After uneventful healing in 23 cases, hard tissue fill was detected in each site. Direct clinical measurements confirmed vertical and horizontal hard tissue gain averaging 3.2 ± 1.9 mm and 6.5 ± 0.5 mm respectively, in the simultaneous group and 4.5 ± 2.2 mm and 8.7 ± 2.3 mm respectively, in the staged group. Additional radiographic evaluation based on CBCT data sets in the staged group revealed mean vertical and horizontal hard tissue fill of 4.2 ± 2.0 mm and 8.5 ± 2.4 mm. Radiographic volume gain was 1.1 ± 0.4 cm3. CONCLUSION: Vertical GBR consisting of a split-thickness flap and using titanium-reinforced non-resorbable membrane in conjunction with a 1:1 mixture of AP+BDX may lead to a predictable vertical and horizontal hard tissue reconstruction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The used split-thickness flap design may represent a valuable approach to increase the success rate of vertical GBR, resulting in predicable hard tissue regeneration, and favorable wound healing with low rate of membrane exposure.

9.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 31(12): 1243-1252, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991763

RESUMEN

AIM: To report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses with cantilever extensions (FDPCs) after a function time ≥10 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with FDPCs in posterior areas were clinically and radiographically re-evaluated. Mesial and distal radiographic marginal bone levels (mBLs) from baseline (i.e. delivery of FDPC) to the follow-up examination were calculated and compared between implant surfaces adjacent to and distant from the cantilever extension. Implant survival rate, pocket probing depth (PPD), presence/absence of bleeding on probing (BoP) and presence/absence of mechanical/technical and biological complications were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with 30 FDPCs supported by 60 implants were re-evaluated after a mean loading time of 13.3 ± 2.7 years (range: 10-18.6 years). One diameter-reduced implant carrying a cantilever extension fractured, yielding a patient-based survival rate of 96.2% (95% CI: 0.95/1.0). The mean marginal bone level change was not statistically significantly different from baseline to follow-up (1.2 mm ± 0.9 to 1.6 mm ± 1.7; 95% CI: -0.1/0.9; p > .05). The mean PPD changed statistically significantly from 3.4 mm ± 0.7 to 3.7 mm ± 0.7 (95% CI: 0.04/0.6; p = .02). Loss of retention occurred ≥ 1x in 9 patients (34.6%, 95% CI: 0.44/0.83). At follow-up, peri-implant health was diagnosed in 12 (46.2%), peri-implant mucositis in 7 (26.9%) and peri-implantitis in 7 (26.9%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Despite a high rate of loss of retention, the use of implant-supported FDPCs in posterior areas represents a reliable long-term treatment option with a high implant survival rate and minimal peri-implant bone level changes irrespective of the location of the cantilever extension.

10.
J Periodontal Res ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885473

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate microbial and host-derived biomarker changes during experimental peri-implantitis in the Beagle dog. BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the microbial and biomarker changes during progressive bone loss as result of experimental peri-implantitis. METHODS: In total, 36 implants (ndogs  = 6) were assessed over 3 episodes of ligature-induced peri-implantitis followed by a period of spontaneous progression. Implants with hybrid (H) and completely rough (R) surface designs were used. Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at 4 timepoints. Peri-implant sulcus fluid was collected from the buccal and lingual aspects of the implants. The presence of 7 bacterial species and 2 host-derived biomarkers was assessed during the study period. RESULTS: Total bacterial counts were significantly correlated with marginal bone loss (MBL) (r = .21; P = .009). Further, Phorphyromonas gulae (Pg) and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) were commonly correlated with MBL, suppuration (SUP) and the sulcular bleeding index scores (mSBI) (P < .05). Other bacteria were further correlated with SUP, mSBI, and MBL. While the analyzed bacteria dropped, Prevotella intermedia (Pi) further increased during the spontaneous progressive phase (P < .05). Total bacterial load did not differ significantly between H and R implants. Host-derived IL-10 was undetected along the study period. IL-1ß positively correlated with probing pocket depth (r = .18; P = .03). During spontaneous progression, H implants displayed statistically significant lower levels of IL-1ß (P = .003). CONCLUSION: Experimental peri-implantitis is associated with an increase in bacterial counts. While Pg and Tf are associated with ligature-induced disease progression, Pi augmented its load during the spontaneous progressive phase. IL-1ß is associated with pocket probing depth and influenced by implant surface characteristics during the spontaneous progression phase.

11.
J Periodontol ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761897

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dental plaque biofilm is considered to be the underlying cause of peri-implant diseases. Moreover, it has been corroborated recently the association between the presence of these diseases and deficiently designed implant-supported prostheses. In this regard, professional-administered oral hygiene measures have been suggested to play a dominant role in prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in dental implant patients according to accessibility for self-performed oral hygiene using a 0.5 mm interproximal brush. Periodontal and peri-implant status were assessed based on clinical and radiographic variables to determine the prevalence of peri-implant diseases. In addition, the participants completed a questionnaire on the efficiency and accessibility for self-performed proximal hygiene. Associations of descriptive data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlations of the variables with the primary outcome (accessibility) were assessed by means of generalized estimation equations and multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: Based on an a priori power calculation, a total of 50 patients (171 implants) were consecutively recruited. From these, 46% of the prostheses allowed proper access for performing proximal hygiene whereas 54% of the prostheses precluded proper access. Poor access for proximal hygiene displayed tendency towards statistical significance with peri-implant disease (OR = 2.31; P = 0.090), in particular with peri-implant mucositis (OR = 2.43; P = 0.082) when compared to good access. In addition, an association was observed to increased levels of mucosal redness (P = 0.026) and the full-mouth bleeding score (P = 0.018). On the other hand, the presence of peri-implant disease was related to self-reported assessment of oral hygiene measures (P = 0.015) and to patient perception of gingival/mucosal bleeding when performing oral hygiene (P = 0.026). In turn, the diagnosis of peri-implant disease was significantly associated to the quantity and quality of information provided at the time of implant therapy (P = 0.004), including the influence of confounders upon disease occurrence (P = 0.038) CONCLUSIONS: To a certain extent, accessibility for self-performed proximal hygiene is associated to the peri-implant condition. On the other hand, the information received by the patient from the dental professional is essential for self-monitoring of the peri-implant conditions and for alerting to the possible presence of disorders.

12.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 101971, 2020 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835882

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent data from preclinical studies and case series suggest that transgingival irradiation with diode lasers may represent a novel modality for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). However, at present, there is lack of data from controlled clinical studies on the use of transgingival antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (tg-aPDT) in the treatment of periodontitis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects of tg-aPDT used in conjunction with nonsurgical mechanical instrumentation during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty stage II and III periodontitis patients enrolled in SPT were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size. At baseline, study sites had to show sites with pocket probing depth (PPD) of ≥ 5 mm and Bleeding on Probing (BOP). Full mouth and site-specific Plaque-Index scores (PI), BOP, PPD, and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were recorded at baseline (BL), three months (3 M), and 6 months (6 M), respectively. The primary outcome variable was the change in the number of sites with BOP. Treatment was performed under local anaesthesia after random allocation to one of the following groups 1) Subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP) + tg-aPDT (test) or 2) SRP alone (control). RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients completed the study. Full mouth PI and BOP improved over six month, however without statistically significant difference between the groups. At 6 M, BOP-levels were statistically significantly lower in test sites (25.0%) compared to the control sites (65.0%), (p < 0.025). PPD improved in both groups with comparable mean values at 3 M (PPD test: 5.21 ± 0.92 mm; PPD control: 4.45 ± 1.36 mm) and 6 M (PPD test: 5.11 ± 1.10 mm; PPD control: 4.35 ± 1.14 mm). Additionally, CAL slightly improved in both groups with comparable mean values at 3 M (CAL test: 6.79 ± 1.72 mm; CAL control: 5.30 ± 2.43 mm) and 6 M (CAL test: 6.26 ± 1.70 mm; CAL control: 5.50 ± 2.33 mm). CONCLUSIONS: Within its limits, the present results appear to indicate that the use of tg-aPDT adjunctive to SRP may represent a new modality for controlling inflammation and further bleeding in residual periodontal pockets.

13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562077

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare the healing of suprabony defects following treatment with either open flap debridement (OFD) and application of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) with OFD alone. METHODS: Eighty patients with suprabony periodontal defects were randomly assigned to treatment with OFD + EMD (test) or OFD alone (control). The primary outcome variable was the difference in clinical attachment level (CAL) gain. At baseline and after 12 months, full-mouth plaque scores (FMPS), full-mouth bleeding scores (FMBS), probing depths (PD), gingival recessions (GR), and CAL were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were available for the 12-month follow-up examination. At 12 months, the mean FMPS was 21.9 ± 3.0% in the OFD + EMD and 21.1 ± 2.4% in the OFD group, respectively (p = 0.30), while mean FMBS measured 20.4 ± 3.4% in the OFD + EMD group and 19.9 ± 2.9% in the OFD group (p = 0.48). Mean CAL gain at sites treated with OFD + EMD was statistically significantly different (p = 0.0001) compared with sites treated with OFD alone (3.4 ± 0.6 mm vs 1.8 ± 0.6 mm). A statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001) was found between mean PD change in the OFD + EMD (3.9 ± 0.6 mm) and OFD alone (3.2 ± 0.6 mm) treated groups and also in terms of mean GR change between treatment with OFD + EMD (0.5 ± 0.7 mm) and OFD alone (1.4 ± 1.0 mm) (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Within their limits, the present results indicate that in suprabony periodontal defects, the application of EMD in conjunction with OFD may additionally improve the clinical outcomes compared with OFD alone. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In periodontal suprabony defects, the application of EMD in conjunction with OFD may additionally enhance the clinical outcomes in terms of CAL gain and PD reduction.

14.
Swiss Dent J ; 130(6): 503-513, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512986

RESUMEN

Dental calculus has a secondary effect on the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases by harboring bacterial biofilm on its rough surfaces. Consequently, professional removal of both calculus and biofilm is a crucial part of the therapy and prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis. Today, crystal growth inhibitors such as zinc ions in the form of zinc chloride or zinc citrate, and pyrophosphates alone or in combination with copolymer are added to toothpastes to prevent the mineralization of the dental biofilm. In addition, triclosan is used as an antimicrobial agent in combination with copolymer as an additive in toothpastes to reduce the amount of plaque and thus the substrate for calculus formation. In clinical trials, chemical additives have demonstrated an inhibiting impact on calculus formation. However, it must be clarified that in addition to home-based oral hygiene, the formation of dental calculus depends on other factors such as access to professional dental care, diet, age, ethnicity, time since last professional tooth cleaning, systemic diseases or medications. However, since chemical additives in toothpastes do not reach the deeper sites of periodontal pockets, they are recommended for the inhibition of supragingival calculus formation, thus assisting the primary prevention of gingivitis as well as the secondary prevention of periodontal disease.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Cálculos Dentales , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Pastas de Dientes
15.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 22(3): 342-350, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present case series assesses the response to reconstructive therapy for the management of 2/3-wall peri-implantitis bone defects following submerged-healing guided bone regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients with 27 implants presenting peri-implantitis were included. Guided bone regeneration was applied by means of autogenous bone/deproteinized bovine bone mineral grafting mixture and collagen membrane. Patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2). Clinical and radiographic variables defined the composite success criteria (probing pocket depth [PPD] ≤ 5 mm, no bleeding on probing/suppuration (SUP), no further radiographic bone loss). Patient site-specific comfort was scored using a visual analog scale (VAS). Descriptive statistics was carried out to assess the changes along the study period. Outcomes are reported in terms of mean values (5%-95% percentile values). RESULTS: All the clinical variables substantially changed from T0 through T2. In particular, PPD decreased 3.7 mm (0.7-5.9) from T0 to T2. Likewise, the scores for the modified plaque index (mPI) and modified sulcular bleeding index (mBI) were reduced by 0.5 (-0.5-1.1) and 1.6 (0.4-2.4), respectively. SUP did not display at any implant site at T2 (59.2% implants in 29.2% patients suppurated at T0). Keratinized mucosa decreased 0.6 mm (-0.2-4.4) and while mucosal recession increased 2.5 mm (1.0-4.3). Alike, the radiographic parameters varied significantly from T0 through T2. Infrabony defects were filled by 2.2 mm (0.0-8.6) at T2 and marginal bone loss was reduced by 2.3 mm (-1.1-8.1). The mean VAS score significantly increased from T0 (56.7) through T1 to T2, reaching a score of 96 at T2. At this timepoint, 85.2% of the peri-implantitis lesions were resolved. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed surgical approach followed by submerged healing to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects may offer one therapeutic option for failing dental implants. Given the nature of the present study, its effectiveness in comparison to less invasive treatments needs investigation in randomized controlled trials.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Periimplantitis/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Animales , Regeneración Ósea , Bovinos , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231082

RESUMEN

Peri-implant soft tissues play a role of paramount importance, not only on the esthetic appearance, but also on the maintenance and long-term stability of implants. The present report presents the conclusions from the Consensus Conference of the South European North African Middle Eastern Implantology & Modern Dentistry Association (SENAME) (4-6 November 2016, Cairo, Egypt). The conference focused on the topic of the soft tissue around dental implants, and in particular, on the influence of implant configurations on the marginal soft tissues, soft tissue alterations after immediate, early or delayed implant placement and immediate loading, the long-term outcomes of soft tissue stability around dental implants, and soft tissue augmentation around dental implants. Thirty world experts in this field were invited to take part in this two-day event; however, only 29 experts were in the final consensus voting process.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Mucosa Bucal , Consenso , Egipto , Humanos
17.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47(4): 500-508, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912523

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surface modification may yield enhanced soft tissue adhesion to transmucosal titanium implant necks. AIM: To evaluate and compare changes in soft tissues around implants with a modified hydrophilic sandblasted and acid-etched neck (mSLA; test) to those with a machined neck (M; control). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Implants with a diameter of 4.1 mm and a neck height of 1.8 mm were randomly inserted in healed sites with pristine bone of the posterior maxilla or mandible. The modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (mSBI) (primary outcome) was assessed at baseline (BL) and 6, 12 and 36 months. Secondary outcomes included the assessment of pocket probing depth (PPD), mucosal recession (REC) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Standardized radiographs were taken at time of implant placement, at BL and after 12 and 36 months. RESULTS: Of the 43 randomized subjects, 38 (19 test and 19 controls) completed the 36-month follow-up. Implant survival rates amounted to 95.5% (test) and 100% (control) (p > .05). At 36 months, 77.6% of test implants and 78.9% of control implants were without any bleeding sites (mSBI = 0; p > .05). The 36-month success rate was 86.4% in the test and 85.7% in the control group, respectively (p > .05). At 36 months, the mean radiographic bone level change from BL was 0.33 ± 0.69 mm at test implants and 0.12 ± 0.3 mm at control implants (p > .05). CONCLUSION: Tissue level implants with a hydrophilic mSLA transmucosal neck failed to yield clinical and radiographic benefits compared with implants with a machined neck up to 3 years.

18.
J Clin Periodontol ; 47 Suppl 22: 176-198, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859395

RESUMEN

AIM: To compare the adjunctive effects of lasers or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) to non-surgical mechanical instrumentation alone in untreated periodontitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two focused questions were addressed using the Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome criteria as follows: in patients with untreated periodontitis, (a) does laser application provide adjunctive effects on probing pocket depth (PPD) changes compared with non-surgical instrumentation alone? and (b) does application of aPDT provide adjunctive effects on PPD changes compared with non-surgical instrumentation alone? Both randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were included. Results of the meta-analysis are expressed as weighted mean differences (WMD) and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Out of 1,202 records, 10 articles for adjunctive laser and 8 for adjunctive aPDT were included. With respect to PPD changes, 1 meta-analysis including 2 articles (total n = 42; split-mouth design) failed to identify a statistically significant difference (WMD = 0.35 mm; 95%CI: -0.04/0.73; p = .08) in favour of adjunctive aPDT (wavelength range 650-700 nm). In terms of adjunctive laser application, a high variability of clinical outcomes at 6 months was noted. Two articles included patient-reported outcomes and 10 reported on the presence/absence of harms/adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence on adjunctive therapy with lasers and aPDT is limited by (a) the low number of controlled studies and (b) the heterogeneity of study designs. Patient-reported benefits remain to be demonstrated.

19.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(6): 1971-1979, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432311

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of adjunctive delivery of a sodium hypochlorite gel in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (PM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six subjects with 68 implants diagnosed with PM were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. Prior to mechanical debridement, a sodium hypochlorite gel was delivered to the implants of the test group while implants of the control group received a placebo gel. Application of both test and placebo gels was repeated 5 times at baseline. The primary outcome variable was the change in pocket probing depth (PPD) between baseline and 6 months. RESULTS: After 6 months, the mean PPD decreased statistically significantly from 3.93 ± 1.09 mm to 3.04 ± 0.46 mm in the test (p = 0.0001) and from 3.68 ± 0.85 mm to 3.07 ± 0.58 mm in the control (p = 0.0001) group, respectively. No statistically significant difference (p = 0.53) was observed with respect to PPD changes from baseline to 6 months between test (0.88 ± 1.04 mm) and control group (0.61 ± 0.75 mm), respectively. The number of implants with bleeding on probing (BoP) decreased statistically significantly from 33 to 18 in the test group (p = 0.0001) and from 34 to 23 in the control group (p = 0.0001) after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion and within the limits of the present study, changes in PPD from baseline to 6 months were not statistically significantly different between groups. Complete resolution of mucosal inflammation was not achieved with either of the therapies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The present outcomes have showed that a complete resolution of peri-implant mucositis is not possible to obtain by means mechanical debridement with or without a sodium hypochlorite gel application.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Mucositis , Periimplantitis , Hipoclorito de Sodio , Estomatitis , Geles , Humanos , Mucositis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucositis/etiología , Periimplantitis/complicaciones , Periimplantitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Índice Periodontal , Hipoclorito de Sodio/uso terapéutico , Estomatitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(2): 1043-1051, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290017

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The potential effect of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on wound healing following recession coverage surgery is still controversially discussed in the literature. The aim of this randomised, controlled, single blinded clinical study was, therefore, to investigate clinically and immunologically the potential effects of EMD on early wound healing and clinical results following treatment of single and multiple gingival recessions by the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (sCTG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 systemically healthy patients with Miller class I, II or III single or multiple gingival recessions were treated with MCAT + sCTG with or without EMD. Patients were consecutively enrolled and randomly assigned to test or control treatment. Inflammatory markers (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8, IL-10 and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-8) were measured at baseline, 2 days and 1 week postoperatively. The following clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and at 6 months postoperatively: Recession Depth (RD), Recession Width (RW), Width of Keratinized Tissue (KT) and Probing Depth (PD). Patient-reported outcomes were analysed by means of a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups in terms of inflammatory markers and patient-reported outcomes during early wound healing. In the test group, RD was reduced from 4.0 ± 1.2 mm at baseline to 0.9 ± 1.3 mm at 6 months (p < 0.001), while the corresponding values in the control group were 4.5 ± 2.0 mm at baseline and 1.0 ± 1.0 mm at 6 months, respectively. At 6 months, mean root coverage measured 78 ± 26% in the test group and 77 ± 18% in the control group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Within their limits, the present data have failed to show an influence of EMD on the clinical and immunological parameters related to wound healing following recession coverage surgery using MCAT and sCTG. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Early wound healing following recession coverage by means of MCAT and sCTG does not seem to be influenced by the additional application of EMD.


Asunto(s)
Recesión Gingival , Tejido Conectivo , Encía , Humanos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Raíz del Diente , Resultado del Tratamiento , Cicatrización de Heridas
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