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1.
Enfoque (Panama) ; 19(14): 64-76, Ene.-jun. 2016.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1028641

RESUMEN

El agua es esencial para la vida y todas las personas deben disponer de un suministro satisfactorio, pero la mismapuede convertirse en un vehículo de transmisión de diversas enfermedades.Objetivo: Determinar la calidad del agua potable para el consumo humano y analizar cómo influye en eldesarrollo de enfermedades gastrointestinales, en la población de La Palma, Provincia de Darién.Metodología: La muestra analizada estuvo constituida por 150 jefes de hogares. Se utilizó el muestreo aleatoriosistemático para selección de los hogares, de 6 en 6 hogares. La información se recolectó a través de cuestionariosque constaban de dos partes; a) datos generales y b) fuentes de servicio de agua. Resultados.Resultados: De los 150 jefes de hogar encuestados: el 65,3% eran mujeres, un 28.0% fueron hombres y el restante6,7% correspondió a otros familiares. Un 82,6% de los participantes en el estudio indicó que la calidad de agua esregular y mala; el 84,0% de los hogares almacenan el agua en tanques con tapaderas, el 76,0% no purifican elagua; el 26,0% de las personas que Vivían en estos hogares refirieron consumir más de 8 vasos de agua al día. Lamayor incidencia por alteración gastrointestinal fueron diarrea 53,0%, dolor de estómago 49,8% y el 32,0%vómito, siendo los niños con edades inferiores a los 5 años los más vulnerables.Los resultados del análisis deparasitología de las muestras de agua recolectadas en ríos en la toma de agua del Instituto de Acueducto yAlcantarillado Nacionales ( IDAAN), las familias en sus casas, almacena agua del grifo en tanques de pintura,tanques grandes de reserva, en el análisis del agua recolectada en los tanques se tomaron muestras para análisis bacteriológico que reportaron encontrarse amebas, larvas de insecto, Coccidio de animales, Diatomea, Flagelosimilar a Giardia, algas filamentosas y rotíferos. Conclusión:El agua destinada para el consumo humano en La Palma, Provincia de Darién, no tiene la calidad sanitaria.


Water is essential for life and all people must have a satisfactory supply, but it can become a vehicle for thetransmission of various diseases.Aim: To determine the quality of drinking water for human intake and analyze how it influences the developmentof gastrointestinal diseases, in the town of La Palma, Darien Province.Methodology: The sample analysed consisted of 150 heads of households. Systematic random sampling forselection of households, 6 in 6 households was used. The information was collected through questionnairesconsisted of two parts; a) general data and b) sources of water service.Results: Of the 150 heads of household surveyed; 65,3% were women, 28,0% were men and the remaining 6.7%were other relatives. The 82,6% of participants in the study indicated that water quality is fair and poor; 84.0%of households store water in tanks with lids, 76,0% do not purify water; 26,0% of people who lived in thesehouseholds reported consuming more than 8 glasses of water a day. The highest incidence gastrointestinaldisorder 53,0% were diarrhoea, stomach pain 49,8% and 32.0% vomiting, being children below 5 years, the mostvulnerable ages. Parasitological analysis of water samples, reported amoebas, insect larvae, Coccidian animal,Diatom, similar to Giardia Swipe, filamentous algae and rotifers.


Objetivo: Caraterizar o perfil de hábitos e práticas de saúde dos universitários enquanto ao consumo de água naUniversidade de Panamá.A água é um dos grandes componentes do corpo humano. Constitui o meio em que se dão a maior parte reaçõesquímicas no corpo e têm um papel importante na transformação de energia, a excreção dos detritos e a regulaçãoda temperatura (Brown 2006). Metodologia: Se utilizou a amostragem aleatória estratificada proporcional comum erro máximo de 3% e um 95% de confiança. Além disso, se provou a homogeneidade estrutural doinstrumento. Com os resultados obtidos se procedeu a desenvolver uma análise descritiva com diferentesvariáveis de tipo geral, além das perguntas sobre o consumo de água. Por outro lado, se realizou uma análisemúlti variante aplicando o método HJ-Biplot, que permitirá identificar padrões com respeito às respostasmanifestadas nas faculdades testadas.Resultados: A amostra foi distribuída em 15% administrativos, 68%estudantes e 17% docentes. Os resultados indicam que o tipo de líquido preferido para acompanhar as comidas éa água, e do grupo de respondentes, os estudantes universitários foram aqueles com os menores níveis deconsumo de água, argumentando a falta de tempo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Microbiología del Agua , Consumo Doméstico de Agua , Calidad del Agua , Criterios de Calidad del Agua , Costo del Agua , Contaminantes del Agua
2.
Parasitology ; 142(12): 1543-54, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302902

RESUMEN

This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Perros , Ambiente , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Higiene , Larva , Masculino , Panamá/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología
3.
Acta Trop ; 147: 54-63, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25823566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide, leading to illness with serious and long lasting implications in children and immunocompromised people. Transmission of intestinal parasites is more frequent in tropical and sub-tropical areas where sanitation is poor and socioeconomic conditions are deficient. Panama is a country where climate and social conditions could be reflected in a high number of people infected with intestinal parasites. The presence, prevalence, and distribution of intestinal parasites in this country have been approached to date only in very restricted areas and population groups, but the impact of intestinal parasite infections at the national level is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between 2008 and 2010 to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites across Panama. Overall, 14 municipalities in seven provinces of Panama were surveyed. The presence of eggs, cysts, and larvae was assessed by microscopy in 1123 human fecal samples using a concentration technique. A questionnaire to identify risk factors associated with the frequency of intestinal parasites in the study population was also prepared and performed. Overall, 47.4% of human samples presented parasites. Variables including community type, age group, occupation, co-presence of commensals and socioeconomic factors (use of shoes and type of sanitation) were significantly associated with intestinal parasites (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The preliminary data obtained in the current study, showing a high prevalence of fecal-oral transmitted parasites in Panama, place intestinal parasitism as a major health problem in this country. Specific interventions should be planned for the indigenous population, the group most afflicted by intestinal parasites.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Balantidiasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Blastocystis/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades , Clima , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Humanos , Himenolepiasis/epidemiología , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Larva , Masculino , Microscopía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Panamá/epidemiología , Parásitos , Prevalencia , Características de la Residencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrongiloidiasis/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 114(2): 84-8, 2006 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16571353

RESUMEN

Schistosomiasis represents an increasing problem in non-endemic areas, due to the growing number of immigrants and to tourists contracting this disease in "off-the-beaten-track" tourism. Acute schistosomiasis is not diagnosed early due to the lack of diagnostic tools that are sufficiently sensitive enough to detect the parasite during the first weeks of infection. We have developed a diagnostic approach based on the detection of parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urine, comparing the performance of this new approach with the two currently used schistosomiasis diagnostic tools (Kato-Katz and ELISA) and the PCR in stool samples. This comparison was done in a Schistosoma mansoni murine experimental model, which permits follow up of the parasite from the acute to the chronic stage of infection. Our results suggest that this new PCR-based approach could be useful for the detection of acute schistosomiasis in easy-to-handle clinical samples such the urine.


Asunto(s)
ADN de Helmintos/orina , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Aguda , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Schistosoma mansoni/inmunología , Schistosoma mansoni/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/orina , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Factores de Tiempo
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