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1.
J Neurosci Res ; 98(8): 1517-1531, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476173

RESUMEN

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI can provide seizure onset zone (SOZ) localizing information in up to 80% of patients. Clinical implementation of this technique is limited by the need to obtain two scans per patient: a postictal scan that is subtracted from an interictal scan. We aimed to determine whether it is possible to limit the number of ASL scans to one per patient by comparing patient postictal ASL scans to baseline scans of 100 healthy controls. Eighteen patients aged 20-55 years underwent ASL MRI <90 min after a seizure and during the interictal period. Each postictal cerebral blood flow (CBF) map was statistically compared to average baseline CBF maps from 100 healthy controls (pvcASL; patient postictal CBF vs. control baseline CBF). The pvcASL maps were compared to subtraction ASL maps (sASL; patient baseline CBF minus patient postictal CBF). Postictal CBF reductions from pvcASL and sASL maps were seen in 17 of 18 (94.4%) and 14 of 18 (77.8%) patients, respectively. Maximal postictal hypoperfusion seen in pvcASL and sASL maps was concordant with the SOZ in 10 of 17 (59%) and 12 of 14 (86%) patients, respectively. In seven patients, both pvcASL and sASL maps showed similar results. In two patients, sASL showed no significant hypoperfusion, while pvcASL showed significant hypoperfusion concordant with the SOZ. We conclude that pvcASL is clinically useful and although it may have a lower overall concordance rate than sASL, pvcASL does provide localizing or lateralizing information for specific cases that would be otherwise missed through sASL.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Circulación Cerebrovascular/fisiología , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/diagnóstico , Convulsiones/diagnóstico , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
2.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 7(2): 175-181, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic feet are at very high risk for infection and amputation. The slipping slipper sign (SSS) is elicited by a simple questionnaire test reported to detect the presence of severe diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This test can be administered by non-medical staff. In this study, subjects with and without the SSS were evaluated by nerve conduction studies (NCS) and ultrasound measurements of the right sural nerve diameters as well as with traditional scoring systems for peripheral and autonomic neuropathy. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the Slipping Slipper Sign can be used as an index of severe diabetic peripheral neuropathyMethod:This was a prospective cross sectional study in which 74 patients with diabetes (38 positive and 36 negative for SSS) underwent ultrasonography and NCS of the right sural nerve by an examiner blinded to SSS status. Findings were evaluated against demography, clinical history, anthropometry as well as traditional clinical and autonomic neuropathic scores. RESULTS: Patients without the SSS [median (IQR) = 10.0 years (4.0-20.3)] had a significantly shorter duration of diabetes compared with those with the SSS [median (IQR) = 15.0 years (8.5-25.0)], p = 0.028. The frequencies of retinopathy (36.8% vs 2.8%, p <  0.05) and cerebrovascular accidents (18.4% vs 13.9 %, p <  0.05) were higher among those with SSS compared with those without. Differences in nerve conduction characteristics were markedly significant. The amplitude of the sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) was ([median (IQR)] 0 microvolts vs 4.0 microvolts (0.0-10.8) p <  0.002) between those with and without SSS, respectively whilst none of patients with SSS had a recordable SNAP vs 78% without a SSS. Similarly, maximal thickness of the right sural nerve at the ankle 3.0 mm (2.3-3.4) vs 3.5 mm (3.0-3.9), and leg 3.4 mm (2.7-3.8) vs 3.9 mm (3.3-4.2) was reduced, p <  0.01 in patients with the SSS compared with those with a negative SSS. CONCLUSION: The SSS identifies feet with objective neurophysiological and imaging characteristics of severe neuropathy.


Asunto(s)
Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neuropatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatías Diabéticas/fisiopatología , Nervio Sural/diagnóstico por imagen , Nervio Sural/fisiopatología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción Nerviosa/fisiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Método Simple Ciego , Ultrasonografía
3.
Seizure ; 74: 33-40, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812090

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Amygdala enlargement (AE) has been reported in drug resistant lesional and non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Its contribution to development of intractability of epilepsy is at best uncertain. Our aim was to study the natural course of AE in a heterogenous group of TLE patients with follow-up imaging and clinical outcomes. METHODS: A prospective observational study in patients with TLE with imaging features of AE recruited from epilepsy clinics between 1994 and 2018. Demographic data, details of epilepsy syndrome, outcomes and follow up neuroimaging were extracted. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were recruited including 19 males (45 %). Mean age at onset of epilepsy was 30.6 years and mean duration of epilepsy was 19.9 years. On MRI, 33 patients had isolated unilateral AE and eleven had AE with hippocampal enlargement (HE). Twenty (48 %) underwent temporal resections with most common histopathology being amygdalar gliosis (40 %). Engel Class IA outcome at last follow up (mean, 10 years) was 60 %. Thirty-four patients had neuroimaging follow up of at least 1 year (mean, 5 years). AE resolved in 6, persisted in 25, evolved into bilateral HS in 1, bilateral mesial temporal atrophy in 1 and ipsilateral mesial temporal atrophy in 1. Resolution of AE was associated with better seizure free outcomes (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: TLE with AE is associated with favourable prognosis yet not benign. Over 50 % were drug resistant and surgical outcomes were similar to mTLE. Resolution of AE on follow up neuroimaging was associated with better seizure free outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Amígdala del Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagen , Amígdala del Cerebelo/fisiopatología , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagen , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/fisiopatología , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/tendencias , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/tendencias , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de los Órganos , Estudios Prospectivos
4.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 65: 275-278, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756688

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We sought to highlight a case of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy managed via an anterior temporal lobectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first of its kind to be performed and published in the English-speaking Caribbean. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 44-year-old female, known seizure disorder for 25 years was referred to the outpatient clinic. Several trials of varying anti-epileptic drugs failed to provide remittance of her frequent partial seizures over the last two decades. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed asymmetry of the hippocampus, with a prominent right temporal horn of lateral ventricle, in keeping with right anteromesial temporal lobe sclerosis. She underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy after exhaustive counselling; with the guidance of a multidisciplinary team. The post-operative period was uneventful and currently, the patient has been seizure-free since operation. DISCUSSION: Drug resistant epilepsy is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated, appropriately chosen and used anti-epileptic drug schedules to attain sustained seizure freedom. Medical management of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy has a relatively poor long-term outcome, with 30 % of patients falling into the category of pharmaco-resistant. CONCLUSION: Surgical management of these cases have been proven to be a safe and effective alternative but is currently greatly underutilized. In our literature review, we present the first published case of epilepsy surgery in the English-speaking Caribbean for temporal lobe epilepsy.

6.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000841, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997117

RESUMEN

Objectives: This novel, pilot study aimed to assess the estimated prevalence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: Patients (n=40) who were awaiting elective percutaneous coronary intervention on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg or loaded at least 48 hours prior were recruited. Platelet reactivity with the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (Accriva Diagnostics, San Diego, California, USA) was assessed prior to cardiac catheterisation. Results: 60.7% (17/28) of the South Asian (Indo-Trinidadians) patients had HPR, whereas 14.3% (1/7) of Africans and 40% (2/5) of mixed ethnicity had HPR. There was a significant association between HPR (P2Y12 reaction units >208) and ethnicity with South Asians (Indo-Trinidadians) (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.18 to 24.66, p=0.029). Conclusions: This pilot study serves to introduce the preliminary observation that the estimated prevalence of HPR is considerably higher within the heterogeneous population in Trinidad at 50% as compared with predominantly Caucasian studies. Furthermore, the HPR is significantly higher in South Asians (Indo-Trinidadians) (>60% of patients) which has severe clinical repercussions considering the cardiovascular disease pandemic. Clopidogrel may not be a satisfactory or optimal antiplatelet agent in this subgroup, and therefore, another more potent antiplatelet such as ticagrelor should be used instead. Further large-scale studies are imperative to confirm these findings. (Funded by the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine; POINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03667066.).

7.
Brain ; 140(11): 2895-2911, 2017 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053782

RESUMEN

Neurological dysfunction following epileptic seizures is a well-recognized phenomenon. Several potential mechanisms have been suggested to explain postictal dysfunction, with alteration in cerebral blood flow being one possibility. These vascular disturbances may be long lasting and localized to brain areas involved in seizure generation and propagation, as supported by both animal and human studies. Therefore, measuring perfusion changes in the postictal period may help localize the seizure onset zone. Arterial spin labelling is a non-invasive, rapid and reproducible magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures cerebral perfusion. To this end, we measured postictal perfusion in patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy who were admitted to our seizure-monitoring unit for presurgical evaluation. Twenty-one patients were prospectively recruited and underwent arterial spin labelling scanning within 90 min of a habitual seizure. Patients also underwent a similar scan in the interictal period, after they were seizure-free for at least 24 h. The acquired scans were subtracted to identify the areas of significant postictal hypoperfusion. The location of the maximal hypoperfusion was compared to the presumed seizure onset zone to assess for concordance. Also, the localizing value of this technique was compared to other structural and functional imaging modalities. Postictal perfusion reductions of >15 units (ml/100 g/l) were seen in 15/21 patients (71.4%). In 12/15 (80%) of these patients, the location of the hypoperfusion was partially or fully concordant with the location of the presumed seizure onset zone. This technique compared favourably to other neuroimaging modalities, being similar or superior to structural magnetic resonance imaging in 52% of cases, ictal single-photon emission computed tomography in 60% of cases and interictal positron emission tomography in 71% of cases. Better arterial spin labelling results were obtained in patients in whom the seizure onset zone was discernible based on non-invasive data. Thus, this technique is a safe, non-invasive and relatively inexpensive tool to detect postictal hypoperfusion that may provide useful data to localize the seizure onset zone. This technique may be incorporated into the battery of conventional investigations for presurgical evaluation of patients with drug resistant focal epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Epilepsia Refractaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Epilepsias Parciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigación sanguínea , Mapeo Encefálico , Circulación Cerebrovascular , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Angiografía por Resonancia Magnética , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Estudios Prospectivos , Convulsiones/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único , Adulto Joven
8.
9.
Epilepsy Behav ; 57(Pt A): 69-76, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26922491

RESUMEN

Clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been empirically demonstrated to improve patient satisfaction and enhance cost-effective care. The use of CDRs has not yet been robustly explored for epilepsy. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE (from 1946) and Embase (from 1947) using Medical Subject Headings and keywords related to CDRs and epilepsy. We included original research of any language deriving, validating, or implementing a CDR using standardized definitions. Study quality was determined using a modified version of previously published criteria. A bivariate model was used to meta-analyze studies undergoing sequential derivation and validation studies. Of 2445 unique articles, 5 were determined to be relevant to this review. Three were derivation studies (three diagnostic and one therapeutic), one validation study, and one combined derivation and validation study. No implementation studies were identified. Study quality varied but was primarily of a moderate level. Two CDRs were validated and, thus, able to be meta-analyzed. Although initial measures of accuracy were high (sensitivity ~80% or above), they tended to diminish significantly in the validation studies. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity both exhibited wide 95% confidence and prediction intervals that may limit their utility in routine practice. Despite the advances in therapeutic and diagnostic interventions for epilepsy, few CDRs have been developed to guide their use. Future CDRs should address common clinical scenarios such as efficient use of diagnostic tools and optimal clinical treatment decisions. Given their potential for advancing efficient, evidence-based, patient-centered healthcare, CDR development should be a priority in epilepsy.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas/normas , Epilepsia , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Satisfacción del Paciente , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Predicción , Humanos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
10.
Epilepsia ; 56(10): 1629-38, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26293970

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A major limitation of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) is recording from a confined region. This may falsely localize seizure onset if the distinction between ictal onset zone, proximity, and spread is unclear, or if the ictal rhythm is not clearly identified. Delineation of the ictal onset zone is crucial for surgical success. We appraised the evidence to determine whether specific iEEG ictal patterns are associated with the ictal onset zone. METHODS: We searched Embase for articles in English until September 30, 2014, with MeSH keywords related to intracranially implanted electrodes and seizures. Two authors independently screened abstracts, reviewed full text articles, and abstracted data. The association between seizure outcome and type of ictal onset pattern (IOP), and its extent, location, and spread were explored visually or by univariate analysis when sufficient data were provided. Methodologic quality of each study was assessed. RESULTS: We reviewed 1,987 abstracts from which 21 articles were analyzed. Fifteen IOPs were reported. Low frequency high amplitude repetitive spiking (LFRS) was the most frequently reported IOP by studies that dealt with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and investigated with depth electrodes. In neocortical epilepsy, low voltage fast activity (LVFA) was the most commonly described IOP. Delta activity was an infrequently reported IOP and was described mostly as a spread pattern. SIGNIFICANCE: LFRS is associated with good surgical outcome in mTLE and has a strong relation with mesial temporal pathology and its severity. LVFA is associated with neocortical temporal epilepsy and focal LVFA is associated with better surgical outcome. Electrodecrement may be associated with regional or widespread onsets. Rhythmic delta is a propagation rhythm rather than an IOP. Focal IOPs and slower propagation times are associated with better outcomes. The quality of the studies is suboptimal and there are methodological problems. Interobserver agreement is poorly documented.


Asunto(s)
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/fisiopatología , Adulto , Niño , Bases de Datos Bibliográficas/estadística & datos numéricos , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 51: 267-72, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26312988

RESUMEN

Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices are limited. Local medical providers reported that the major limitations in care were lack of specialty care, lack of imaging and EEG services, financial barriers to care, long wait times for care, and limited access to additional AEDs.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/terapia , Anticonvulsivantes/provisión & distribución , Barbados , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Utilización de Medicamentos , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Formularios Farmacéuticos como Asunto , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Neurología/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Santa Lucia , San Vicente y las Grenadinas
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