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Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131609, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315074


The systematic analysis of groundwater in the Greek island of Skiathos revealed a seasonal increase of total mercury concentrations after the extensive groundwater abstraction during the busy and heavily touristic summer months. This contamination was accompanied by a corresponding increase of the chloride content of groundwater, attributed to seawater intrusion into the freshwater-depleted aquifer within mercury-rich bedrock. The effects of elevated concentrations of chloride anions in the mobilization of mercury and its speciation were addressed by geochemical equilibrium modeling, considering cinnabar (HgS) as the mineral source of mercury. Adsorption onto hydrous ferric oxide (Fe2O3·H2O) was a necessary ingredient of the geochemical model for bringing the calculated concentrations in agreement with field measurements, after optimization of the cinnabar/adsorbent mass ratio to a value of 4.9 × 10-8. The speciation of mercury was found to depend on the acidity and redox status as well as on the chloride content of groundwater. Mercury concentrations in the groundwater of Skiathos rise above the World Health Organization limit of 1 µg L-1 for a seawater intrusion higher than 3 %, with HgCl2 being the dominant species followed by HgClOH, HgCl3- and HgCl42-. The assumed concentration of dissolved organic matter in groundwater had a negligible impact on the mercury speciation and its mobilization by chloride.

Agua Subterránea , Mercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Mercurio/análisis , Agua de Mar , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499034


The main scope of this work is to develop nano-carbon-based mixed matrix cellulose acetate membranes (MMMs) for the potential use in both gas and liquid separation processes. For this purpose, a variety of mixed matrix membranes, consisting of cellulose acetate (CA) polymer and carbon nanotubes as additive material were prepared, characterized, and tested. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as filler material and diacetone alcohol (DAA) as solvent. The first main objective towards highly efficient composite membranes was the proper preparation of agglomerate-free MWCNTs dispersions. Rotor-stator system (RS) and ultrasonic sonotrode (USS) were used to achieve the nanofillers' dispersion. In addition, the first results of the application of the three-roll mill (TRM) technology in the filler dispersion achieved were promising. The filler material, MWCNTs, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and liquid nitrogen (LN2) adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K. The derivatives CA-based mixed matrix membranes were characterized by tensile strength and water contact angle measurements, impedance spectroscopy, gas permeability/selectivity measurements, and water permeability tests. The studied membranes provide remarkable water permeation properties, 12-109 L/m2/h/bar, and also good separation factors of carbon dioxide and helium separations. Specifically, a separation factor of 87 for 10% He/N2 feed concentration and a selectivity value of 55.4 for 10% CO2/CH4 feed concentration were achieved.

Polymers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575517


Polyimides rank among the most heat-resistant polymers and find application in a variety of fields, including transportation, electronics, and membrane technology. The aim of this work is to study the structural, thermal, mechanical, and gas permeation properties of polyimide based nanocomposite membranes in flat sheet configuration. For this purpose, numerous advanced techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), SEM, TEM, TGA, FT-IR, tensile strength, elongation test, and gas permeability measurements were carried out. In particular, BTDA-TDI/MDI (Ρ84) co-polyimide was used as the matrix of the studied membranes, whereas multi-wall carbon nanotubes were employed as filler material at concentrations of up to 5 wt.% All studied films were prepared by the dry-cast process resulting in non-porous films of about 30-50 µm of thickness. An optimum filler concentration of 2 wt.% was estimated. At this concentration, both thermal and mechanical properties of the prepared membranes were improved, and the highest gas permeability values were also obtained. Finally, gas permeability experiments were carried out at 25, 50, and 100 °C with seven different pure gases. The results revealed that the uniform carbon nanotubes dispersion lead to enhanced gas permeation properties.

Polymers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033433


This work focused on enhancing the flux on hydrophobic polymeric membranes aimed for direct contact membrane distillation desalination (DCMD) process without compromising salt rejection efficiency. Successful coating of commercial porous poly-tetrafluoroethylene membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was achieved by solution dipping followed by a cross-linking step. The modified membranes were evaluated for their performance in DCMD, in terms of water flux and salt rejection. A series of different PVA concentration dipping solutions were used, and the results indicated that there was an optimum concentration after which the membranes became hydrophilic and unsuitable for use in membrane distillation. Best performing membranes were achieved under the specific experimental conditions, water flux 12.2 L·m-2·h-1 [LMH] with a salt rejection of 99.9%. Compared to the pristine membrane, the flux was enhanced by a factor of 2.7. The results seemed to indicate that introducing hydrophilic characteristics in a certain amount to a hydrophobic membrane could significantly enhance the membrane distillation (MD) performance without compromising salt rejection.

J Hazard Mater ; 189(1-2): 384-90, 2011 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21398027


A copper-nanoparticle-doped carbon was prepared from an alginate based precursor in a one step carbonisation-reduction procedure based on the modified polyol process. The ion exchange capacity of the precursor as well as the porosity, metal content, thermal properties, of the final product, were investigated. The preparation route leads to a porous carbon/copper composite with predefined metal loading reaching up to over 30% (w/w) of finely dispersed Cu nanoparticles of fairly uniform size. NO catalytic abatement evaluation showed high efficiency even at low temperatures compared to other recently reported carbon supported catalysts.

Cobre/química , Metales/química , Nanopartículas/química , Ácido Nítrico/química , Alginatos/química , Carbono/química , Catálisis , Ácido Glucurónico/química , Ácidos Hexurónicos/química , Intercambio Iónico , Oxidación-Reducción , Porosidad , Temperatura
Carbohydr Res ; 345(4): 469-73, 2010 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20044077


FTIR spectroscopy was used in order to obtain information about metal-carboxylate interactions in metal-alginate complexes of alginic acid and sodium alginate from the brown algae Laminaria digitata after crosslinking with Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Pb(2+). From the frequencies of the characteristic peaks for asymmetric COO stretching vibration (nu(asym)(COO(-)) and symmetric COO stretching vibration (nu(sym)(COO(-))) a 'pseudo bridged' unidentate coordination with intermolecular hydrogen bonds is proposed for the metal-carboxylate complexes in polyguluronic regions while for the polymannuronic regions the bidentate bridging coordination was proposed. The PIB factor introduced previously as a relationship between metal sorption and frequencies of the asymmetric vibrations was found not to correlate with sorption capacity or any other physical property of the metal-alginate complexes studied.

Alginatos/química , Laminaria/química , Metales/química , Compuestos Organometálicos/química , Absorción , Ácido Glucurónico/química , Ácidos Hexurónicos/química , Enlace de Hidrógeno , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Vibración