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2.
Nature ; 556(7699): 74-79, 2018 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590094

RESUMEN

Majorana zero-modes-a type of localized quasiparticle-hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

3.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7137, 2015 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972134

RESUMEN

Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected.

4.
Nat Commun ; 3: 964, 2012 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22805571

RESUMEN

Semiconducting nanowires in proximity to superconductors are promising experimental systems for realizing the elusive Majorana fermions, which, because of their non-abelian anyonic braiding statistics, may ultimately be used as building blocks for topological quantum computers. A serious challenge in the experimental realization of the Majorana fermions is the suppression of topological superconductivity by disorder together with the tunability of carrier density for semiconductors in close proximity to superconductors. Here we show that Majorana fermions that are protected by a disorder robust topological gap can occur at the ends of a chain of gate-tunable quantum dots connected by s-wave superconductors. Such an array of quantum dots provides the simplest realization of Majorana fermions in systems as simple as a few quantum dot array. The proposed system provides a very practical and easily realizable experimental platform for the observation of non-abelian Majorana modes.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(26): 266402, 2012 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23368589

RESUMEN

We investigate theoretically the low-energy physics of semiconductor Majorana wires in the vicinity of a magnetic field-driven topological quantum phase transition (TQPT). The local density of states at the end of the wire, which is directly related to the differential conductance in the limit of point-contact tunneling, is calculated numerically. We find that the dependence of the end-of-wire local density of states on the magnetic field is nonuniversal and that the signatures associated with the closing of the superconducting gap at the Majorana TQPT are essentially invisible within a significant range of experimentally relevant parameters. Our results provide a possible explanation for the recent observation of the apparent nonclosure of the gap at the Majorana TQPT in semiconductor nanowires.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(8): 086804, 2011 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21929191

RESUMEN

We report the observation of an apparent parallel magnetic-field-induced metal-insulator transition in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas for which spin and localization physics most likely play no major role. The high-mobility metallic phase at low field is consistent with the established Fermi liquid transport theory including phonon scattering, whereas the phase at higher field shows a large insulatinglike negative temperature dependence at resistances much smaller than the quantum of resistance h/e(2). We argue that this observation is a direct manifestation of a quantum-classical crossover arising predominantly from the magneto-orbital coupling between the finite width of the two-dimensional electron gas and the in-plane magnetic field.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(15): 150406, 2008 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18999579

RESUMEN

We show that a new state of matter, the d-wave Mott-insulator state (d-Mott state) (introduced recently by [H. Yao, W. F. Tsai, and S. A. Kivelson, Phys. Rev. B 76, 161104 (2007)]), which is characterized by a nonzero expectation value of a local plaquette operator embedded in an insulating state, can be engineered using ultracold atomic fermions in two-dimensional double-well optical lattices. We characterize and analyze the parameter regime where the d-Mott state is stable. We predict the testable signatures of the state in the time-of-flight measurements.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(18): 186806, 2007 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17501596

RESUMEN

Carrier transport in gated 2D graphene monolayers is considered in the presence of scattering by random charged impurity centers with density n(i). Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained (for carrier density n>10(12) cm(-2)) with existing experimental data. The conductivity scales linearly with n/n(i) in the theory. We explain the experimentally observed asymmetry between electron and hole conductivities, and the high-density saturation of conductivity for the highest mobility samples. We argue that the experimentally observed saturation of conductivity at low density arises from the charged impurity induced inhomogeneity in the graphene carrier density which becomes severe for n less, similarn(i) approximately 10(12) cm(-2).

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(20): 200401, 2006 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17155664

RESUMEN

We establish the theoretical feasibility of direct analog simulation of the compact U(1) lattice gauge theories in optical lattices with dipolar bosons. We discuss the realizability of the topological Coulomb phase in extended Bose-Hubbard models in several optical lattice geometries. We predict the testable signatures of this emergent phase in noise correlation measurements, thus suggesting the possible emergence of artificial light in optical lattices.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(3): 039701; author reply 039702, 2006 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16907551
11.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 72(5 Pt 1): 051106, 2005 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16383592

RESUMEN

We study the temporal fluctuations in time-dependent stock prices (both individual and composite) as a stochastic phenomenon using general techniques and methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. In particular, we analyze stock price fluctuations as a non-Markovian stochastic process using the first-passage statistical concepts of persistence and survival. We report the results of empirical measurements of the normalized qth-order correlation functions fq(t), survival probability S(t), and persistence probability P(t) for several stock market dynamical sets. We analyze both minute-to-minute and higher-frequency stock market recordings (i.e., with the sampling time deltat of the order of days). We find that the fluctuating stock price is multifractal and the choice of deltat has no effect on the qualitative multifractal behavior displayed by the 1/q dependence of the generalized Hurst exponent Hq associated with the power-law evolution of the correlation function fq(t) approximately tHq. The probability S(t) of the stock price remaining above the average up to time t is very sensitive to the total measurement time tm and the sampling time. The probability P(t) of the stock not returning to the initial value within an interval t has a universal power-law behavior P(t) approximately t(-theta), with a persistence exponent theta close to 0.5 that agrees with the prediction theta=1-H2. The empirical financial stocks also present an interesting feature found in turbulent fluids, the extended self-similarity.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(1): 016401, 2005 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16090634

RESUMEN

Using the Drude-Boltzmann semiclassical transport theory, we calculate the weak-field Hall resistance of a two-dimensional system at low densities and temperatures, assuming carrier scattering by screened random charged impurity centers. The temperature-dependent 2D Hall coefficient shows striking nonmonotonicity in strongly screened systems, and, in particular, we qualitatively explain the recent puzzling experimental observation of a decreasing Hall resistance with increasing temperature in a dilute 2D hole system. We predict that the impurity scattering limited Hall coefficient will eventually increase with temperature at higher temperatures.

13.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 69(6 Pt 1): 061608, 2004 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15244586

RESUMEN

Persistence probabilities of the interface height in ( 1+1 ) - and ( 2+1 ) -dimensional atomistic, solid-on-solid, stochastic models of surface growth are studied using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, with emphasis on models that belong to the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) universality class. Both the initial transient and the long-time steady-state regimes are investigated. We show that for growth models in the MBE universality class, the nonlinearity of the underlying dynamical equation is clearly reflected in the difference between the measured values of the positive and negative persistence exponents in both transient and steady-state regimes. For the MBE universality class, the positive and negative persistence exponents in the steady-state are found to be theta(S)(+) =0.66+/-0.02 and theta(S)(-) =0.78+/-0.02, respectively, in ( 1+1 ) dimensions, and theta(S)(+) =0.76+/-0.02 and theta(S)(-) =0.85+/-0.02, respectively, in ( 2+1 ) dimensions. The noise reduction technique is applied on some of the ( 1+1 ) -dimensional models in order to obtain accurate values of the persistence exponents. We show analytically that a relation between the steady-state persistence exponent and the dynamic growth exponent, found earlier to be valid for linear models, should be satisfied by the smaller of the two steady-state persistence exponents in the nonlinear models. Our numerical results for the persistence exponents are consistent with this prediction. We also find that the steady-state persistence exponents can be obtained from simulations over times that are much shorter than that required for the interface to reach the steady state. The dependence of the persistence probability on the system size and the sampling time is shown to be described by a simple scaling form.

14.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 69(5 Pt 1): 051603, 2004 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15244825

RESUMEN

We report the results of numerical investigations of the steady-state (SS) and finite-initial-conditions (FIC) spatial persistence and survival probabilities for (1+1) -dimensional interfaces with dynamics governed by the nonlinear Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation and the linear Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation with both white (uncorrelated) and colored (spatially correlated) noise. We study the effects of a finite sampling distance on the measured spatial persistence probability and show that both SS and FIC persistence probabilities exhibit simple scaling behavior as a function of the system size and the sampling distance. Analytical expressions for the exponents associated with the power-law decay of SS and FIC spatial persistence probabilities of the EW equation with power-law correlated noise are established and numerically verified.

15.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 69(5 Pt 1): 052601, 2004 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15244864

RESUMEN

We investigate the dynamics of a generalized survival probability S(t,R) defined with respect to an arbitrary reference level R (rather than the average) in equilibrium step fluctuations. The exponential decay at large time scales of the generalized survival probability is numerically analyzed. S(t,R) is shown to exhibit simple scaling behavior as a function of system size L, sampling time deltat, and the reference level R. The generalized survival time scale tau(s) (R) associated with S(t,R) is shown to decay exponentially as a function of R.


Asunto(s)
Biofisica/métodos , Nanotecnología/métodos , Cinética , Modelos Estadísticos , Procesos Estocásticos , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 91(16): 167903, 2003 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14611443

RESUMEN

We theoretically show that spontaneously interlayer-coherent bilayer quantum Hall droplets should allow robust and fault-tolerant pseudospin quantum computation in semiconductor nanostructures with voltage-tuned external gates providing qubit control and a quantum Ising Hamiltonian providing qubit entanglement. Using a spin-boson model, we estimate decoherence to be small (approximately 10(-5)).

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 90(6): 067401, 2003 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12633326

RESUMEN

We develop a theory for micro-Raman scattering by single and coupled two-donor states in silicon. We find the Raman spectra to have significant dependence on the donor exchange splitting and the relative spatial positions of the two-donor sites. In particular, we establish a strong correlation between the temperature dependence of the Raman peak intensity and the interdonor exchange coupling. Micro-Raman scattering can therefore potentially become a powerful tool to measure interqubit coupling in the development of a Si quantum computer architecture.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 90(8): 086801, 2003 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12633449

RESUMEN

We develop a theory for frictional drag between two 2D hole layers in a dilute bilayer GaAs hole system, including effects of hole-hole and hole-phonon interactions. Our calculations suggest significant enhancement of hole drag transresistivity over the corresponding electron drag results. This enhancement originates from the exchange induced renormalization of the single-layer compressibility and the strong dependence of single-layer conductivity on density. We also address the effect of hole-phonon interaction on the drag temperature dependence. Our calculated results are in reasonable quantitative agreement with recent experimental observations.

19.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 66(4 Pt 1): 041601, 2002 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12443210

RESUMEN

We study, using noise-reduction techniques, layer-by-layer epitaxial growth in limited mobility solid-on-solid nonequilibrium surface growth models, which have been introduced in the context of kinetic surface roughening in ideal molecular beam epitaxy. Multiple hit noise reduction and long surface diffusion length lead to qualitatively similar layer-by-layer epitaxy in (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional limited mobility growth simulations. We discuss the dynamic scaling characteristics connecting the transient layer-by-layer growth regime with the asymptotic kinetically rough growth regime.

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